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Parkinson Disease HELP
Based on 23,254 articles since 2006
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These are the 23254 published articles about Parkinson Disease that originated from Worldwide during 2006-2015.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline Consensus statements on driving in people with Parkinson's disease. 2014

Classen, Sherrilene / Anonymous3470779 / Anonymous3480779. ·School of Occupational Therapy, Elborn College, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. · ·Occup Ther Health Care · Pubmed #24754762.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder leading to motor and non-motor impairments, all of which can affect fitness to drive. The literature suggest that on-road and simulated driving performances are impaired in people with PD, as compared to healthy control drivers. Clear associations exist between impaired driving performance and contrast sensitivity, visual processing speed, and psychomotor speed. Prior to this review and expert panel process, no evidence-based guidelines have existed to help occupational therapy practitioners determining fitness to drive in those with PD. Three consensus statements are presented in this work to enable occupational therapy practitioners and other driver rehabilitation specialists to make fitness to drive determinations in people with PD.

2 Guideline Consensus-based clinical practice recommendations for the examination and management of falls in patients with Parkinson's disease. 2014

van der Marck, Marjolein A / Klok, Margit Ph C / Okun, Michael S / Giladi, Nir / Munneke, Marten / Bloem, Bastiaan R / Anonymous4310778. ·Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen Centre for Evidence Based Practice, Department of Neurology, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · University of Florida Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration, Gainesville, FL, USA. · Movement Disorders Unit, Department of Neurology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. · Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen Centre for Evidence Based Practice, Department of Neurology, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen Centre for Evidence Based Practice, Scientific Institute for Quality of Healthcare, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Radboud university medical center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Department of Neurology, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: Bas.Bloem@radboudumc.nl. · ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #24484618.

ABSTRACT: Falls in Parkinson's disease (PD) are common and frequently devastating. Falls prevention is an urgent priority, but there is no accepted program that specifically addresses the risk profile in PD. Therefore, we aimed to provide consensus-based clinical practice recommendations that systematically address potential fall risk factors in PD. We developed an overview of both generic (age-related) and PD-specific factors. For each factor, we specified: best method of ascertainment; disciplines that should be involved in assessment and treatment; and which interventions could be engaged. Using a web-based tool, we asked 27 clinically active professionals from multiple relevant disciplines to evaluate this overview. The revised version was subsequently reviewed by 12 experts. Risk factors and their associated interventions were included in the final set of recommendations when at least 66% of reviewing experts agreed. These recommendations included 31 risk factors. Nearly all required a multidisciplinary team approach, usually involving a neurologist and PD-nurse specialist. Finally, the expert panel proposed to first identify the specific fall type and to tailor screening and treatment accordingly. A routine evaluation of all risk factors remains reserved for high-risk patients without prior falls, or for patients with seemingly unexplained falls. In conclusion, this project produced a set of consensus-based clinical practice recommendations for the examination and management of falls in PD. These may be used in two ways: for pragmatic use in current clinical practice, pending further evidence; and as the active intervention in clinical trials, aiming to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of large scale implementation.

3 Guideline Brazilian Medical Association guidelines for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of panic disorder. 2013

Levitan, Michelle Nigri / Chagas, Marcos H / Linares, Ila M / Crippa, José A / Terra, Mauro B / Giglio, Alcir T / Cordeiro, Joana L C / Garcia, Giovana J / Hasan, Rosa / Andrada, Nathalia C / Nardi, Antonio E. ·Laboratory of Panic & Respiration, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de JaneiroRJ, Brazil. · Department of Neurosciences and Behavioral Sciences, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão PretoSP, Brazil. · Department of Clinical Medicine: Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto AlegreRS, Brazil. · Centro de Estudos Jose de Barros Falcão, Porto AlegreRS, Brazil. · Associação Brasileira de Neurologia, Associação Brasileira de NeurologiaBrazil, Brazil. · Associação Médica Brasileira, Associação Médica BrasileiraBrazil, Brazil. ·Rev Bras Psiquiatr · Pubmed #24402216.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To present the most relevant findings regarding the Brazilian Medical Association guidelines for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of panic disorder. METHODS: We used the methodology proposed by the Brazilian Medical Association for the Diretrizes Project. The MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, Web of Science, and LILACS online databases were queried for articles published from 1980 to 2012. Searchable questions were structured using the PICO format (acronym for "patient" [or population], "intervention" [or exposure], "comparison" [or control], and "outcome"). RESULTS: We present data on clinical manifestations and implications of panic disorder and its association with depression, drug abuse, dependence and anxiety disorders. In addition, discussions were held on the main psychiatric and clinical differential diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: The guidelines are proposed to serve as a reference for the general practitioner and specialist to assist in and facilitate the diagnosis of panic disorder.

