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Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: HELP
Articles by Kenneth M. A. MacMahon
Based on 4 articles published since 2009
(Why 4 articles?)
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Between 2009 and 2019, Kenneth MacMahon wrote the following 4 articles about Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Sleep-related attentional bias in insomnia: A state-of-the-science review. 2015

Harris, Kamelia / Spiegelhalder, Kai / Espie, Colin A / MacMahon, Kenneth M A / Woods, Heather Cleland / Kyle, Simon D. ·School of Psychological Sciences, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom. · Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg Medical Centre, Hauptstraße 5, Freiburg 79104, Germany. · Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom. · Clinical Psychology, School of Health in Social Science, University of Edinburgh, Medical School, Teviot Row, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, United Kingdom. · School of Psychology, University of Glasgow, 58 Hillhead Street, Glasgow G12 8QB, United Kingdom. · Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom. Electronic address: simon.kyle@ndcn.ox.ac.uk. ·Clin Psychol Rev · Pubmed #26284598.

ABSTRACT: Prominent models of insomnia posit that sleep-related attentional bias plays an important role in the development and maintenance of insomnia. Here we conduct the first systematic review of the sleep-related attentional bias construct, indexed through reaction time-based experimental tasks. Literature search identified 13 studies that met pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Included studies involved between-group comparisons (poor sleepers versus controls), as well as sleep manipulations and correlational investigations with healthy sleepers. For studies involving comparisons between poor sleepers and healthy controls, effect size estimates were computed for task-relevant dependent variables. Six of the nine studies comparing poor sleepers and controls revealed statistically significant group differences in support of a differential sleep-related attentional bias (medium-to-large effect sizes), with flicker, dot-probe and Posner tasks being most sensitive to group effects. Due to the paucity of studies and variability in design and measurement, no conclusions could be reached regarding manipulation or induction of attentional bias in good sleepers. Results from the relatively small number of studies support the presence of sleep-related attentional bias in insomnia; however, its role in the development and/or maintenance of insomnia remains to be elucidated. We set out a research agenda aimed at advancing the understanding of sleep-related attention bias.

2 Clinical Trial Sleep restriction therapy for insomnia is associated with reduced objective total sleep time, increased daytime somnolence, and objectively impaired vigilance: implications for the clinical management of insomnia disorder. 2014

Kyle, Simon D / Miller, Christopher B / Rogers, Zoe / Siriwardena, A Niroshan / Macmahon, Kenneth M / Espie, Colin A. ·School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. · Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. · Institute of Brain, Behaviour and Mental Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. · School of Health and Social Care, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK. · Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. · Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. ·Sleep · Pubmed #24497651.

ABSTRACT: STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether sleep restriction therapy (SRT) is associated with reduced objective total sleep time (TST), increased daytime somnolence, and impaired vigilance. DESIGN: Within-subject, noncontrolled treatment investigation. SETTING: Sleep research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen patients [10 female, mean age = 47.1 (10.8) y] with well-defined psychophysiological insomnia (PI), reporting TST ≤ 6 h. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were treated with single-component SRT over a 4-w protocol, sleeping in the laboratory for 2 nights prior to treatment initiation and for 3 nights (SRT night 1, 8, 22) during the acute interventional phase. The psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) was completed at seven defined time points [day 0 (baseline), day 1,7,8,21,22 (acute treatment) and day 84 (3 mo)]. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was completed at baseline, w 1-4, and 3 mo. MEASUREMENT AND RESULTS: Subjective sleep outcomes and global insomnia severity significantly improved before and after SRT. There was, however, a robust decrease in PSG-defined TST during acute implementation of SRT, by an average of 91 min on night 1, 78 min on night 8, and 69 min on night 22, relative to baseline (P < 0.001; effect size range = 1.60-1.80). During SRT, PVT lapses were significantly increased from baseline (at three of five assessment points, all P < 0.05; effect size range = 0.69-0.78), returning to baseline levels by 3 mo (P = 0.43). A similar pattern was observed for RT, with RTs slowing during acute treatment (at four of five assessment points, all P < 0.05; effect size range = 0.57-0.89) and returning to pretreatment levels at 3 mo (P = 0.78). ESS scores were increased at w 1, 2, and 3 (relative to baseline; all P < 0.05); by 3 mo, sleepiness had returned to baseline (normative) levels (P = 0.65). CONCLUSION: For the first time we show that acute sleep restriction therapy is associated with reduced objective total sleep time, increased daytime sleepiness, and objective performance impairment. Our data have important implications for implementation guidelines around the safe and effective delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia.

3 Article Sleep problem, suicide and self-harm in university students: A systematic review. 2019

Russell, Kirsten / Allan, Stephanie / Beattie, Louise / Bohan, Jason / MacMahon, Kenneth / Rasmussen, Susan. ·School of Psychological Sciences and Health, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. · Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. · School of Psychology, University of Glasgow, UK. · School of Health in Social Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK. · School of Psychological Sciences and Health, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. Electronic address: s.a.rasmussen@strath.ac.uk. ·Sleep Med Rev · Pubmed #30721844.

