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Pancreatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by Robert A. Wolff
Based on 85 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, R. Wolff wrote the following 85 articles about Pancreatic Neoplasms.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4
1 Guideline Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, Version 2.2017, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. 2017

Tempero, Margaret A / Malafa, Mokenge P / Al-Hawary, Mahmoud / Asbun, Horacio / Bain, Andrew / Behrman, Stephen W / Benson, Al B / Binder, Ellen / Cardin, Dana B / Cha, Charles / Chiorean, E Gabriela / Chung, Vincent / Czito, Brian / Dillhoff, Mary / Dotan, Efrat / Ferrone, Cristina R / Hardacre, Jeffrey / Hawkins, William G / Herman, Joseph / Ko, Andrew H / Komanduri, Srinadh / Koong, Albert / LoConte, Noelle / Lowy, Andrew M / Moravek, Cassadie / Nakakura, Eric K / O'Reilly, Eileen M / Obando, Jorge / Reddy, Sushanth / Scaife, Courtney / Thayer, Sarah / Weekes, Colin D / Wolff, Robert A / Wolpin, Brian M / Burns, Jennifer / Darlow, Susan. · ·J Natl Compr Canc Netw · Pubmed #28784865.

ABSTRACT: Ductal adenocarcinoma and its variants account for most pancreatic malignancies. High-quality multiphase imaging can help to preoperatively distinguish between patients eligible for resection with curative intent and those with unresectable disease. Systemic therapy is used in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant pancreatic cancer setting, as well as in the management of locally advanced unresectable and metastatic disease. Clinical trials are critical for making progress in treatment of pancreatic cancer. The NCCN Guidelines for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma focus on diagnosis and treatment with systemic therapy, radiation therapy, and surgical resection.

2 Guideline Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, version 2.2012: featured updates to the NCCN Guidelines. 2012

Tempero, Margaret A / Arnoletti, J Pablo / Behrman, Stephen W / Ben-Josef, Edgar / Benson, Al B / Casper, Ephraim S / Cohen, Steven J / Czito, Brian / Ellenhorn, Joshua D I / Hawkins, William G / Herman, Joseph / Hoffman, John P / Ko, Andrew / Komanduri, Srinadh / Koong, Albert / Ma, Wen Wee / Malafa, Mokenge P / Merchant, Nipun B / Mulvihill, Sean J / Muscarella, Peter / Nakakura, Eric K / Obando, Jorge / Pitman, Martha B / Sasson, Aaron R / Tally, Anitra / Thayer, Sarah P / Whiting, Samuel / Wolff, Robert A / Wolpin, Brian M / Freedman-Cass, Deborah A / Shead, Dorothy A / Anonymous1061005. ·UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center. ·J Natl Compr Canc Netw · Pubmed #22679115.

ABSTRACT: The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma discuss the workup and management of tumors of the exocrine pancreas. These NCCN Guidelines Insights provide a summary and explanation of major changes to the 2012 NCCN Guidelines for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma. The panel made 3 significant updates to the guidelines: 1) more detail was added regarding multiphase CT techniques for diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer, and pancreas protocol MRI was added as an emerging alternative to CT; 2) the use of a fluoropyrimidine plus oxaliplatin (e.g., 5-FU/leucovorin/oxaliplatin or capecitabine/oxaliplatin) was added as an acceptable chemotherapy combination for patients with advanced or metastatic disease and good performance status as a category 2B recommendation; and 3) the panel developed new recommendations concerning surgical technique and pathologic analysis and reporting.

3 Guideline Pancreatic adenocarcinoma. 2010

Tempero, Margaret A / Arnoletti, J Pablo / Behrman, Stephen / Ben-Josef, Edgar / Benson, Al B / Berlin, Jordan D / Cameron, John L / Casper, Ephraim S / Cohen, Steven J / Duff, Michelle / Ellenhorn, Joshua D I / Hawkins, William G / Hoffman, John P / Kuvshinoff, Boris W / Malafa, Mokenge P / Muscarella, Peter / Nakakura, Eric K / Sasson, Aaron R / Thayer, Sarah P / Tyler, Douglas S / Warren, Robert S / Whiting, Samuel / Willett, Christopher / Wolff, Robert A / Anonymous3820673. · ·J Natl Compr Canc Netw · Pubmed #20876541.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer: a logical strategy in search of progress. 2011

Evans, Douglas B / Wolff, Robert A. · ·Ann Surg Oncol · Pubmed #21384245.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Challenges in the study of adjuvant chemoradiation after pancreaticoduodenectomy. 2010

Crane, Christopher H / Varadhachary, Gauri R / Wolff, Robert A / Fleming, Jason B. · ·Ann Surg Oncol · Pubmed #20012500.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial The added value of multidisciplinary care for patients with pancreatic cancer. 2008

Evans, Douglas B / Crane, Christopher H / Charnsangavej, Chusilp / Wolff, Robert A. · ·Ann Surg Oncol · Pubmed #18546044.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Review Adjuvant or Neoadjuvant Therapy in the Treatment in Pancreatic Malignancies: Where Are We? 2018

Wolff, Robert A. ·Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard-Unit 421, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address: rwolff@mdanderson.org. ·Surg Clin North Am · Pubmed #29191281.