4 Guideline Managing impulse control behaviours in Parkinson's disease: practical guidelines. 2013

Macphee, Graeme J A / Chaudhuri, K Ray / David, Anthony S / Worth, Paul / Wood, Brian. ·Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, UK. graeme.macphee@ggc.scot.nhs.uk · ·Br J Hosp Med (Lond) · Pubmed #23665786.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Guideline Canadian Guidelines on Parkinson's Disease. 2012

Grimes, David / Gordon, Joyce / Snelgrove, Barbara / Lim-Carter, Ivy / Fon, Edward / Martin, Wayne / Wieler, Marguerite / Suchowersky, Oksana / Rajput, Alex / Lafontaine, Anne L / Stoessl, Jon / Moro, Elena / Schoffer, Kerrie / Miyasaki, Janis / Hobson, Doug / Mahmoudi, Minoo / Fox, Susan / Postuma, Ron / Kumar, Hrishikesh / Jog, Mandar / Anonymous2980731. ·Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada. dagrimes@ottawahospital.on.ca · ·Can J Neurol Sci · Pubmed #23126020.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Guideline EFNS-ENS Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of disorders associated with dementia. 2012

Sorbi, S / Hort, J / Erkinjuntti, T / Fladby, T / Gainotti, G / Gurvit, H / Nacmias, B / Pasquier, F / Popescu, B O / Rektorova, I / Religa, D / Rusina, R / Rossor, M / Schmidt, R / Stefanova, E / Warren, J D / Scheltens, P / Anonymous5180724. ·Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. sorbi@unifi.it · ·Eur J Neurol · Pubmed #22891773.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The last version of the EFNS dementia guidelines is from 2007. In 2010, the revised guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD) were published. The current guidelines involve the revision of the dementia syndromes outside of AD, notably vascular cognitive impairment, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, dementia with Lewy bodies, corticobasal syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease dementia, Huntington's disease, prion diseases, normal-pressure hydrocephalus, limbic encephalitis and other toxic and metabolic disorders. The aim is to present a peer-reviewed evidence-based statement for the guidance of practice for clinical neurologists, geriatricians, psychiatrists and other specialist physicians responsible for the care of patients with dementing disorders. It represents a statement of minimum desirable standards for practice guidance. METHODS: The task force working group reviewed evidence from original research articles, meta-analyses and systematic reviews, published by June 2011. The evidence was classified (I, II, III, IV) and consensus recommendations graded (A, B, or C) according to the EFNS guidance. Where there was a lack of evidence, but clear consensus, good practice points were provided. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: New recommendations and good practice points are made for clinical diagnosis, blood tests, neuropsychology, neuroimaging, electroencephalography, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, genetic testing, disclosure of diagnosis, treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia, legal issues, counselling and support for caregivers. All recommendations were revised as compared with the previous EFNS guidelines. The specialist neurologist together with primary care physicians play an important role in the assessment, interpretation and treatment of symptoms, disability and needs of dementia patients.

