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Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: HELP
Articles from US Pacific Zone
Based on 533 articles published since 2008
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These are the 533 published articles about Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders that originated from US Pacific Zone during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline Clinical Practice Guideline for the Pharmacologic Treatment of Chronic Insomnia in Adults: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline. 2017

Sateia, Michael J / Buysse, Daniel J / Krystal, Andrew D / Neubauer, David N / Heald, Jonathan L. ·Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH. · University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA. · University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA. · Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. · American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Darien, IL. ·J Clin Sleep Med · Pubmed #27998379.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this guideline is to establish clinical practice recommendations for the pharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia in adults, when such treatment is clinically indicated. Unlike previous meta-analyses, which focused on broad classes of drugs, this guideline focuses on individual drugs commonly used to treat insomnia. It includes drugs that are FDA-approved for the treatment of insomnia, as well as several drugs commonly used to treat insomnia without an FDA indication for this condition. This guideline should be used in conjunction with other AASM guidelines on the evaluation and treatment of chronic insomnia in adults. METHODS: The American Academy of Sleep Medicine commissioned a task force of four experts in sleep medicine. A systematic review was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) process was used to assess the evidence. The task force developed recommendations and assigned strengths based on the quality of evidence, the balance of benefits and harms, and patient values and preferences. Literature reviews are provided for those pharmacologic agents for which sufficient evidence was available to establish recommendations. The AASM Board of Directors approved the final recommendations. RECOMMENDATIONS: The following recommendations are intended as a guideline for clinicians in choosing a specific pharmacological agent for treatment of chronic insomnia in adults, when such treatment is indicated. Under GRADE, a STRONG recommendation is one that clinicians should, under most circumstances, follow. A WEAK recommendation reflects a lower degree of certainty in the outcome and appropriateness of the patient-care strategy for all patients, but should not be construed as an indication of ineffectiveness. GRADE recommendation strengths do not refer to the magnitude of treatment effects in a particular patient, but rather, to the strength of evidence in published data. Downgrading the quality of evidence for these treatments is predictable in GRADE, due to the funding source for most pharmacological clinical trials and the attendant risk of publication bias; the relatively small number of eligible trials for each individual agent; and the observed heterogeneity in the data. The ultimate judgment regarding propriety of any specific care must be made by the clinician in light of the individual circumstances presented by the patient, available diagnostic tools, accessible treatment options, and resources. We suggest that clinicians use suvorexant as a treatment for sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use eszopiclone as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use zaleplon as a treatment for sleep onset insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use zolpidem as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use triazolam as a treatment for sleep onset insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use temazepam as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use ramelteon as a treatment for sleep onset insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use doxepin as a treatment for sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians not use trazodone as a treatment for sleep onset or sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians not use tiagabine as a treatment for sleep onset or sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians not use diphenhydramine as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians not use melatonin as a treatment for sleep onset or sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians not use tryptophan as a treatment for sleep onset or sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians not use valerian as a treatment for sleep onset or sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK).

2 Editorial Connecting insomnia, sleep apnoea and depression. 2017

Grandner, Michael A / Malhotra, Atul. ·Sleep and Health Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona, USA. · Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA. ·Respirology · Pubmed #28556352.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial A step towards stepped care: delivery of CBT-I with reduced clinician time. 2015

Manber, Rachel / Simpson, Norah S / Bootzin, Richard R. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA 94301-5597, USA. Electronic address: Rmanber@stanford.edu. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA 94301-5597, USA. · Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, USA. ·Sleep Med Rev · Pubmed #25454675.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Guest editorial: Overcoming barriers to care for returning veterans: expanding services to college campuses. 2013

McCaslin, Shannon E / Leach, Bridget / Herbst, Ellen / Armstrong, Keith. ·Mental Health Service, SFVAMC, San Francisco, CA. ·J Rehabil Res Dev · Pubmed #24458904.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Insomnia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: breathless and sleepless. 2013

Budhiraja, Rohit. ·Department of Medicine, Southern Arizona Veterans Affairs Health Care System (SAVAHCS), The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, United States. Electronic address: rohit.budhiraja@va.gov. ·Sleep Med · Pubmed #24210604.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Review Piloting cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia integrated with prolonged exposure. 2019

