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Pancreatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by Walter C. Willett
Based on 5 articles published since 2010
(Why 5 articles?)

Between 2010 and 2020, W. C. Willett wrote the following 5 articles about Pancreatic Neoplasms.
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Dairy products and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies. 2014

Genkinger, J M / Wang, M / Li, R / Albanes, D / Anderson, K E / Bernstein, L / van den Brandt, P A / English, D R / Freudenheim, J L / Fuchs, C S / Gapstur, S M / Giles, G G / Goldbohm, R A / Håkansson, N / Horn-Ross, P L / Koushik, A / Marshall, J R / McCullough, M L / Miller, A B / Robien, K / Rohan, T E / Schairer, C / Silverman, D T / Stolzenberg-Solomon, R Z / Virtamo, J / Willett, W C / Wolk, A / Ziegler, R G / Smith-Warner, S A. ·Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York jg3081@columbia.edu. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston. · Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda. · Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. · Division of Cancer Etiology, Department of Population Science, Beckman Research Institute and City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology (GROW), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. · Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council of Victoria, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. · Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo. · Division of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston. · Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, USA. · Department of Prevention and Health, TNO Quality of Life, Leiden, The Netherlands. · Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. · Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, USA. · Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal. · Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Health Services, George Washington University, Washington, DC. · Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, USA. · Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA. ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #24631943.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer has few early symptoms, is usually diagnosed at late stages, and has a high case-fatality rate. Identifying modifiable risk factors is crucial to reducing pancreatic cancer morbidity and mortality. Prior studies have suggested that specific foods and nutrients, such as dairy products and constituents, may play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. In this pooled analysis of the primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2212 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified during follow-up among 862 680 individuals. Adjusting for smoking habits, personal history of diabetes, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake, multivariable study-specific hazard ratios (MVHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. There was no association between total milk intake and pancreatic cancer risk (MVHR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18 comparing ≥500 with 1-69.9 g/day). Similarly, intakes of low-fat milk, whole milk, cheese, cottage cheese, yogurt, and ice-cream were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. No statistically significant association was observed between dietary (MVHR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.77-1.19) and total calcium (MVHR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.71-1.12) intake and pancreatic cancer risk overall when comparing intakes ≥1300 with <500 mg/day. In addition, null associations were observed for dietary and total vitamin D intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Findings were consistent within sex, smoking status, and BMI strata or when the case definition was limited to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Overall, these findings do not support the hypothesis that consumption of dairy foods, calcium, or vitamin D during adulthood is associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

2 Article Nut consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer in women. 2013

Bao, Y / Hu, F B / Giovannucci, E L / Wolpin, B M / Stampfer, M J / Willett, W C / Fuchs, C S. ·Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ·Br J Cancer · Pubmed #24149179.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Increasing nut intake has been associated with reduced risk of diabetes mellitus, which is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We prospectively followed 75 680 women in the Nurses' Health Study, and examined the association between nut consumption and pancreatic cancer risk. Participants with a previous history of cancer were excluded. Nut consumption was assessed at baseline and updated every 2 to 4 years. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: We documented 466 incident cases of pancreatic cancer. After adjusting for age, height, smoking, physical activity, and total energy intake, women who consumed a 28-g (1 oz) serving size of nuts ≥2 times per week experienced a significantly lower risk of pancreatic cancer (RR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.47-0.92; P for trend=0.007) when compared with those who largely abstained from nuts. The results did not appreciably change after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI) and history of diabetes mellitus (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48-0.95; P for trend=0.01). The inverse association persisted within strata defined by BMI, physical activity, smoking, and intakes of red meat, fruits, and vegetables. CONCLUSION: Frequent nut consumption is inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer in this large prospective cohort of women, independent of other potential risk factors for pancreatic cancer.

3 Article Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of pancreatic cancer in a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies. 2012

Koushik, Anita / Spiegelman, Donna / Albanes, Demetrius / Anderson, Kristin E / Bernstein, Leslie / van den Brandt, Piet A / Bergkvist, Leif / English, Dallas R / Freudenheim, Jo L / Fuchs, Charles S / Genkinger, Jeanine M / Giles, Graham G / Goldbohm, R Alexandra / Horn-Ross, Pamela L / Männistö, Satu / McCullough, Marjorie L / Millen, Amy E / Miller, Anthony B / Robien, Kim / Rohan, Thomas E / Schatzkin, Arthur / Shikany, James M / Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z / Willett, Walter C / Wolk, Alicja / Ziegler, Regina G / Smith-Warner, Stephanie A. ·University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec, Canada. anita.koushik@umontreal.ca ·Am J Epidemiol · Pubmed #22875754.