ABSTRACT: Since the advent of modern surgery for pancreatic cancer, clinicians have recognized this cancer's propensity to recur locally, metastasize, and cause death. Despite significant efforts to improve patient outcomes with better adjuvant therapy, only modest gains in survival have been observed. An alternative strategy of neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery has the potential to improve patient selection and survival, and expand the pool of patients eligible for curative surgery. This article summarizes large, randomized trials of adjuvant therapy, explains the limitations imposed by up-front surgery, and suggests neoadjuvant therapy as a rational alternative to initial surgery and adjuvant therapy.

8 Review Current and Evolving Therapies for Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer: Are We Stuck With Cytotoxic Chemotherapy? 2016

Varadhachary, Gauri R / Wolff, Robert A. ·The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX gvaradha@mdanderson.org. · The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. ·J Oncol Pract · Pubmed #27621332.

ABSTRACT: At present, front-line therapy for metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is combination chemotherapy, most commonly FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) or gemcitabine and nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel. Despite a better understanding of the genomic landscape and the importance of the tumor microenvironment, we have not made a seismic shift in the overall survival for this disease. Given our growing understanding of the biology of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the question remains whether novel, noncytotoxic agents will augment or even replace conventional chemotherapy. The thrust of ongoing efforts can be divided into broad categories, including exploiting the DNA damage repair phenotype, stroma and specific pathway-targeting agents, and enhancing immune destruction of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. In this article, we review the current and evolving therapeutic landscape of metastatic pancreatic cancer.

9 Review Management of the Primary Tumor and Limited Metastases in Patients With Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer. 2015

Herman, Joseph M / Hoffman, John P / Thayer, Sarah P / Wolff, Robert A. · ·J Natl Compr Canc Netw · Pubmed #26158133.

ABSTRACT: New combinations of cytotoxic chemotherapy have been proven to increase response rates and survival times compared with single-agent gemcitabine for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. These responses have been dramatic for a subset of patients, therefore raising questions about the management of limited metastatic disease with surgery or other ablative methods. Similarly, for patients having a complete radiographic response to chemotherapy in the metastatic compartment, whether to consider local therapy in the form of radiation or surgery for the primary tumor is now an appropriate question. Therefore, collaboration among experts in surgery, medical oncology, and radiation oncology has led to the development of guiding principles for local therapies to the primary intact pancreatic tumor for patients with limited metastatic disease and those who have had a significant response after systemic therapy.

10 Review The integration of chemoradiation in the care of patient with localized pancreatic cancer. 2009

Crane, C H / Varadhachary, G / Settle, S H / Fleming, J B / Evans, D B / Wolff, R A. ·Unit 97, Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, 1515, Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, 77030 Texas, USA. ccrane@mdanderson.org ·Cancer Radiother · Pubmed #19167921.

ABSTRACT: The use of chemoradiation for patients with localized pancreatic cancer is controversial. Although some randomized trials have indicated that chemoradiation improves the median survival of patients with locally advanced as well as resected pancreatic cancer, other more recent trials have called into question the role of chemoradiation and have supported the use of chemotherapy. In the adjuvant setting, the high local tumor recurrence/persistence rate in all trials probably reflects the inclusion of patients with incompletely resected tumors, whose prognosis is similar to the prognosis of patients with locally advanced who do not undergo resection, making these trials difficult to interpret. More precise clinical staging and selection of patients appropriate for surgical resection is an important goal. The keys to the successful integration of radiotherapy in the care of patients with localized pancreatic cancer are selection, sequencing and smaller treatment volumes. A strategy of initial chemotherapy followed by consolidation with a well-tolerated chemoradiation regimen both in the adjuvant and locally advanced settings maximizes benefits of both treatment options, which are in fact complementary. Herein, we discuss the rationale for this approach as well as the ongoing investigation of novel radiation approaches designed to enhance outcome through the molecular and physical targeting of disease as well as the investigation of neoadjuvant chemoradiation in radiographically resectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer.

11 Review Adjuvant therapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: analysis of reported trials and recommendations for future progress. 2008

Wolff, Robert A / Varadhachary, Gauri R / Evans, Douglas B. ·Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Unit 426, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. rwolff@mdanderson.org ·Ann Surg Oncol · Pubmed #18612703.

ABSTRACT: The delivery of postoperative combined modality adjuvant therapy for completely resected pancreatic cancer was initially shown to be beneficial on the basis of a prospective, randomized trial published in 1985. Since then, oncologists have debated whether chemotherapy, chemoradiation, or both is optimal adjuvant therapy after pancreatectomy for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas; no global consensus has emerged. Unfortunately, despite the completion of a number of subsequent randomized trials of adjuvant therapy since 1985, no further improvements in overall survival have materialized. This lack of progress is not simply the result of ineffective systemic therapies, but in part the result of poor trial design and calls for a more disciplined approach to the selection of patients for surgery, pathologic assessment of surgical resection margins, and postoperative (pretreatment) imaging. This is the only way to ensure that patients who receive adjuvant therapy are actually receiving therapy for radiographically occult possible microscopic disease, rather than therapy for incompletely resected locally advanced disease or early postoperative metastases. A critical analysis of completed adjuvant trials will be provided and a framework for the conduct of future trials of adjuvant therapy proposed.