7 Guideline Practice Parameter: treatment of nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. 2010

Zesiewicz, T A / Sullivan, K L / Arnulf, I / Chaudhuri, K R / Morgan, J C / Gronseth, G S / Miyasaki, J / Iverson, D J / Weiner, W J / Anonymous990656. ·University of South Florida, Tampa, USA. · ·Neurology · Pubmed #20231670.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Nonmotor symptoms (sleep dysfunction, sensory symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, and cognitive abnormalities) in Parkinson disease (PD) are a major cause of morbidity, yet are often underrecognized. This evidence-based practice parameter evaluates treatment options for the nonmotor symptoms of PD. Articles pertaining to cognitive and mood dysfunction in PD, as well as treatment of sialorrhea with botulinum toxin, were previously reviewed as part of American Academy of Neurology practice parameters and were not included here. METHODS: A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index was performed to identify clinical trials in patients with nonmotor symptoms of PD published between 1966 and August 2008. Articles were classified according to a 4-tiered level of evidence scheme and recommendations were based on the level of evidence. RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Sildenafil citrate (50 mg) may be considered to treat erectile dysfunction in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) (Level C). Macrogol (polyethylene glycol) may be considered to treat constipation in patients with PD (Level C). The use of levodopa/carbidopa probably decreases the frequency of spontaneous nighttime leg movements, and should be considered to treat periodic limb movements of sleep in patients with PD (Level B). There is insufficient evidence to support or refute specific treatments for urinary incontinence, orthostatic hypotension, and anxiety (Level U). Future research should include concerted and interdisciplinary efforts toward finding treatments for nonmotor symptoms of PD.

8 Guideline Guideline for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. 2009

Carr, J / Kies, B / Fine, J / Anonymous1760649. ·jcarr@sun.ac.za · ·S Afr Med J · Pubmed #20128276.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Guideline [Consensus statement on deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease]. 2009

Anonymous4110641 / Anonymous4120641. · ·Rev Neurol · Pubmed #19728280.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical technique based on the placement of a programmable electrode into certain areas of central nervous system. DBS is nowadays a well established treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and motor complications. However, there are controversies about several items, including the correct selection of patients and the best time for DBS. There is a current trend for DBS to be carried out at earlier stages of PD. A group of experts from Spanish Neurosurgical Society (Functional Surgery Study Group) and Spanish Neurological Society (Movement Disorders Study Group) wrote this consensus statement in order to clarify these and other items.

10 Guideline Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: Australian referral guidelines. 2009

Silberstein, Paul / Bittar, Richard G / Boyle, Richard / Cook, Raymond / Coyne, Terry / O'Sullivan, Dudley / Pell, Malcolm / Peppard, Richard / Rodrigues, Julian / Silburn, Peter / Stell, Rick / Watson, Peter / Anonymous940638. ·North Shore Private Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. paul@silberstein.com.au · ·J Clin Neurosci · Pubmed #19596113.

ABSTRACT: The advent of deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been an important advance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). DBS may be employed in the management of medication-refractory tremor or treatment-related motor complications, and may benefit between 4.5% and 20% of patients at some stage of their disease course. In Australia, patients with PD are reviewed by specialised DBS teams who assess the likely benefits and risks associated with DBS for each individual. The aim of these guidelines is to assist neurologists and general physicians identify patients who may benefit from referral to a DBS team. Common indications for referral are motor fluctuations and/or dyskinesias that are not adequately controlled with optimised medical therapy, medication-refractory tremor, and intolerance to medical therapy. Early referral for consideration of DBS is recommended as soon as optimised medical therapy fails to offer satisfactory motor control.

11 Guideline [Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. Consensus recommendations of the German Deep Brain Stimulation Association]. 2009

Hilker, R / Benecke, R / Deuschl, G / Fogel, W / Kupsch, A / Schrader, C / Sixel-Döring, F / Timmermann, L / Volkmann, J / Lange, M / Anonymous580637. ·Zentrum der Neurologie und Neurochirurgie, Klinik für Neurologie, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main. · ·Nervenarzt · Pubmed #19360386.

ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be effective for levodopa-responsive symptoms and tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD). The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the preferred target for most patients suffering from late stage motor complications of the disorder. STN DBS is superior to best medical treatment concerning the control of motor fluctuations and the increase of on-time without dyskinesias. In contrast to DBS of the internal pallidum (GPi), STN stimulation also permits a reduction of the dopaminergic medication. Long-term data demonstrated sustained effectiveness of STN DBS despite progressive disease. DBS of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) is an alternative target in older PD patients with severe PD tremor refractory to medication. In order to minimize potential risks and side effects, the use of DBS needs careful adherence to inclusion and exclusion criteria for eligible PD patients. This paper summarizes the current consensus recommendations of the German Deep Brain Stimulation Association for DBS in PD.