Colvonen, Peter J / Drummond, Sean P A / Angkaw, Abigail C / Norman, Sonya B. ·VA San Diego Healthcare System. · Monash Institute for Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience. · National Center for PTSD. ·Psychol Trauma · Pubmed #30211598.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Approximately 35-61% of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report insomnia. Further, upward of 70% report clinically significant insomnia following PTSD treatment. There are converging lines of evidence suggesting that insomnia not only independently affects daytime functioning and worsens PTSD symptoms but also may compromise response to PTSD treatment, such as prolonged exposure (PE). Taken together, integrated insomnia and PTSD treatment may increase client-centered care and treatment outcomes. METHOD: This article reviews the theory and evidence for treating sleep prior to PTSD treatment, describes the key elements of integrated cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) and PE (2NITE protocol), and presents pilot data from a sample of 12 treatment-seeking veterans with PTSD and insomnia who completed the 2NITE protocol. Sleep data were collected with sleep diaries and actigraphy watches. RESULTS: The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire indicated high satisfaction with the 2NITE protocol (mean score 29.66 out of 32 points). On average, there were statistical and clinically significant changes in all measures, including a 20.17-point decrease in the PTSD Checklist DSM-5, a 11.75-point decrease in the insomnia severity index, an 18.58-point increase in the World Health Organization Quality of Life index, a 11% increase in sleep efficiency, and a 51-min increase in total sleep time from the actigraphy data. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with insomnia and PTSD, integrating CBT-I and PE with the 2NITE protocol represents a logical, innovative, and empirically informed method for augmenting existing treatments and optimizing outcomes that justifies further investigation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

7 Review Insomnia in Elderly Patients: Recommendations for Pharmacological Management. 2018

Abad, Vivien C / Guilleminault, Christian. ·Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford Outpatient Medical Center, Stanford University, 450 Broadway St. Pavilion C 2nd Floor MC 5704, Redwood City, CA, 94063, USA. · Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford Outpatient Medical Center, Stanford University, 450 Broadway St. Pavilion C 2nd Floor MC 5704, Redwood City, CA, 94063, USA. cguil@stanford.edu. ·Drugs Aging · Pubmed #30058034.

ABSTRACT: Chronic insomnia affects 57% of the elderly in the United States, with impairment of quality of life, function, and health. Chronic insomnia burdens society with billions of dollars in direct and indirect costs of care. The main modalities in the treatment of insomnia in the elderly are psychological/behavioral therapies, pharmacological treatment, or a combination of both. Various specialty societies view psychological/behavioral therapies as the initial treatment intervention. Pharmacotherapy plays an adjunctive role when insomnia symptoms persist or when patients are unable to pursue cognitive behavioral therapies. Current drugs for insomnia fall into different classes: orexin agonists, histamine receptor antagonists, non-benzodiazepine gamma aminobutyric acid receptor agonists, and benzodiazepines. This review focuses on Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs for insomnia, including suvorexant, low-dose doxepin, Z-drugs (eszopiclone, zolpidem, zaleplon), benzodiazepines (triazolam, temazepam), and ramelteon. We review the indications, dosing, efficacy, benefits, and harms of these drugs in the elderly, and discuss data on drugs that are commonly used off-label to treat insomnia, and those that are in clinical development. The choice of a hypnotic agent in the elderly is symptom-based. Ramelteon or short-acting Z-drugs can treat sleep-onset insomnia. Suvorexant or low-dose doxepin can improve sleep maintenance. Eszopiclone or zolpidem extended release can be utilized for both sleep onset and sleep maintenance. Low-dose zolpidem sublingual tablets or zaleplon can alleviate middle-of-the-night awakenings. Benzodiazepines should not be used routinely. Trazodone, a commonly used off-label drug for insomnia, improves sleep quality and sleep continuity but carries significant risks. Tiagabine, sometimes used off-label for insomnia, is not effective and should not be utilized. Non-FDA-approved hypnotic agents that are commonly used include melatonin, diphenhydramine, tryptophan, and valerian, despite limited data on benefits and harms. Melatonin slightly improves sleep onset and sleep duration, but product quality and efficacy may vary. Tryptophan decreases sleep onset in adults, but data in the elderly are not available. Valerian is relatively safe but has equivocal benefits on sleep quality. Phase II studies of dual orexin receptor antagonists (almorexant, lemborexant, and filorexant) have shown some improvement in sleep maintenance and sleep continuity. Piromelatine may improve sleep maintenance. Histamine receptor inverse agonists (APD-125, eplivanserin, and LY2624803) improve slow-wave sleep but, for various reasons, the drug companies withdrew their products.