12 Clinical Trial Phase I Trial of Consolidative Radiotherapy with Concurrent Bevacizumab, Erlotinib and Capecitabine for Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer. 2016

Chadha, Awalpreet S / Skinner, Heath D / Gunther, Jillian R / Munsell, Mark F / Das, Prajnan / Minsky, Bruce D / Delclos, Marc E / Chatterjee, Deyali / Wang, Huamin / Clemons, Marilyn / George, Geena / Singh, Pankaj K / Katz, Matthew H / Fleming, Jason B / Javle, Milind M / Wolff, Robert A / Varadhachary, Gauri R / Crane, Christopher H / Krishnan, Sunil. ·Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America. · Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America. · Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America. · Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America. · Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #27336466.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To determine the safety, tolerability and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of addition of erlotinib to bevacizumab and capecitabine-based definitive chemoradiation (CRT) in unresectable pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Seventeen patients with CT-staged, biopsy-proven unresectable pancreatic cancer were enrolled between 3/2008 and 10/2010. Prior chemotherapy was permitted. Two patients each were enrolled at dose levels (DLs) 1-4 and 9 patients at DL 5. All patients received 50.4 Gy (GTV only) in 28 fractions with concurrent capecitabine, bevacizumab and erlotinib. Dose of each drug was escalated in 5 DLs using the continual reassessment method. Bevacizumab was escalated from 5mg/Kg q2weeks (DLs 1-4) to 10mg/Kg q2weeks (DL 5); daily erlotinib from 100mg/day (DLs 1-2) to 150 mg/Kg (DLs 3-5); and capecitabine from 400mg/m2 twice daily on days of radiation (DL 1) to 650mg/m2 (DLs 2-3) to 825 mg/m2 (DLs 4-5). Reassessment for potential resection was performed 6-8 weeks later. RESULTS: Sixteen patients received gemcitabine-based chemotherapy prior to CRT. With a median clinical follow-up of 10 months, no grade 3 toxicities were observed in DLs 1-4. Three (33%) patients at DL 5 developed a grade 3 acute toxicity (2 diarrhea, 1 rash). No grade 4 or 5 toxicities were seen. DL 4 was selected as the MTD; therefore, the recommended doses in combination with radiation are: bevacizumab, 5mg/Kg q2weeks; erlotinib, 150 mg/Kg daily; and capecitabine, 825mg/m2 BID. Median survival was 17.4 months. Of the five patients who underwent resection, 4 were originally deemed locally advanced and 1 was borderline resectable. Three patients had excellent pathological response (2 complete response and 20% viable tumor) at surgery, and the 2 patients with complete response are still alive at 61 and 67 months of follow up with no local or distant failures. CONCLUSIONS: This chemoradiation regimen at the recommended dose levels is safe and tolerable for patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer and merits further evaluation.

13 Clinical Trial Neoadjuvant therapy is associated with a reduced lymph node ratio in patients with potentially resectable pancreatic cancer. 2015

Roland, Christina L / Yang, Anthony D / Katz, Matthew H G / Chatterjee, Deyali / Wang, Huamin / Lin, Heather / Vauthey, Jean N / Pisters, Peter W / Varadhachary, Gauri R / Wolff, Robert A / Crane, Christopher H / Lee, Jeffrey E / Fleming, Jason B. ·Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. ·Ann Surg Oncol · Pubmed #25352267.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The use of neoadjuvant therapy (NAC) for the treatment of potentially resectable pancreatic cancer remains controversial. In this study, we sought to evaluate cancer-specific endpoints in patients undergoing a NAC versus a surgery-first (SF) approach with specific emphasis on lymph node metastases. METHODS: A total of 222 patients who underwent NAC and 85 patients who underwent SF were identified from 1990 to 2008 and compared for cancer-related endpoints. Peripancreatic lymph nodes from 135 neoadjuvant therapy patients were evaluated for histologic tumor regression. RESULTS: Patients who underwent NAC followed by surgery had improved overall survival and time to local recurrence compared with the SF approach. NAC patients were less likely to have lymph node metastases (p = 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and had smaller tumors. On multivariate analysis, lymph node positivity was associated with SF, tumor size, and the presence of LVI. NAC patients with N0 disease had equivalent outcomes to patients with a low-LNR (0.01-0.15), whereas patients with a LNR >0.15 had reduced survival, and time to local and distant recurrence. Ten of 135 (7.4 %) NAC patients had evidence of tumor regression in at least one lymph node. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with potentially resectable PDAC selected to undergo NAC had improved survival and longer time to recurrence. Although some of these differences may be related to improvements in multimodality therapy completion rates, tumor regression in lymph node metastases exists and may demonstrate a biologic benefit of NAC compared with a SF approach.