ABSTRACT: Suicide and self-harm behaviours represent public health concerns, and university students are a particularly high risk group. Identifying modifiable risk factors for the development and maintenance of suicidal thoughts and behaviours is a research priority, as prevention is crucial. Research examining the relationship between poor sleep and self-harm/suicidality within university students is, for the first time, systematically evaluated, critically appraised, and synthesised. This literature consistently demonstrates that insomnia and nightmares are associated with elevated suicide risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviours within this subpopulation of young adults. However, as findings are predominantly derived from cross-sectional investigations, the directionality of this relationship is not yet clear. While research investigating the psychological processes driving these relationships is in its infancy, preliminary findings suggest that thwarted belongingness, socio-cognitive factors and emotional dysregulation could be partly responsible. Methodological limitations are highlighted and a research agenda suggesting the key directions for future research is proposed. Continued research in this area - employing longitudinal designs, and testing novel theoretically derived hypotheses - will be crucial to the development of suicide prevention and intervention efforts.

4 Article The effects of improving sleep on mental health (OASIS): a randomised controlled trial with mediation analysis. 2017

Freeman, Daniel / Sheaves, Bryony / Goodwin, Guy M / Yu, Ly-Mee / Nickless, Alecia / Harrison, Paul J / Emsley, Richard / Luik, Annemarie I / Foster, Russell G / Wadekar, Vanashree / Hinds, Christopher / Gumley, Andrew / Jones, Ray / Lightman, Stafford / Jones, Steve / Bentall, Richard / Kinderman, Peter / Rowse, Georgina / Brugha, Traolach / Blagrove, Mark / Gregory, Alice M / Fleming, Leanne / Walklet, Elaine / Glazebrook, Cris / Davies, E Bethan / Hollis, Chris / Haddock, Gillian / John, Bev / Coulson, Mark / Fowler, David / Pugh, Katherine / Cape, John / Moseley, Peter / Brown, Gary / Hughes, Claire / Obonsawin, Marc / Coker, Sian / Watkins, Edward / Schwannauer, Matthias / MacMahon, Kenneth / Siriwardena, A Niroshan / Espie, Colin A. ·Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK; Oxford Health National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK. Electronic address: daniel.freeman@psych.ox.ac.uk. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK; Oxford Health National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK. · Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. · Centre for Biostatistics, Institute of Population Health, Manchester University, Manchester Academic Health Centre, Manchester, UK. · Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford, UK; Big Health Ltd, London, UK. · Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford, UK. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK. · Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Gartnavel Royal Hospital, Glasgow, UK. · School of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health and Human Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK. · Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. · Spectrum Centre for Mental Health Research, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK. · Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. · Psychological Sciences, Institute of Psychology Health and Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. · Department of Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology, Centre for Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK. · Department of Psychology, University of Swansea, Swansea, UK. · Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, London, UK. · Department of Psychology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. · Department of Psychology, Institute of Health and Society, University of Worcester, Worcester, UK. · Division of Psychiatry and Applied Psychology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; National Institute for Healthcare Research MindTech Healthcare Technology Co-operative, Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. · National Institute for Healthcare Research MindTech Healthcare Technology Co-operative, Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. · Division of Psychology and Mental Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. · School of Psychology and Therapeutic Studies, University of South Wales, Treforest, UK. · Department of Psychology, School of Science and Technology, University of Middlesex, London, UK. · Department of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK; Sussex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Worthing, UK. · Sussex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Worthing, UK. · Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, UK. · School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK. · Psychology Department, Royal Holloway, Egham, UK. · University of Cambridge Centre for Family Research, Cambridge, UK. · School of Psychological Sciences and Health, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow UK. · Department of Clinical Psychology, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. · SMART Lab, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Sir Henry Wellcome Building for Mood Disorders Research, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK. · School of Health in Social Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Medical School, Edinburgh, UK. · Community and Health Research Unit, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK. ·Lancet Psychiatry · Pubmed #28888927.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sleep difficulties might be a contributory causal factor in the occurrence of mental health problems. If this is true, improving sleep should benefit psychological health. We aimed to determine whether treating insomnia leads to a reduction in paranoia and hallucinations. METHODS: We did this single-blind, randomised controlled trial (OASIS) at 26 UK universities. University students with insomnia were randomly assigned (1:1) with simple randomisation to receive digital cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia or usual care, and the research team were masked to the treatment. Online assessments took place at weeks 0, 3, 10 (end of therapy), and 22. The primary outcome measures were for insomnia, paranoia, and hallucinatory experiences. We did intention-to-treat analyses. The trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN61272251. FINDINGS: Between March 5, 2015, and Feb 17, 2016, we randomly assigned 3755 participants to receive digital CBT for insomnia (n=1891) or usual practice (n=1864). Compared with usual practice, the sleep intervention at 10 weeks reduced insomnia (adjusted difference 4·78, 95% CI 4·29 to 5·26, Cohen's d=1·11; p<0·0001), paranoia (-2·22, -2·98 to -1·45, Cohen's d=0·19; p<0·0001), and hallucinations (-1·58, -1·98 to -1·18, Cohen's d=0·24; p<0·0001). Insomnia was a mediator of change in paranoia and hallucinations. No adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the largest randomised controlled trial of a psychological intervention for a mental health problem. It provides strong evidence that insomnia is a causal factor in the occurrence of psychotic experiences and other mental health problems. Whether the results generalise beyond a student population requires testing. The treatment of disrupted sleep might require a higher priority in mental health provision. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.