8 Review Vasomotor and Related Menopause Symptoms. 2018

Stuenkel, Cynthia A. ·Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, La Jolla, California. ·Clin Obstet Gynecol · Pubmed #29863584.

ABSTRACT: Vasomotor symptoms are the most common manifestation of the menopause transition and postmenopausal phases of reproductive life. They interfere not only in quality of life, but also contribute to sleep and mood disturbances that potentially compromise home and work effectiveness. Treatment options include hormone therapy (HT), nonhormonal prescription drugs, mind body and behavior therapies, and over-the-counter preparations. Evidence confirms that HT is the most effective option. The initial reticence to prescribe HT immediately following publication of the Women's Health Initiative has been replaced by clear guidelines for confidently identifying women for whom this therapy will be safe.

9 Review The multidimensional burden of atopic dermatitis: An update. 2018

Bridgman, Alanna C / Block, Julie K / Drucker, Aaron M. ·Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. · National Eczema Association, San Rafael, California. · Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine and Women's College Research Institute, Women's College Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: aaron.drucker@wchospital.ca. ·Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol · Pubmed #29555350.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Review Gabapentin for the treatment of alcohol use disorder. 2018

Mason, Barbara J / Quello, Susan / Shadan, Farhad. ·a Pearson Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research , The Scripps Research Institute , La Jolla , CA , USA. · b Division of Hospital Medicine , Scripps Clinic and Scripps Green Hospital , La Jolla , CA , USA. ·Expert Opin Investig Drugs · Pubmed #29241365.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Alcohol misuse is the fifth leading risk factor for premature death and disability worldwide. Fewer than 10% of afflicted Americans receive pharmacological treatment for alcohol use disorder. Gabapentin is a calcium channel GABAergic modulator that is widely used for pain. Studies showing reduced drinking and decreased craving and alcohol-related disturbances in sleep and affect in the months following alcohol cessation suggest therapeutic potential for alcohol use disorder. Areas covered: Human laboratory and clinical studies assessing gabapentin for alcohol use disorder are reviewed. Data were obtained by searching for English peer-reviewed articles on PubMed, reference lists of identified articles, and trials registered on clinicaltrials.gov. Additionally, the mechanism of action of gabapentin specific to alcohol use disorder, and studies of gabapentin for alcohol withdrawal and non-alcohol substance use disorders are summarized. Expert opinion: Alcohol use disorder represents a challenge and large, unmet medical need. Evidence from single-site studies lend support to the safety and efficacy of gabapentin as a novel treatment for alcohol use disorder, with unique benefits for alcohol-related insomnia and negative affect, relative to available treatments. Proprietary gabapentin delivery systems may open a path to pivotal trials and registration of gabapentin as a novel treatment for alcohol use disorder.

11 Review Insomnia disorder in adolescence: Diagnosis, impact, and treatment. 2018

de Zambotti, Massimiliano / Goldstone, Aimee / Colrain, Ian M / Baker, Fiona C. ·Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA. Electronic address: massimiliano.dezambotti@sri.com. · Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA. · Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA; Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. · Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA; Brain Function Research Group, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. ·Sleep Med Rev · Pubmed #28974427.

ABSTRACT: Insomnia disorder is very common in adolescents; it is particularly manifest in older adolescents and girls, with a prevalence comparable to that of other major psychiatric disorders (e.g., depressive disorders). However, insomnia disorder in adolescence is poorly characterized, under-recognized, under-diagnosed, and under-treated, and the reason for the female preponderance for insomnia that emerges after puberty is largely unknown. Insomnia disorder goes beyond an individual complaint of poor sleep or a sleep state misperception, and there is emerging evidence supporting the association of insomnia symptoms in adolescents with alterations in several bio-systems including functional cortical alterations and systemic inflammation. Insomnia disorder is associated with depression and other psychiatric disorders, and is an independent risk factor for suicidality and substance use in adolescents, raising the possibility that treating insomnia symptoms in early adolescence may reduce risk for these adverse outcomes. Cognitive behavioral treatments have proven efficacy for adolescent insomnia and online methods seem to offer promising cost-effective options. Current evidence indicates that insomnia in adolescence is an independent entity that warrants attention as a public health concern in its own right.