14 Clinical Trial Transport properties of pancreatic cancer describe gemcitabine delivery and response. 2014

Koay, Eugene J / Truty, Mark J / Cristini, Vittorio / Thomas, Ryan M / Chen, Rong / Chatterjee, Deyali / Kang, Ya'an / Bhosale, Priya R / Tamm, Eric P / Crane, Christopher H / Javle, Milind / Katz, Matthew H / Gottumukkala, Vijaya N / Rozner, Marc A / Shen, Haifa / Lee, Jeffery E / Wang, Huamin / Chen, Yuling / Plunkett, William / Abbruzzese, James L / Wolff, Robert A / Varadhachary, Gauri R / Ferrari, Mauro / Fleming, Jason B. · ·J Clin Invest · Pubmed #24614108.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The therapeutic resistance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is partly ascribed to ineffective delivery of chemotherapy to cancer cells. We hypothesized that physical properties at vascular, extracellular, and cellular scales influence delivery of and response to gemcitabine-based therapy. METHODS: We developed a method to measure mass transport properties during routine contrast-enhanced CT scans of individual human PDAC tumors. Additionally, we evaluated gemcitabine infusion during PDAC resection in 12 patients, measuring gemcitabine incorporation into tumor DNA and correlating its uptake with human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1) levels, stromal reaction, and CT-derived mass transport properties. We also studied associations between CT-derived transport properties and clinical outcomes in patients who received preoperative gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy for resectable PDAC. RESULTS: Transport modeling of 176 CT scans illustrated striking differences in transport properties between normal pancreas and tumor, with a wide array of enhancement profiles. Reflecting the interpatient differences in contrast enhancement, resected tumors exhibited dramatic differences in gemcitabine DNA incorporation, despite similar intravascular pharmacokinetics. Gemcitabine incorporation into tumor DNA was inversely related to CT-derived transport parameters and PDAC stromal score, after accounting for hENT1 levels. Moreover, stromal score directly correlated with CT-derived parameters. Among 110 patients who received preoperative gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy, CT-derived parameters correlated with pathological response and survival. CONCLUSION: Gemcitabine incorporation into tumor DNA is highly variable and correlates with multiscale transport properties that can be derived from routine CT scans. Furthermore, pretherapy CT-derived properties correlate with clinically relevant endpoints. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01276613. FUNDING: Lustgarten Foundation (989161), Department of Defense (W81XWH-09-1-0212), NIH (U54CA151668, KCA088084).

15 Clinical Trial Phase II trial of cetuximab, gemcitabine, and oxaliplatin followed by chemoradiation with cetuximab for locally advanced (T4) pancreatic adenocarcinoma: correlation of Smad4(Dpc4) immunostaining with pattern of disease progression. 2011

Crane, Christopher H / Varadhachary, Gauri R / Yordy, John S / Staerkel, Gregg A / Javle, Milind M / Safran, Howard / Haque, Waqar / Hobbs, Bridgett D / Krishnan, Sunil / Fleming, Jason B / Das, Prajnan / Lee, Jeffrey E / Abbruzzese, James L / Wolff, Robert A. ·Dept of Radiation Oncology, Unit 97, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX. ccrane@mdanderson.org ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #21709185.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This phase II trial was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of cetuximab, gemcitabine, and oxaliplatin followed by cetuximab, capecitabine, and radiation therapy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Treatment-naive eligible patients (n = 69) received intravenous gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2)) and oxaliplatin (100 mg/m(2)) every 2 weeks for four doses, followed by radiation (50.4 Gy to the gross tumor only) with concurrent capecitabine (825 mg/m(2) twice daily on radiation treatment days). Cetuximab (500 mg/m(2)) was started on day 1 of chemotherapy and was continued every 2 weeks during chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Diagnostic cytology specimens were immunostained for Smad4(Dpc4) expression. RESULTS: Median overall survival time was 19.2 months (95% CI, 14.2 to 24.2 months), and 1-year, 2-year, and 4-year actuarial overall survival rates were 66.0%, 25.02%, and 11.3%, respectively. Acneiform rash correlated with improved survival (P = .001), but initial CA19-9, borderline resectable initial stage, and surgical resection (n = 7) did not. The 1-year and 2-year radiographic local progression rates were 22.8% and 61.0%, respectively. The worst acute toxic effects were GI toxicity (32% and 10% for grades 2 and 3, respectively); fatigue (26% and 6% for grades 2 and 3, respectively); sensory neuropathy (9% and 1% for grades 2 and 3, respectively); and acneiform rash (54% and 3% for grades 2 and 3, respectively). Smad4(Dpc4) expression correlated with a local rather than a distant dominant pattern of disease progression (P = .016). CONCLUSION: This regimen appears effective and has acceptable toxicity. The primary end point (1-year overall survival rate > 45%) was met, with encouraging survival duration. Smad4(Dpc4) immunostaining correlated with the pattern of disease progression. Prospective validation of Smad4(Dpc4) expression in cytology specimens as a predictive biomarker is warranted and may lead to personalized treatment strategies for patients with localized pancreatic cancer.