ABSTRACT: Fruit and vegetable intake may protect against pancreatic cancer, since fruits and vegetables are rich in potentially cancer-preventive nutrients. Most case-control studies have found inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and pancreatic cancer risk, although bias due to reporting error cannot be ruled out. In most prospective studies, inverse associations have been weaker and imprecise because of small numbers of cases. The authors examined fruit and vegetable intake in relation to pancreatic cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 prospective studies from North America, Europe, and Australia (study periods between 1980 and 2005). Relative risks and 2-sided 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately for the 14 studies using the Cox proportional hazards model and were then pooled using a random-effects model. Of 862,584 men and women followed for 7-20 years, 2,212 developed pancreatic cancer. The pooled multivariate relative risks of pancreatic cancer per 100-g/day increase in intake were 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits and vegetables, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits, and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.06) for total vegetables. Associations were similar for men and women separately and across studies. These results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake during adulthood is not associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk.

4 Article Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of pancreatic cancer. 2012

Wolpin, Brian M / Ng, Kimmie / Bao, Ying / Kraft, Peter / Stampfer, Meir J / Michaud, Dominique S / Ma, Jing / Buring, Julie E / Sesso, Howard D / Lee, I-Min / Rifai, Nader / Cochrane, Barbara B / Wactawski-Wende, Jean / Chlebowski, Rowan T / Willett, Walter C / Manson, JoAnn E / Giovannucci, Edward L / Fuchs, Charles S. ·Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA. bwolpin@partners.org ·Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev · Pubmed #22086883.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Laboratory studies suggest that vitamin D may inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth. However, epidemiologic studies of vitamin D and pancreatic cancer risk have been conflicting. METHODS: To determine whether prediagnostic levels of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D; IDS Inc.; enzyme immunoassay) were associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, we conducted a pooled analysis of nested case-control studies with 451 cases and 1,167 controls from five cohorts through 2008. Median follow-up among controls was 14.1 years in Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), 18.3 years in Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 25.3 years in Physicians' Health Study (PHS), 12.2 years in Women's Health Initiative-Observational Study (WHI), and 14.4 years in Women's Health Study (WHS). Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of pancreatic cancer by plasma level of 25(OH)D. RESULTS: Mean plasma 25(OH)D was lower in cases versus controls (61.3 vs. 64.5 nmol/L, P = 0.005). In logistic regression models, plasma 25(OH)D was inversely associated with odds of pancreatic cancer. Participants in quintiles two through five had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) of 0.79 (0.56-1.10), 0.75 (0.53-1.06), 0.68 (0.48-0.97), and 0.67 (0.46-0.97; P(trend) = 0.03), respectively, compared with the bottom quintile. Compared with those with insufficient levels [25[OH]D, <50 nmol/L], ORs were 0.75 (0.58-0.98) for subjects with relative insufficiency [25[OH]D, 50 to <75 nmol/L] and 0.71 (0.52-0.97) for those with sufficient levels [25[OH]D, ≥ 75 nmol/L]. No increased risk was noted in subjects with 25(OH)D ≥100 nmol/L, as suggested in a prior study. In subgroup analyses, ORs for the top versus bottom quartile of 25(OH)D were 0.72 (0.48-1.08) for women, 0.73 (0.40-1.31) for men, and 0.73 (0.51-1.03) for Whites. CONCLUSIONS: Among participants in five large prospective cohorts, higher plasma levels of 25(OH)D were associated with a lower risk for pancreatic cancer. IMPACT: Low circulating 25(OH)D may predispose individuals to the development of pancreatic cancer.

5 Article Dietary insulin load, dietary insulin index, and risk of pancreatic cancer. 2011

Bao, Ying / Nimptsch, Katharina / Wolpin, Brian M / Michaud, Dominique S / Brand-Miller, Jennie C / Willett, Walter C / Giovannucci, Edward / Fuchs, Charles S. ·Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ying.bao@channing.harvard.edu ·Am J Clin Nutr · Pubmed #21775564.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance have been hypothesized to be involved in pancreatic carcinogenesis, studies that have examined glycemic load or individual dietary components that influence glucose concentrations yielded inconclusive results. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate whether dietary insulin load and dietary insulin index are associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. DESIGN: We prospectively followed 86,740 women and 46,147 men who were free of cancer and diabetes at baseline in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. During ≤26 y of follow-up, 691 pancreatic cancer cases were documented. Dietary insulin load was calculated as a function of the food insulin index, and the energy content of individual foods was reported on food-frequency questionnaires. The dietary insulin index was calculated by dividing the dietary insulin load by the total energy intake. RESULTS: Dietary insulin load and dietary insulin index were not associated with the overall risk of pancreatic cancer. In a comparison of the highest with the lowest quintiles, the pooled multivariate RRs of pancreatic cancer were 1.05 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.34) for dietary insulin load and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.23) for dietary insulin index. In individuals with an elevated BMI (in kg/m(2); ≥27.5) or with low physical activity, a high insulin load was associated with small, nonsignificant increases in the risk of pancreatic cancer; in a comparison of the highest with the lowest tertile of intake, the positive association became more apparent in those who were both overweight and inactive (RR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.93; P-trend = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: A diet that induces an elevated postprandial insulin response does not influence the overall risk of pancreatic cancer. However, a diet with a high insulin load may increase the risk in individuals with a preexisting state of insulin resistance.