12 Review Management of side effects during and post-treatment in breast cancer survivors. 2018

Palesh, Oxana / Scheiber, Caroline / Kesler, Shelli / Mustian, Karen / Koopman, Cheryl / Schapira, Lidia. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. · MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. · Department of Surgery, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA. · Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA, USA. ·Breast J · Pubmed #28845551.

ABSTRACT: Cancer-related fatigue, insomnia, and cancer-related cognitive impairment are commonly experienced symptoms that share psychological and physical manifestations. One or more of these symptoms will affect nearly all patients at some point during their course of treatment or survivorship. These side effects are burdensome and reduce patients' quality of life well beyond their cancer diagnosis and associated care treatments. Cancer-related fatigue, insomnia, and cancer-related cognitive impairment are likely to have multiple etiologies that make it difficult to identify the most effective method to manage them. In this review, we summarized the information on cancer-related fatigue, insomnia, and cancer-related cognitive impairment incidence and prevalence among breast cancer patients and survivors as well as recent research findings on pharmaceutical, psychological, and exercise interventions that have shown effectiveness in the treatment of these side effects. Our review revealed that most current pharmaceutical interventions tend to ameliorate symptoms only temporarily without addressing the underlying causes. Exercise and behavioral interventions are consistently more effective at managing chronic symptoms and possibly address an underlying etiology. Future research is needed to investigate effective interventions that can be delivered directly in clinic to a large portion of patients and survivors.

13 Review Hypnosis in Cancer Care. 2017

Wortzel, Joshua / Spiegel, David. ·a Stanford University School of Medicine , Stanford , California , USA. ·Am J Clin Hypn · Pubmed #28557681.

ABSTRACT: Cancer affects a growing proportion of the population as survival improves. The illness and its treatment brings a substantial burden of symptoms, including pain, anxiety, insomnia, and grief. Here, the uses of hypnosis in the treatment of these cancer-related problems will be reviewed. The utility of measuring hypnotizability in the clinical setting will be discussed. The current neurobiology of hypnotizability and hypnosis will be reviewed. Methods and results of using hypnosis for pain control in acute and chronic settings will be presented. Effects of hypnotic analgesia in specific brain regions associated with pain reduction, notably the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the somatosensory cortex, underlies its utility as a potent and side-effect free analgesic. Methods for helping those with cancer to better manage their anxiety, insomnia, and grief will be described. These involve facing disease-related stressors while dissociating the experience from somatic arousal. Given the serious complications of medications widely used to treat pain, anxiety, and insomnia, this article provides methods and an evidence base for wider use of techniques involving hypnosis in cancer care. Altering patients' perception of pain, disease-related stress, and anxiety can help change the reality of their life with cancer.

14 Review Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature. 2017

Babson, Kimberly A / Sottile, James / Morabito, Danielle. ·National Center for PTSD-Dissemination & Training Division, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, 795 Willow Road, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA. Kimberly.Babson@va.gov. · Palo Alto University, Palo Alto, CA, USA. · National Center for PTSD-Dissemination & Training Division, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, 795 Willow Road, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA. ·Curr Psychiatry Rep · Pubmed #28349316.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review aims to summarize the state of research on cannabis and sleep up to 2014 and to review in detail the literature on cannabis and specific sleep disorders from 2014 to the time of publication. RECENT FINDINGS: Preliminary research into cannabis and insomnia suggests that cannabidiol (CBD) may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of insomnia. Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may decrease sleep latency but could impair sleep quality long-term. Novel studies investigating cannabinoids and obstructive sleep apnea suggest that synthetic cannabinoids such as nabilone and dronabinol may have short-term benefit for sleep apnea due to their modulatory effects on serotonin-mediated apneas. CBD may hold promise for REM sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness, while nabilone may reduce nightmares associated with PTSD and may improve sleep among patients with chronic pain. Research on cannabis and sleep is in its infancy and has yielded mixed results. Additional controlled and longitudinal research is critical to advance our understanding of research and clinical implications.

