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Pancreatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by Bertram Wiedenmann
Based on 31 articles published since 2010
(Why 31 articles?)

Between 2010 and 2020, B. Wiedenmann wrote the following 31 articles about Pancreatic Neoplasms.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2
1 Guideline ENETS Consensus Guidelines for High-Grade Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors and Neuroendocrine Carcinomas. 2016

Garcia-Carbonero, R / Sorbye, H / Baudin, E / Raymond, E / Wiedenmann, B / Niederle, B / Sedlackova, E / Toumpanakis, C / Anlauf, M / Cwikla, J B / Caplin, M / O'Toole, D / Perren, A / Anonymous6270853. ·Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Madrid, Spain. ·Neuroendocrinology · Pubmed #26731334.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Review Systemic therapeutic strategies for GEP-NETS: what can we expect in the future? 2014

Raymond, E / García-Carbonero, R / Wiedenmann, B / Grande, E / Pavel, M. ·Department of Medical Oncology, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy, France, eric.raymond@bjn.aphp.fr. ·Cancer Metastasis Rev · Pubmed #24375390.

ABSTRACT: Over the last few years, there have been important advances in the understanding of the molecular biology of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that have already translated into relevant advances in the clinic. Several studies have extensively assessed the mutational profile of NETs, and have shown the key roles that angiogenesis and the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway play in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Recent data has also revealed the potential relevance of transcription factors such as death domain-associated protein, x-linked mental retardation, and α-thalassemia syndrome protein or ataxia telangiectasia-mutated in NETs of pancreatic origin. This fast progress is leading to a rapidly increasing number of new agents being explored in the field of NETs. However, and despite some unquestionable success, objective remission rates remain low, and evidence of a substantial survival impact is lacking. Thus, there is an important need to improve our ability to identify patients most likely to benefit from specific therapies, and to incorporate biomarkers in the management of NETs. In addition, further efforts to understand mechanisms of escape and acquired resistance to the different available agents is of utmost importance, and will likely require performing paired tumor biopsies (prior and after treatment) or sequential sampling of surrogate tissues. Combinations of approved agents with new agents, either in a rational or biomarker-driven manner, are certainly warranted in this field. Likewise, sequential strategies to modulate and compensate for escape phenomenons are also of great interest. It should also be noted, however, that targeted agents are not innocuous and frequently yield toxicities that need to be adequately addressed by experienced specialists, particularly when drug combinations are considered. This review summarizes the salient data on biomarker and new agent development for the treatment of NETs.

3 Review Novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. 2011

Pavel, M E / Wiedenmann, B. ·Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolic Diseases, Berlin, Germany. marianne.pavel@charite.de ·Horm Metab Res · Pubmed #22105475.

ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are frequently diagnosed late and not amenable to curative surgery due to metastatic disease to the liver and lymph nodes. The disease is complex and heterogeneous given the various functionalities, distinct tumor growth patterns, and tumor spread upon diagnosis. Established therapies include somatostatin analogues, alpha-interferon, systemic chemotherapy, and loco-regional therapies of the liver. The availability of novel agents and expression of targets, such as growth factor receptors, different subtypes of somatostatin receptors, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have led to the exploration of different classes of drugs and offer new treatment opportunities in neuroendocrine tumors. This review provides an overview on novel drugs, focus on the impact of recently approved drugs on the management of NET disease, and outline future perspectives.

4 Review From targets to treatments: a review of molecular targets in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. 2011

Wiedenmann, Bertram / Pavel, Marianne / Kos-Kudla, Beata. ·Department of Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Charité Medical School, Berlin, Germany. bertram.wiedenmann@charite.de ·Neuroendocrinology · Pubmed #21893937.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pancreatic NET) are relatively rare, slowly growing tumors, although their incidence is increasing, and patients may survive for several years with metastatic disease. Apart from symptomatic relief, there have been few treatment options for these tumors in the past. More recently, investigators have explored the potential of molecularly targeted agents in treating pancreatic NET, with some success. In this review, we consider the data supporting exploitation of different targets in pancreatic NET, including peptide receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases (involved in tumor angiogenesis and more directly supporting tumor growth), and intracellular targets, such as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which has a central role in regulating cell growth, metabolism, and apoptosis. Probably due to the paucity of pancreatic NET, many clinical trials to date have included heterogeneous NET populations, and there are few randomized studies of this specific patient population. Very recently, promising results have been achieved in placebo-controlled, phase III trials with the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, and the mTOR inhibitor, everolimus. These agents have been approved or are currently being reviewed by authorities for use in patients with pancreatic NET. Here we review potential molecular targets in pancreatic NET and summarize the available data for targeted agents from phase II and III trials open to patients with this tumor.