12 Guideline Re: Practice parameter: assessing patients in a neurology practice for risk of falls (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. 2009

Friedman, Joseph H. · ·Neurology · Pubmed #19171841.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

13 Guideline Practice parameter: Assessing patients in a neurology practice for risk of falls (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. 2008

Thurman, David J / Stevens, Judy A / Rao, Jaya K / Anonymous5200602. ·National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. · ·Neurology · Pubmed #18250292.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To develop a practice parameter for screening methods and assessments of risk for falls pertaining to patients likely to be seen in neurology practices. METHODS: Relevant literature was systematically reviewed and strength of evidence classified based on the American Academy of Neurology's criteria (Level A: established; Level B: probable; Level C: possible). RESULTS: An increased risk of falls is established among persons with diagnoses of stroke, dementia, and disorders of gait and balance (Level A) and probable among patients with Parkinson disease, peripheral neuropathy, lower extremity weakness or sensory loss, and substantial vision loss (Level B). A history of falling in the past year strongly predicts the likelihood of future falls (Level A). Screening measures have been developed to further assess risks of falls, including functional assessments that may be useful (Levels B and C). Several of these assess overlapping neurologic functions--i.e., gait, mobility, and balance--and there is insufficient evidence to assess whether they offer benefit beyond that provided by a standard neurologic examination. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with neurologic or general conditions associated with an increased risk of falling should be asked about recent falls and further examined for the presence of specific neurologic deficits that predict falls, which include gait and balance disorders; deficits of lower extremity strength, sensation, and coordination; and cognitive impairments. If substantial risks of falls are identified, appropriate interventions that are described in other evidence-based guidelines may be considered.

14 Guideline Depression rating scales in Parkinson's disease: critique and recommendations. 2007

Schrag, Anette / Barone, Paolo / Brown, Richard G / Leentjens, Albert F G / McDonald, William M / Starkstein, Sergio / Weintraub, Daniel / Poewe, Werner / Rascol, Olivier / Sampaio, Cristina / Stebbins, Glenn T / Goetz, Christopher G. ·University Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK. a.schrag@medsch.ucl.ac.uk · ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #17394234.

ABSTRACT: Depression is a common comorbid condition in Parkinson's disease (PD) and a major contributor to poor quality of life and disability. However, depression can be difficult to assess in patients with PD due to overlapping symptoms and difficulties in the assessment of depression in cognitively impaired patients. As several rating scales have been used to assess depression in PD (dPD), the Movement Disorder Society commissioned a task force to assess their clinimetric properties and make clinical recommendations regarding their use. A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the use of depression scales in PD and determine which scales should be selected for this review. The scales reviewed were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Scale (Ham-D), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part I, Cornell Scale for the Assessment of Depression in Dementia (CSDD), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Seven clinical researchers with clinical and research experience in the assessment of dPD were assigned to review the scales using a structured format. The most appropriate scale is dependent on the clinical or research goal. However, observer-rated scales are preferred if the study or clinical situation permits. For screening purposes, the HAM-D, BDI, HADS, MADRS, and GDS are valid in dPD. The CES-D and CSDD are alternative instruments that need validation in dPD. For measurement of severity of depressive symptoms, the Ham-D, MADRS, BDI, and SDS scales are recommended. Further studies are needed to validate the CSDD, which could be particularly useful for the assessment of severity of dPD in patients with comorbid dementia. To account for overlapping motor and nonmotor symptoms of depression, adjusted instrument cutoff scores may be needed for dPD, and scales to assess severity of motor symptoms (e.g., UPDRS) should also be included to help adjust for confounding factors. The HADS and the GDS include limited motor symptom assessment and may, therefore, be most useful in rating depression severity across a range of PD severity; however, these scales appear insensitive in severe depression. The complex and time-consuming task of developing a new scale to measure depression specifically for patients with PD is currently not warranted.

15 Guideline Review of the therapeutic management of Parkinson's disease. Report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) and the Movement Disorder Society-European Section (MDS-ES). Part II: late (complicated) Parkinson's disease. 2006

Horstink, M / Tolosa, E / Bonuccelli, U / Deuschl, G / Friedman, A / Kanovsky, P / Larsen, J P / Lees, A / Oertel, W / Poewe, W / Rascol, O / Sampaio, C / Anonymous1120571 / Anonymous1130571. ·Department of Neurology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. m.horstink@neuro.umcn.nl · ·Eur J Neurol · Pubmed #17038032.