15 Review Sleep-Wake Disturbances After Traumatic Brain Injury: Synthesis of Human and Animal Studies. 2017

Sandsmark, Danielle K / Elliott, Jonathan E / Lim, Miranda M. ·Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. · VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR. · Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR. · Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR; Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR. ·Sleep · Pubmed #28329120.

ABSTRACT: Sleep-wake disturbances following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are increasingly recognized as a serious consequence following injury and as a barrier to recovery. Injury-induced sleep-wake disturbances can persist for years, often impairing quality of life. Recently, there has been a nearly exponential increase in the number of primary research articles published on the pathophysiology and mechanisms underlying sleep-wake disturbances after TBI, both in animal models and in humans, including in the pediatric population. In this review, we summarize over 200 articles on the topic, most of which were identified objectively using reproducible online search terms in PubMed. Although these studies differ in terms of methodology and detailed outcomes; overall, recent research describes a common phenotype of excessive daytime sleepiness, nighttime sleep fragmentation, insomnia, and electroencephalography spectral changes after TBI. Given the heterogeneity of the human disease phenotype, rigorous translation of animal models to the human condition is critical to our understanding of the mechanisms and of the temporal course of sleep-wake disturbances after injury. Arguably, this is most effectively accomplished when animal and human studies are performed by the same or collaborating research programs. Given the number of symptoms associated with TBI that are intimately related to, or directly stem from sleep dysfunction, sleep-wake disorders represent an important area in which mechanistic-based therapies may substantially impact recovery after TBI.

16 Review What Are Effective Psychological Interventions for Veterans With Sleep Disturbances? A Rapid Evidence Assessment. 2017

Phelps, Andrea J / Varker, Tracey / Metcalf, Olivia / Dell, Lisa. ·Phoenix Australia-Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Level 3, Alan Gilbert Building, 161 Barry Street, Carlton, Victoria, Australia 3053. ·Mil Med · Pubmed #28051971.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Insomnia and related sleep disturbances commonly occur in veterans, with prevalence rates as high as 90% reported in some studies. Military-specific factors such as sleep disturbances during military training and deployment, as well as a higher prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is known to poorly impact sleep, may contribute to higher insomnia rates in veterans. Although evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of insomnia exist, the unique nature of veterans sleep problems means they may differ in their response to treatment. The aim of this study was to review the evidence for interventions for veterans with sleep disturbances. METHODS: This literature review used a rapid evidence assessment methodology, also known as rapid review. The rapid evidence assessment methodology involves rigorously locating, appraising, and synthesising the evidence while making concessions to the breadth or the depth of the process in order to significantly decrease the length of the process. EMBASE, MEDLINE (PubMed), PsychINFO, Cochrane, Clinical Guidelines Portal (Australia), and the National Guideline Clearinghouse (United States) were searched for peer-reviewed literature and guidelines published from 2004 to August 2015 that investigated psychological interventions for veterans with sleep disturbances. The literature was assessed in terms of strength (quality, quantity, and level of evidence), direction, and the consistency, generalizability, and applicability of the findings to the population of interest. These assessments were then collated to determine an overall ranking of level of support for each intervention: "Supported" (clear, consistent evidence of a beneficial effect), "Promising" (evidence suggestive of a beneficial effect but further research is required), "Unknown" (insufficient evidence of beneficial effect and further research is required), and "Not Supported" (clear consistent evidence of no effect or negative harmful effect). FINDINGS: From an initial yield of 1,131 articles, 18 studies met the inclusion criteria for review. The majority of the studies investigated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi; n = 10). Five studies investigated CBTi with an adjunctive psychotherapy, typically for PTSD-related sleep disturbances. One further study investigated sleep hygiene education (a component of CBTi) with pharmacotherapy. Two final studies investigated hypnotherapy and mind-body bridging, respectively. Overall, the quality of the studies was mixed, with some high and some poor quality studies. DISCUSSION: There was sufficient evidence to support CBTi with adjunctive psychotherapy for veterans with PTSD-related sleep disturbances, although the evidence for CBTi in the treatment of general sleep disturbance for veterans was ranked as "promising." This indicates a beneficial effect, but more research is needed to confidently establish efficacy in a veteran population. There is currently insufficient evidence to support the use of sleep hygiene education and pharmacotherapy, hypnotherapy, or mind-body bridging. Further research dismantling the components of CBTi is needed to identify which are the critical components. Such research has the potential to lead to brief, targeted, and accessible treatments that overcome the time and stigma-related barriers to care that veterans often face.