16 Clinical Trial Survival and quality of life of patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with adjuvant interferon-based chemoradiation: a phase II trial. 2011

Katz, Matthew H G / Wolff, Robert / Crane, Christopher H / Varadhachary, Gauri / Javle, Milind / Lin, E / Evans, Douglas B / Lee, Jeffrey E / Fleming, Jason B / Pisters, Peter W T. ·Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA. ·Ann Surg Oncol · Pubmed #21701927.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We conducted a phase II trial to assess the survival duration and quality of life of patients who received adjuvant interferon-based chemoradiation for pancreatic adenocarcinoma after pancreaticoduodenectomy. METHODS: Patients with a performance status of 0 or 1 were enrolled to receive interferon-alfa-2b (3 million units MWF), cisplatin (30 mg/m(2), 6 doses) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 175 mg/m(2)/day), concurrent with external-beam radiation (50.4 Gy) and followed by 2 courses of systemic 5-FU. The protocol was modified to include an optional 9 day break in the middle of chemoradiation. Quality of life was assessed by use of validated instruments. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were eligible for analysis. The operation of 15 (54%) patients was performed at other institutions. All patients had T3 tumors, 22 (79%) had positive lymph nodes and 4 (14%) had positive (R1) margins. 24 (86%) patients completed therapy. In all, 25 (89%) patients experienced grade 3 toxicity and 3 (11%) patients were hospitalized. The most common grade 3 events were leukopenia (15, 54%) and neutropenia (12, 43%). No grade 4 toxicity occurred. Overall quality of life decreased during chemoradiation but returned to baseline thereafter and was stable throughout surveillance. 19 patients have died; the median follow-up of the 9 survivors is 62 months. The median OS duration of treated patients was 42.3 (95% confidence interval 30.5-54.2) months. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant interferon-based chemoradiation can be delivered safely and tolerably-though with substantial reversible toxicity-to patients of good performance status at an experienced cancer center. Therapy may be associated with an improvement in overall survival.

17 Clinical Trial Bevacizumab plus gemcitabine and oxaliplatin as first-line therapy for metastatic or locally advanced pancreatic cancer: a phase II trial. 2011

Fogelman, David / Jafari, Mehrdad / Varadhachary, Gauri R / Xiong, Henry / Bullock, Susie / Ozer, Harold / Lin, E / Morris, Jeffrey / Cunningham, Patti / Bennett, Bronwyn / Abbruzzese, James L / Wolff, Robert A. ·MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 426, Houston, TX 77030, USA. dfogelman@mdanderson.org ·Cancer Chemother Pharmacol · Pubmed #21479635.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) has yielded among the longest progression-free survival durations in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (APC). We postulated that adding bevacizumab would increase the effectiveness of GEMOX. METHODS: Eligible patients had stage III or IV pancreatic cancer, ECOG PS 0-2, and no prior gemcitabine. Treatment included 1,000 mg/m(2) intravenous gemcitabine over 100 min on day 1, 10 mg/kg intravenous bevacizumab on day 1, and 100 mg/m(2) oxaliplatin given on day 2. Cycles were repeated every 2 weeks. CT imaging was performed every 6 weeks. RESULTS: Fifty patients were enrolled: 14 had stage III disease, the remainder stage IV. Median age was 59 years. Fourty-five patients were ECOG 0-1. The grade 3-4 toxicity rate was 94%; fatigue (47%) and nausea (40%) were frequent. One patient died after a bowel perforation; a second died of a CVA. The median PFS was 4.9 months; median survival was 11.9 months; 1 year survival was 42%. Locally advanced patients lived 12.8 months; metastatic patients lived 10.2 months. Patients developing grade 3 hypertension were more likely to have a radiologic response (P = .012); survival among the top and bottom quintiles of hypertension was 14.7 and 6.2 months, respectively. Survival correlated with baseline CA 19-9 (P = .004) and radiologic response. The overall response rate was 36%; 34% demonstrated stable disease. CONCLUSIONS: The GEMOX/bevacizumab regimen demonstrated an excellent median overall survival but did not meet our objective of a 14 month median survival. Toxicity was significant. We do not recommend further evaluation of this regimen.

18 Clinical Trial Phase 1 clinical trials in 83 patients with pancreatic cancer: The M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. 2011

Vaklavas, Christos / Tsimberidou, Apostolia-Maria / Wen, Sijin / Hong, David / Wheler, Jennifer / Ng, Chaan S / Naing, Aung / Uehara, Cynthia / Wolff, Robert A / Kurzrock, Razelle. ·Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Phase I Clinical Trials Program, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. ·Cancer · Pubmed #20737567.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The outcomes of patients with pancreatic cancer treated on early phase clinical trials have not been systematically analyzed. The purpose of this study was to report the presenting characteristics and outcomes of patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer treated on phase 1 clinical trials at a single institution. METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of consecutive patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer who were treated in the Phase I Clinical Trials Program at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center from November 2004 to March 2009. Data recorded and analyzed included survival, response, and disease characteristics. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients were identified. The median age was 62 years (range, 39-81 years). Of 78 patients evaluable for response, 2 (3%) had a partial response (PR), and 10 (13%) had stable disease (SD) for ≥ 4 months. With a median follow-up for survivors of 3.7 months, the median survival from presentation in the phase 1 clinic was 5.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-6.2). The median overall survival from diagnosis was 22.1 months (95% CI, 17.9-26.5). The median time to treatment failure was 1.5 months (95% CI, 1.3-1.8). Independent factors associated with lower rates of PR/SD were liver metastases (P = .001) and performance status >0 (P = .01). Independent factors associated with shorter survival were liver metastases (P = .007), low calcium level (P = .015), and elevated CEA level (>6 ng/mL) (P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that phase 1 clinical trials offer a reasonable therapeutic approach for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