ABSTRACT: To provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of late (complicated) Parkinson's disease (PD), based on a review of the literature. Complicated PD refers to patients suffering from the classical motor syndrome of PD along with other motor or non-motor complications, either disease-related (e.g. freezing) or treatment-related (e.g. dyskinesias or hallucinations). MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and INAHTA database literature searches were conducted. National guidelines were requested from all EFNS societies. Non-European guidelines were searched for using MEDLINE. Part II of the guidelines deals with treatment of motor and neuropsychiatric complications and autonomic disturbances. For each topic, a list of therapeutic interventions is provided, including classification of evidence. Following this, recommendations for management are given, alongside ratings of efficacy. Classifications of evidence and ratings of efficacy are made according to EFNS guidance. In cases where there is insufficient scientific evidence, a consensus statement ('good practice point') is made.

16 Guideline Review of the therapeutic management of Parkinson's disease. Report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Movement Disorder Society-European Section. Part I: early (uncomplicated) Parkinson's disease. 2006

Horstink, M / Tolosa, E / Bonuccelli, U / Deuschl, G / Friedman, A / Kanovsky, P / Larsen, J P / Lees, A / Oertel, W / Poewe, W / Rascol, O / Sampaio, C / Anonymous1100571 / Anonymous1110571. ·Department of Neurology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. m.horstink@neuro.umcn.nl · ·Eur J Neurol · Pubmed #17038031.

ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of early (uncomplicated) Parkinson's disease (PD), based on a review of the literature. Uncomplicated PD refers to patients suffering from the classical motor syndrome of PD only, without treatment-induced motor complications and without neuropsychiatric or autonomic problems. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) database literature searches were conducted. National guidelines were requested from all European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) societies. Non-European guidelines were searched for using MEDLINE. Part I of the guidelines deals with prevention of disease progression, symptomatic treatment of motor features (parkinsonism), and prevention of motor and neuropsychiatric complications of therapy. For each topic, a list of therapeutic interventions is provided, including classification of evidence. Following this, recommendations for management are given, alongside ratings of efficacy. Classifications of evidence and ratings of efficacy are made according to EFNS guidance. In cases where there is insufficient scientific evidence, a consensus statement (good practice point) is made.

17 Guideline Reasons for admission to hospital for Parkinson's disease. 2006

Temlett, J A / Thompson, P D. ·Department of Neurology and University Department of Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital and University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. james.temlett@adelaide.edu.au · ·Intern Med J · Pubmed #16866658.

ABSTRACT: The management of Parkinson's disease (PD) tends to focus on the presenting motor syndrome; yet, in the long term, nonmotor complications of the illness and complications of treatment become increasingly troublesome. The aims of this study were to review the reasons for 761 hospital admissions for patients with a diagnosis of PD and to determine the cause of hospitalization. Only 15% were admitted for primary management of the motor syndrome. PD was the secondary diagnosis in 645 admissions. Of the latter, 39% were admitted because of falls leading to fracture, pneumonia, encephalopathy or dementia and hypotension with syncope. Cardiac and gastrointestinal diseases accounted for a further 22% of admissions. Complications of the later stages of PD and associated treatments are more likely to lead to hospital admission than management of the primary motor syndrome. Some of the emergency hospital admissions for PD may be potentially avoidable with better planning of management in the outpatient and community setting.

18 Guideline Practice Parameter: evaluation and treatment of depression, psychosis, and dementia in Parkinson disease (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. 2006

Miyasaki, J M / Shannon, K / Voon, V / Ravina, B / Kleiner-Fisman, G / Anderson, K / Shulman, L M / Gronseth, G / Weiner, W J / Anonymous7100559. ·University of Toronto, Canada. · ·Neurology · Pubmed #16606910.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To make evidence-based treatment recommendations for patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with dementia, depression, and psychosis based on these questions: 1) What tools are effective to screen for depression, psychosis, and dementia in PD? 2) What are effective treatments for depression and psychosis in PD? 3) What are effective treatments for PD dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)? METHODS: A nine-member multispecialty committee evaluated available evidence from a structured literature review using MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database of Health and Psychosocial Instruments from 1966 to 2004. Additional articles were identified by panel members. RESULTS: The Beck Depression Inventory-I, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale should be considered to screen for depression in PD (Level B). The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Cambridge Cognitive Examination should be considered to screen for dementia in PD (Level B). Amitriptyline may be considered to treat depression in PD without dementia (Level C). For psychosis in PD, clozapine should be considered (Level B), quetiapine may be considered (Level C), but olanzapine should not be considered (Level B). Donepezil or rivastigmine should be considered for dementia in PD (Level B) and rivastigmine should be considered for DLB (Level B). CONCLUSIONS: Screening tools are available for depression and dementia in patients with PD, but more specific validated tools are needed. There are no widely used, validated tools for psychosis screening in Parkinson disease (PD). Clozapine successfully treats psychosis in PD. Cholinesterase inhibitors are effective treatments for dementia in PD, but improvement is modest and motor side effects may occur.