17 Review Genetic prion disease: Experience of a rapidly progressive dementia center in the United States and a review of the literature. 2017

Takada, Leonel T / Kim, Mee-Ohk / Cleveland, Ross W / Wong, Katherine / Forner, Sven A / Gala, Ignacio Illán / Fong, Jamie C / Geschwind, Michael D. ·Department of Neurology, Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology Unit, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. · Department of Neurology, Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco, California. · Department of Pediatrics, The University of Vermont Children's Hospital, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont. · Department of Neurology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain. ·Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet · Pubmed #27943639.

ABSTRACT: Although prion diseases are generally thought to present as rapidly progressive dementias with survival of only a few months, the phenotypic spectrum for genetic prion diseases (gPrDs) is much broader. The majority have a rapid decline with short survival, but many patients with gPrDs present as slowly progressive ataxic or parkinsonian disorders with progression over a few to several years. A few very rare mutations even present as neuropsychiatric disorders, sometimes with systemic symptoms such as gastrointestinal disorders and neuropathy, progressing over years to decades. gPrDs are caused by mutations in the prion protein gene (PRNP), and have been historically classified based on their clinicopathological features as genetic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease (gJCD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS), or Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI). Mutations in PRNP can be missense, nonsense, and octapeptide repeat insertions or a deletion, and present with diverse clinical features, sensitivities of ancillary testing, and neuropathological findings. We present the UCSF gPrD cohort, including 129 symptomatic patients referred to and/or seen at UCSF between 2001 and 2016, and compare the clinical features of the gPrDs from 22 mutations identified in our cohort with data from the literature, as well as perform a literature review on most other mutations not represented in our cohort. E200K is the most common mutation worldwide, is associated with gJCD, and was the most common in the UCSF cohort. Among the GSS-associated mutations, P102L is the most commonly reported and was also the most common at UCSF. We also had several octapeptide repeat insertions (OPRI), a rare nonsense mutation (Q160X), and three novel mutations (K194E, E200G, and A224V) in our UCSF cohort. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

18 Review Memory consolidation in sleep disorders. 2017

Cellini, Nicola. ·Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA. Electronic address: cellini.nicola@gmail.com. ·Sleep Med Rev · Pubmed #27765468.

ABSTRACT: In recent years sleep-related memory consolidation has become a central topic in the sleep research field. Several studies have shown that in healthy individuals sleep promotes memory consolidation. Notwithstanding this, the consequences of sleep disorders on offline memory consolidation remain poorly investigated. Research studies indicate that patients with insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy often exhibit sleep-related impairment in the consolidation of declarative and procedural information. On the other hand, patients with parasomnias, such as sleep-walking, night terrors and rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder, do not present any memory impairment. These studies suggest that only sleep disorders characterized by increased post-learning arousal and disrupted sleep architecture seem to be associated with offline memory consolidation issues. Such impairments, arising already in childhood, may potentially affect the development and maintenance of an individual's cognitive abilities, reducing their quality of life and increasing the risk of accidents. However, promising findings suggest that successfully treating sleep symptoms can result in the restoration of memory functions and marked reduction of direct and indirect societal costs of sleep disorders.