19 Clinical Trial A phase II study of isoflavones, erlotinib, and gemcitabine in advanced pancreatic cancer. 2011

El-Rayes, Bassel Fuad / Philip, Philip A / Sarkar, Fazlul H / Shields, Anthony F / Ferris, Ann Marie / Hess, Kenneth / Kaseb, Ahmad O / Javle, Milind M / Varadhachary, Gauri R / Wolff, Robert A / Abbruzzese, James L. ·Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA. belraye@emory.edu ·Invest New Drugs · Pubmed #20107864.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The EGFR/Akt/NF-κB signalling pathway is frequently deregulated in pancreatic cancer and contributes to cell growth, metastasis and chemoresistance. An isoflavone, genistein, inactivates Akt and NF-κB and enhances the anti-tumor activity of erlotinib and gemcitabine in experimental systems of pancreas cancer. This phase II study was undertaken to determine the effects of adding isoflavone to a regimen of gemcitabine and erlotinib on survival in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Eligibility included previously untreated patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients received gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m² on days 1, 8, and 15, and erlotinib 150 mg once daily P.O. on day 1 to day 28. Soy isoflavones (Novasoy®) were administered at a dose of 531 mg twice daily P.O. starting day -7 until the end of study participation. RESULTS: Twenty patients with advanced pancreas cancer were enrolled (median age 57.9 years). Sixteen patients had stage IV disease. The median number of cycles was 2 per patient. The median survival time was 5.2 months (95% CI, 4.6-N/A months). The probability of survival at 6 months was 50% (95% CI, 32-78%). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of soy isoflavones to gemcitabine and erlotinib did not appear to increase the survival of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

20 Clinical Trial Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in advanced pancreatic cancer: results of two phase II studies. 2010

Javle, Milind M / Shroff, Rachna T / Xiong, Henry / Varadhachary, Gauri A / Fogelman, David / Reddy, Shrikanth A / Davis, Darren / Zhang, Yujian / Wolff, Robert A / Abbruzzese, James L. ·Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, UT-M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. mjavle@mdanderson.org ·BMC Cancer · Pubmed #20630061.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is constitutively activated in pancreatic cancer and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is an important mediator for its signaling. Our recent in vitro studies suggest that prolonged exposure of pancreatic cancer cells to mTOR inhibitors can promote insulin receptor substrate-PI3K interactions and paradoxically increase Akt phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression in pancreatic cancer cells (negative feedback loop). The addition of erlotinib to rapamycin can down-regulate rapamycin-stimulated Akt and results in synergistic antitumor activity with erlotinib in preclinical tumor models. METHODS: Two studies prospectively enrolled adult patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1, adequate hematologic, hepatic and renal parameters and measurable disease. In Study A, temsirolimus was administered intravenously at 25 mg weekly. In Study B, everolimus was administered orally at 30 mg weekly and erlotinib was administered at 150 mg daily. The primary endpoint in both studies was overall survival at 6 months. Secondary endpoints included time to progression, progression-free survival, overall survival, response rate, safety and toxicity. Pretreatment tumor biopsies were analyzed by immunofluorescence and laser scanning cytometry for the expression of pmTOR/mTOR, pAkt/Akt, pErk/Erk, pS6, p4EBP-1 and PTEN. RESULTS: Five patients enrolled in Study A; Two patients died within a month (rapid disease progression and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively). One patient developed dehydration and another developed asthenia. Sixteen patients enrolled in Study B.: 12 males, all ECOG PS = 1. Median cycles = 1 (range 1-2). Grade 4 toxicity: hyponatremia (n = 1), Grade 3: diarrhea (n = 1), cholangitis (n = 3), hyperglycemia (n = 1), fatigue (n = 1). Grade 2: pneumonia (n = 2), dehydration (n = 2), nausea (n = 2), neutropenia (n = 1), mucositis (n = 2) & rash (n = 2). Four patients were hospitalized. Progressive disease occurred in 15 and 1 was non-evaluable. Pretreatment biopsies revealed a higher pAkt/Akt ratio in tumor specimens that in nonmalignant pancreatic tissue. No such trends were noted for the other biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Neither study with mTOR inhibitors demonstrated objective responses or disease stability. The negative feedback loop resulting from mTOR inhibition may account for the disease progression and toxicity noted in these studies. Future strategies should aim for a broader targeting of the PI3K pathway in pancreatic cancer. STUDY A: NCT 0075647. STUDY B: NCT00640978.