19 Guideline Practice Parameter: treatment of Parkinson disease with motor fluctuations and dyskinesia (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. 2006

Pahwa, R / Factor, S A / Lyons, K E / Ondo, W G / Gronseth, G / Bronte-Stewart, H / Hallett, M / Miyasaki, J / Stevens, J / Weiner, W J / Anonymous7090559. ·University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, USA. · ·Neurology · Pubmed #16606909.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To make evidence-based treatment recommendations for the medical and surgical treatment of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with levodopa-induced motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. To that end, five questions were addressed. 1. Which medications reduce off time? 2. What is the relative efficacy of medications in reducing off time? 3. Which medications reduce dyskinesia? 4. Does deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus interna (GPi), or ventral intermediate (VIM) nucleus of the thalamus reduce off time, dyskinesia, and antiparkinsonian medication usage and improve motor function? 5. Which factors predict improvement after DBS? METHODS: A 10-member committee including movement disorder specialists and general neurologists evaluated the available evidence based on a structured literature review including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Ovid databases from 1965 through June 2004. RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Entacapone and rasagiline should be offered to reduce off time (Level A). Pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, and tolcapone should be considered to reduce off time (Level B). Apomorphine, cabergoline, and selegiline may be considered to reduce off time (Level C). 2. The available evidence does not establish superiority of one medicine over another in reducing off time (Level B). Sustained release carbidopa/levodopa and bromocriptine may be disregarded to reduce off time (Level C). 3. Amantadine may be considered to reduce dyskinesia (Level C). 4. Deep brain stimulation of the STN may be considered to improve motor function and reduce off time, dyskinesia, and medication usage (Level C). There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the efficacy of DBS of the GPi or VIM nucleus of the thalamus in reducing off time, dyskinesia, or medication usage, or to improve motor function. 5. Preoperative response to levodopa predicts better outcome after DBS of the STN (Level B).

20 Guideline Practice Parameter: neuroprotective strategies and alternative therapies for Parkinson disease (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. 2006

Suchowersky, O / Gronseth, G / Perlmutter, J / Reich, S / Zesiewicz, T / Weiner, W J / Anonymous7080559. ·University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. · ·Neurology · Pubmed #16606908.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To define key issues in the management of Parkinson disease (PD) relating to neuroprotective strategies and alternative treatments, and to make evidence-based treatment recommendations. METHODS: Two clinical questions were identified. 1) In a patient diagnosed with PD, are there any therapies that can slow disease progression? 2) Are there any nonstandard pharmacologic or nonpharmacologic therapies that have been shown to improve motor function in PD? Articles were classified according to a four-tiered level of evidence scheme. Recommendations were based on the evidence. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: 1. Levodopa does not appear to accelerate disease progression. 2. No treatment has been shown to be neuroprotective. 3. There is no evidence that vitamin or food additives can improve motor function in PD. 4. Exercise may be helpful in improving motor function. 5. Speech therapy may be helpful in improving speech volume. 6. No manual therapy has been shown to be helpful in the treatment of motor symptoms, although studies in this area are limited. Further studies using a rigorous scientific method are needed to determine efficacy of alternative therapies.