19 Review Hypnotic Medications and Suicide: Risk, Mechanisms, Mitigation, and the FDA. 2017

McCall, W Vaughn / Benca, Ruth M / Rosenquist, Peter B / Riley, Mary Anne / McCloud, Laryssa / Newman, Jill C / Case, Doug / Rumble, Meredith / Krystal, Andrew D. ·From the Department of Psychiatry and Health Behavior, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta; the Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine; the Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, N.C.; the Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison; and the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, N.C. ·Am J Psychiatry · Pubmed #27609243.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is associated with increased risk for suicide. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has mandated that warnings regarding suicide be included in the prescribing information for hypnotic medications. The authors conducted a review of the evidence for and against the claim that hypnotics increase the risk of suicide. METHOD: This review focused on modern, FDA-approved hypnotics, beginning with the introduction of benzodiazepines, limiting its findings to adults. PubMed and Web of Science were searched, crossing the terms "suicide" and "suicidal" with each of the modern FDA-approved hypnotics. The FDA web site was searched for postmarketing safety reviews, and the FDA was contacted with requests to provide detailed case reports for hypnotic-related suicide deaths reported through its Adverse Event Reporting System. RESULTS: Epidemiological studies show that hypnotics are associated with an increased risk for suicide. However, none of these studies adequately controlled for depression or other psychiatric disorders that may be linked with insomnia. Suicide deaths have been reported from single-agent hypnotic overdoses. A separate concern is that benzodiazepine receptor agonist hypnotics can cause parasomnias, which in rare cases may lead to suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior in persons who were not known to be suicidal. On the other hand, ongoing research is testing whether treatment of insomnia may reduce suicidality in adults with depression. CONCLUSIONS: The review findings indicate that hypnotic medications are associated with suicidal ideation. Future studies should be designed to assess whether increases in suicidality result from CNS impairments from a given hypnotic medication or whether such medication decreases suicidality because of improvements in insomnia.

20 Review Sleep deprivation: a mind-body approach. 2016

Aguirre, Claudia C. ·Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA. ·Curr Opin Pulm Med · Pubmed #27583670.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in our understanding of the impact sleep disturbances have on our health, with particular focus on the brain. The present review considers the influence of sleep disturbance on the neurovascular unit; the role of sleep disturbance in neurodegenerative diseases; and relevant strategies of neuro-immuno-endocrine interactions that likely contribute to the restorative power of sleep. Given the latest discoveries about the brain's waste clearance system and its relationship to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, this review gives a brief overview on the molecular mechanisms behind sleep loss-related impairments. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence indicates that sleep plays a vital role in neuro-immuno-endocrine homeostasis. Sleep loss has been linked to elevated risks for cognitive and mood disorders, underscored by impaired synaptic transmission. The glymphatic system has been shown to be modulated by sleep and implicated in neurodegenerative disorders. SUMMARY: Interactions between sleep quality, the immune system, and neurodegenerative disease are complex and a challenge to distil. These interactions are frequently bidirectional, because of sleep's characterization as an early symptom and as a potential factor contributing to the development and progression of mood and cognitive disorders. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

21 Review Sleep in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Evidence Gaps and Challenges. 2016

Jen, Rachel / Li, Yanru / Owens, Robert L / Malhotra, Atul. ·Clinical Investigator Program, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V5Z 1M9; Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. · Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Sleep Medicine Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, China. · Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ·Can Respir J · Pubmed #27445564.

ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence is rising to epidemic proportions due to historical smoking trends, the aging of the population, and air pollution. Although blaming the victims has been common in COPD, the majority of COPD worldwide is now thought to be nonsmoking related, that is, caused by air pollution and cookstove exposure. It is increasingly appreciated that subjective and objective sleep disturbances are common in COPD, although strong epidemiological data are lacking. People with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) plus COPD (the so-called overlap syndrome) have a high risk of cardiovascular death, although again mechanisms are unknown and untested. This review aims to draw attention to the problem of sleep in COPD, to encourage clinicians to ask their patients about symptoms, and to stimulate further research in this area given the large burden of the disease.

22 Review How do I best manage insomnia and other sleep disorders in older adults with cancer? 2016

Loh, Kah Poh / Burhenn, Peggy / Hurria, Arti / Zachariah, Finly / Mohile, Supriya Gupta. ·James Wilmot Cancer Institute, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 704, Rochester, NY 14620, United States. Electronic address: melissalkp@gmail.com. · City of Hope Cancer Center, 1500 E. Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, United States. · James Wilmot Cancer Institute, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 704, Rochester, NY 14620, United States. ·J Geriatr Oncol · Pubmed #27266675.

ABSTRACT: Insomnia is common in older adults with cancer, with a reported prevalence of 19-60% in prior studies. Cancer treatments are associated with increased risk of insomnia or aggravation of pre-existing insomnia symptoms, and patients who are receiving active cancer treatments are more likely to report insomnia. Insomnia can lead to significant physical and psychological consequences with increased mortality. We discuss physiological sleep changes in older adults, and illustrated the various sleep disorders. We present a literature review on the prevalence and the effects of insomnia on the quality of life in older adults with cancer. We discuss the risk factors and presented a theoretical framework of insomnia in older adults with cancer. We present a case study to illustrate the assessment and management of insomnia in older adults with cancer, comparing and contrasting a number of tools for sleep assessment. There are currently no guidelines on the treatment of sleep disorders in older adults with cancer. We present an algorithm developed at the City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center by a multidisciplinary team for managing insomnia, using evidence-based pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions.