21 Clinical Trial Phase II study of bevacizumab with concurrent capecitabine and radiation followed by maintenance gemcitabine and bevacizumab for locally advanced pancreatic cancer: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group RTOG 0411. 2009

Crane, Christopher H / Winter, Kathryn / Regine, William F / Safran, Howard / Rich, Tyvin A / Curran, Walter / Wolff, Robert A / Willett, Christopher G. ·Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030, USA. ccrane@mdanderson.org ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #19636002.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The primary objective of this study was to assess the 1-year survival of patients with locally advanced, unresectable pancreatic cancer treated with the combination of bevacizumab, capecitabine, and radiation. Secondary end points were toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS), and response rate (RR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer without duodenal invasion were treated with 50.4 Gy per 28 fractions to the gross tumor with concurrent capecitabine 825 mg/m(2) orally twice daily on days of radiation and bevacizumab 5 mg/kg on days 1, 15, and 29 followed by maintenance gemcitabine 1 g/m(2) weekly for 3 weeks and bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every 2 weeks, both in 4-week cycles until progression. Treatment plans were reviewed for quality assurance (QA). RESULTS: Between January 2005 and February 2006, 82 eligible patients were treated. The median and 1-year survival rates were 11.9 months (95% CI, 9.9 to 14.0 months) and 47% (95% CI, 36% to 57%). Median PFS was 8.6 months (95% CI, 6.9 to 10.5), and RR was 26%. Overall, 35.4% of patients had grade 3 or greater treatment-related gastrointestinal toxicity (22.0% during chemoradiotherapy, 13.4% during maintenance chemotherapy). Unacceptable radiotherapy protocol deviations (ie, inappropriately generous volume contoured) correlated with grade 3 or greater gastrointestinal toxicity during chemoradiotherapy (45% v 18%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.7; 95% CI, 0.98 to 14.1; P = .05). CONCLUSION: The addition of bevacizumab to chemoradiotherapy followed by bevacizumab and gemcitabine resulted in a similar median survival to previous Radiation Therapy Oncology Group studies in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Prospective QA may help limit toxicity in future trials.

22 Clinical Trial Efficacy of RAD001 (everolimus) and octreotide LAR in advanced low- to intermediate-grade neuroendocrine tumors: results of a phase II study. 2008

Yao, James C / Phan, Alexandria T / Chang, David Z / Wolff, Robert A / Hess, Kenneth / Gupta, Sanjay / Jacobs, Carmen / Mares, Jeannette E / Landgraf, Andrea N / Rashid, Asif / Meric-Bernstam, Funda. ·Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, Unit 426, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA. jyao@mdanderson.org ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #18779618.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Evaluate the activity of everolimus (RAD001) in combination with octreotide long-acting repeatable (LAR) in patients with advanced low- to intermediate-grade neuroendocrine tumors. METHODS: Treatment consisted of RAD001 5 mg/d (30 patients) or 10 mg/d (30 patients) and octreotide LAR 30 mg every 28 days. Thirty carcinoid and 30 islet cell patients were enrolled. RESULTS: Intent-to-treat response rate was 20%. Per protocol, there were 13 with partial responses (22%), 42 with stable disease (SD; 70%), and five patients with progressive disease (8%). Overall median progression-free survival (PFS) was 60 weeks. Median PFS for patients with known SD at entry was longer than for those who had progressive disease (74 v 50 weeks; P < .01). Median overall survival has not been reached. One-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 83%, 81%, and 78%, respectively. Among 37 patients with elevated chromogranin A, 26 (70%) achieved normalization or more than 50% reduction. Most common toxicity was mild aphthous ulceration. Grade 3/4 toxicities occurring in >or= 10% of patients included hypophosphatemia (11%), fatigue (11%), and diarrhea (11%). Treatment was associated with a dose-dependent rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Those with lower than 109 U/L rise in LDH at week 4 had shorter PFS (38 v 69 weeks; P = .01). Treatment was also associated with a decrease in proliferation marker Ki-67 among patients who underwent optional paired pre- and post-treatment biopsy (P = .04). CONCLUSION: RAD001 at 5 or 10 mg/d was well tolerated in combination with octreotide LAR, with promising antitumor activity. Confirmatory studies are ongoing.

23 Clinical Trial Phase 2 trial of oxaliplatin plus capecitabine (XELOX) as second-line therapy for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. 2008