21 Guideline Practice Parameter: diagnosis and prognosis of new onset Parkinson disease (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. 2006

Suchowersky, O / Reich, S / Perlmutter, J / Zesiewicz, T / Gronseth, G / Weiner, W J / Anonymous7070559. ·University of Calgary, AB, Canada. · ·Neurology · Pubmed #16606907.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To define key issues in the diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD), to define features influencing progression, and to make evidence-based recommendations. Two clinical questions were identified: 1) Which clinical features and diagnostic modalities distinguish PD from other parkinsonian syndromes? 2) Which clinical features predict rate of disease progression? METHODS: Systematic review of the literature was completed. Articles were classified according to a four-tiered level of evidence scheme. Recommendations were based on the evidence. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: 1. Early falls, poor response to levodopa, symmetry of motor manifestations, lack of tremor, and early autonomic dysfunction are probably useful in distinguishing other parkinsonian syndromes from Parkinson disease (PD). 2. Levodopa or apomorphine challenge and olfactory testing are probably useful in distinguishing PD from other parkinsonian syndromes. 3. Predictive factors for more rapid motor progression, nursing home placement, and shorter survival time include older age at onset of PD, associated comorbidities, presentation with rigidity and bradykinesia, and decreased dopamine responsiveness. Future research into methods for earlier and more accurate diagnosis of the disease and identification and clarification of predictive factors of rapid disease progression is warranted.

22 Guideline [Deep brain stimulation and motor cortex and spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of movement disorders and pain syndromes -- the theoretical baseline and practical guidelines]. 2006

Zabek, Mirosław / Sławek, Jarosław / Harat, Marek / Koszewski, Waldemar / Opala, Grzegorz / Friedman, Andrzej. ·Oddział Neurochirurgii Czynnościowej i Chorób Układu Pozapiramidowego, Klinika Neurochirurgii, Akademia Medyczna, ul Debinki 7, 80-211 Gdańsk. jaroslawek@amg.gda.pl · ·Neurol Neurochir Pol · Pubmed #16463215.

ABSTRACT: The authors present the current views on the use of electrical stimulation in selected movement disorders (Parkinson's disease, dystonia) and pain syndromes (central and neuropathic pain) refractory to pharmacological therapy. Stimulation should be applied in cases with an established diagnosis (especially Parkinson's disease and dystonia) and with a lack of efficacy despite the best available medical therapy. Therefore it should be the last treatment option, except of generalized dystonia, where it seems to be nowadays the treatment of choice. Suggested selection criteria are based on experience of different centers and on current medical literature. They are published to make the procedure more rational and more available in Poland.

23 Editorial More than just a movement disorder: Why cognitive training is needed in Parkinson disease. 2015

Ventura, Maria I / Edwards, Jerri D / Barnes, Deborah E. ·From the Departments of Geriatrics (M.I.V.) and Psychiatry and Epidemiology & Statistics (D.E.B.), University of California, San Francisco; the School of Aging Studies (J.D.E.), University of South Florida, Tampa; and the San Francisco VA Medical Center (D.E.B.), San Francisco, CA. · From the Departments of Geriatrics (M.I.V.) and Psychiatry and Epidemiology & Statistics (D.E.B.), University of California, San Francisco; the School of Aging Studies (J.D.E.), University of South Florida, Tampa; and the San Francisco VA Medical Center (D.E.B.), San Francisco, CA. Deborah.Barnes@ucsf.edu. ·Neurology · Pubmed #26519546.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

24 Editorial Angiogenesis: A new paradigm for Parkinson disease with practical and pathogenic implications. 2015

Munoz, David G / Woulfe, John M. ·From the Neuroscience Research Program (D.G.M.), The Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute and Department of Laboratory Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital; the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (D.G.M.), University of Toronto; the Centre for Cancer Therapeutics (J.M.W.), Ottawa Hospital Research Institute; and the Departments of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (J.M.W.) and Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology (J.M.W.), University of Ottawa, Canada. munozd@smh.ca. · From the Neuroscience Research Program (D.G.M.), The Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute and Department of Laboratory Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital; the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (D.G.M.), University of Toronto; the Centre for Cancer Therapeutics (J.M.W.), Ottawa Hospital Research Institute; and the Departments of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (J.M.W.) and Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology (J.M.W.), University of Ottawa, Canada. ·Neurology · Pubmed #26511449.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

25 Editorial Circuits and Circuit Disorders: Approaches to Neuromodulation. 2015

Rosenberg, Roger N. ·Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas2Editor, JAMA Neurology. ·JAMA Neurol · Pubmed #26409204.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

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