23 Review Medical marijuana: A treatment worth trying? 2016

Metts, Julius / Wright, Steven / Sundaram, Jawahar / Hashemi, Nastran. ·California Substance Abuse and Treatment Center, Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Corcoran, CA, USA. Email: julius.metts@cdcr.ca.gov. · Private practice, Littleton, CO, USA. · California Substance Abuse and Treatment Center, Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Corcoran, CA, USA. ·J Fam Pract · Pubmed #27158689.

ABSTRACT: With medical marijuana available in more and more states, family physicians need to know what the evidence says about its use. This review includes a step-by-step guide and a list of red flags to watch for.

24 Review Beyond the mean: A systematic review on the correlates of daily intraindividual variability of sleep/wake patterns. 2016

Bei, Bei / Wiley, Joshua F / Trinder, John / Manber, Rachel. ·Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, Monash School of Psychological Sciences, Faculty of Biomedical and Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Australia; Centre for Women's Mental Health, Royal Women's Hospital, Australia. Electronic address: bei.bei@monash.edu. · Centre for Primary Care and Prevention, Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Australia. · Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia. · Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, USA. ·Sleep Med Rev · Pubmed #26588182.

ABSTRACT: Features of an individual's sleep/wake patterns across multiple days are governed by two dimensions, the mean and the intraindividual variability (IIV). The existing literature focuses on the means, while the nature and correlates of sleep/wake IIV are not well understood. A systematic search of records in five major databases from inception to November 2014 identified 53 peer-reviewed empirical publications that examined correlates of sleep/wake IIV in adults. Overall, this literature appeared unsystematic and post hoc, with under-developed theoretical frameworks and inconsistent methodologies. Correlates most consistently associated with greater IIV in one or more aspects of sleep/wake patterns were: younger age, non-White race/ethnicity, living alone, physical health conditions, higher body mass index, weight gain, bipolar and unipolar depression symptomatology, stress, and evening chronotype; symptoms of insomnia and poor sleep were associated with higher sleep/wake IIV, which was reduced following sleep interventions. The effects of experimentally reduced sleep/wake IIV on daytime functioning were inconclusive. In extending current understanding of sleep/wake patterns beyond the mean values, IIV should be incorporated as an additional dimension when sleep is examined across multiple days. Theoretical and methodological shortcomings in the existing literature, and opportunities for future research are discussed.

25 Review Open-Loop Audio-Visual Stimulation (AVS): A Useful Tool for Management of Insomnia? 2016

Tang, Hsin-Yi Jean / Riegel, Barbara / McCurry, Susan M / Vitiello, Michael V. ·Health Science Center, School of Nursing, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific St., Box 357263, Seattle, WA, 98195-7263, USA. jeantang@u.washington.edu. · Edith Clemmer Steinbright Chair of Gerontology, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19106, USA. · School of Nursing, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA. · Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA. ·Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback · Pubmed #26294268.

ABSTRACT: Audio Visual Stimulation (AVS), a form of neurofeedback, is a non-pharmacological intervention that has been used for both performance enhancement and symptom management. We review the history of AVS, its two sub-types (close- and open-loop), and discuss its clinical implications. We also describe a promising new application of AVS to improve sleep, and potentially decrease pain. AVS research can be traced back to the late 1800s. AVS's efficacy has been demonstrated for both performance enhancement and symptom management. Although AVS is commonly used in clinical settings, there is limited literature evaluating clinical outcomes and mechanisms of action. One of the challenges to AVS research is the lack of standardized terms, which makes systematic review and literature consolidation difficult. Future studies using AVS as an intervention should; (1) use operational definitions that are consistent with the existing literature, such as AVS, Audio-visual Entrainment, or Light and Sound Stimulation, (2) provide a clear rationale for the chosen training frequency modality, (3) use a randomized controlled design, and (4) follow the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and/or related guidelines when disseminating results.

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