Xiong, Henry Q / Varadhachary, Gauri R / Blais, Joan C / Hess, Kenneth R / Abbruzzese, James L / Wolff, Robert A. ·Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. ·Cancer · Pubmed #18756532.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, there is no established second-line chemotherapy for patients with pancreatic cancer who have received gemcitabine-based therapy. A phase 2 trial was conducted to explore the efficacy of capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer previously who were treated with gemcitabine. METHODS: Patients aged < or = 65 years who had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of 0 to 1 received oxaliplatin at a dose of 130 mg/m(2) given on Day 1 and capecitabine at a dose of 1000 mg/m(2) twice daily for 14 days. For patients aged >65 years or with an ECOG PS of 2, the oxaliplatin dose was 110 mg/m(2) on Day 1 and the capecitabine dose was 750 mg/m(2) twice daily for 14 days. The treatment was repeated every 3 weeks. Tumor measurements were performed every 9 weeks and the primary study objective was 6-month overall survival. RESULTS: The study enrolled 41 patients. Of the 39 evaluable patients, 1 patient had a partial response and 10 patients demonstrated stable disease. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the overall median survival was 23 weeks (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 17.0-31.0 weeks). Progression-free survival was 9.9 weeks (95% CI, 9.6-14.5 weeks). The 6-month and 1-year survival rates were 44% (95% CI, 31%-62%) and 21% (95% CI, 11%-38%), respectively. The most common grade 3-4 nonhematologic toxicity was fatigue (toxicity was graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria [version 2.0]). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of capecitabine and oxaliplatin is active in gemcitabine-pretreated patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, especially in patients with a good PS and those who have responded to first-line chemotherapy.

24 Clinical Trial Preoperative gemcitabine-based chemoradiation for patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head. 2008

Evans, Douglas B / Varadhachary, Gauri R / Crane, Christopher H / Sun, Charlotte C / Lee, Jeffrey E / Pisters, Peter W T / Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas / Wang, Huamin / Cleary, Karen R / Staerkel, Gregg A / Charnsangavej, Chusilp / Lano, Elizabeth A / Ho, Linus / Lenzi, Renato / Abbruzzese, James L / Wolff, Robert A. ·Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. devans@mdanderson.org ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #18640930.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We conducted a phase II trial to assess the outcomes of patients who received preoperative gemcitabine-based chemoradiation and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for stage I/II pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients with pancreatic head/uncinate process adenocarcinoma and radiographically defined potentially resectable disease received chemoradiation with 7 weekly intravenous (IV) infusions of gemcitabine (400 mg/m(2) IV over 30 minutes) plus radiation therapy (30 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks). Patients underwent restaging 4 to 6 weeks after completion of chemoradiation and, in the absence of disease progression, were taken to surgery. RESULTS: The study enrolled 86 patients. At the time of restaging, disease progression or a decline in performance status precluded 13 patients from surgery. Seventy-three (85%) of 86 patients were taken to surgery, extrapancreatic disease was found in nine, and 64 (74%) of 86 underwent a successful PD. Median overall survival (86 patients) was 22.7 months with a 27% 5-year survival. Median survival was 34 months for the 64 patients who underwent PD and 7 months for the 22 unresected patients (P < .001). The 5-year survival for those who did and did not undergo PD was 36% and 0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Preoperative gemcitabine-based chemoradiation followed by restaging and evaluation for surgery separated the study population into two different subsets: patients likely to benefit from PD (n = 64) and those in whom surgery would be unlikely to provide clinical benefit (n = 22). Furthermore, the encouraging overall survival observed in this large trial supports the continued investigation of gemcitabine-based preoperative therapy in resectable pancreatic cancer.

25 Clinical Trial Preoperative gemcitabine and cisplatin followed by gemcitabine-based chemoradiation for resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head. 2008

Varadhachary, Gauri R / Wolff, Robert A / Crane, Christopher H / Sun, Charlotte C / Lee, Jeffrey E / Pisters, Peter W T / Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas / Abdalla, Eddie / Wang, Huamin / Staerkel, Gregg A / Lee, Jeffrey H / Ross, William A / Tamm, Eric P / Bhosale, Priya R / Krishnan, Sunil / Das, Prajnan / Ho, Linus / Xiong, Henry / Abbruzzese, James L / Evans, Douglas B. ·Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Box 426, Houston, TX 77030, USA. gvaradha@mdanderson.org ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #18640929.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We conducted a phase II trial of preoperative gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy in addition to chemoradiation (Gem-Cis-XRT) and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for patients with stage I/II pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chemotherapy consisted of gemcitabine (750 mg/m(2)) and cisplatin (30 mg/m(2)) given every 2 weeks for four doses. Chemoradiation consisted of four weekly infusions of gemcitabine (400 mg/m(2)) combined with radiation therapy (30 Gy in 10 fractions administered over 2 weeks) delivered 5 days per week. Patients underwent restaging 4 to 6 weeks after completion of chemoradiation and, in the absence of disease progression, were taken to surgery. RESULTS: The study enrolled 90 patients; 79 patients (88%) completed chemo-chemoradiation. Sixty-two (78%) of 79 patients were taken to surgery and 52 (66%) of 79 underwent PD. The median overall survival of all 90 patients was 17.4 months. Median survival for the 79 patients who completed chemo-chemoradiation was 18.7 months, with a median survival of 31 months for the 52 patients who underwent PD and 10.5 months for the 27 patients who did not undergo surgical resection of their primary tumor (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Preoperative Gem-Cis-XRT did not improve survival beyond that achieved with preoperative gemcitabine-based chemoradiation (Gem-XRT) alone. The longer preoperative interval required more durable biliary decompression (metal stents) but was not associated with local tumor progression. The gemcitabine-based chemoradiation platform is a reasonable foundation on which to build future phase II multimodality trials for stage I/II pancreatic cancer incorporating emerging systemic therapies.

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