5 Review Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the gut and pancreas: new insights. 2011

Rindi, Guido / Wiedenmann, Bertram. ·Institute of Pathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore-Policlinico A. Gemelli, Largo A. Gemelli 8, I-00168 Rome, Italy. guido.rindi@rm.unicatt.it ·Nat Rev Endocrinol · Pubmed #21808296.

ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine neoplasms arise in almost every organ of the body and are variably defined according to the site of origin. This Review focuses on neuroendocrine neoplasms of the digestive tract and pancreas. The 2010 WHO classification of tumors of the digestive system introduces grading and staging tools for neuroendocrine neoplasms. A carcinoid is now defined as a grade 1 or 2 neuroendocrine tumor and grade 3, small-cell or large-cell carcinomas are defined as neuroendocrine carcinoma. Epidemiological data show a worldwide increase in the prevalence and incidence of gastroentero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in the past few decades, which is probably due to improved methods of detection of these tumors. The current diagnostic procedures and treatment options for neuroendocrine neoplasms are defined and summarized in the Review, although evidence-based data are lacking. Surgery remains the treatment mainstay and somatostatin analogues the basis for both diagnosis and therapy as the only 'theranostic' tool. Emerging compounds including chemotherapeutic agents, small molecules and biological therapies may provide new hope for patients.

6 Clinical Trial Sunitinib malate for the treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. 2011

Raymond, Eric / Dahan, Laetitia / Raoul, Jean-Luc / Bang, Yung-Jue / Borbath, Ivan / Lombard-Bohas, Catherine / Valle, Juan / Metrakos, Peter / Smith, Denis / Vinik, Aaron / Chen, Jen-Shi / Hörsch, Dieter / Hammel, Pascal / Wiedenmann, Bertram / Van Cutsem, Eric / Patyna, Shem / Lu, Dongrui Ray / Blanckmeister, Carolyn / Chao, Richard / Ruszniewski, Philippe. ·Service Inter-Hospitalier de Cancérologie et Service de Gastroenteropancréatologie, Hôpital Beaujon, Clichy, France. eric.raymond@bjn.aphp.fr ·N Engl J Med · Pubmed #21306237.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib has shown activity against pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in preclinical models and phase 1 and 2 trials. METHODS: We conducted a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial of sunitinib in patients with advanced, well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. All patients had Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors-defined disease progression documented within 12 months before baseline. A total of 171 patients were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive best supportive care with either sunitinib at a dose of 37.5 mg per day or placebo. The primary end point was progression-free survival; secondary end points included the objective response rate, overall survival, and safety. RESULTS: The study was discontinued early, after the independent data and safety monitoring committee observed more serious adverse events and deaths in the placebo group as well as a difference in progression-free survival favoring sunitinib. Median progression-free survival was 11.4 months in the sunitinib group as compared with 5.5 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.66; P<0.001). A Cox proportional-hazards analysis of progression-free survival according to baseline characteristics favored sunitinib in all subgroups studied. The objective response rate was 9.3% in the sunitinib group versus 0% in the placebo group. At the data cutoff point, 9 deaths were reported in the sunitinib group (10%) versus 21 deaths in the placebo group (25%) (hazard ratio for death, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.89; P=0.02). The most frequent adverse events in the sunitinib group were diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, asthenia, and fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous daily administration of sunitinib at a dose of 37.5 mg improved progression-free survival, overall survival, and the objective response rate as compared with placebo among patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. (Funded by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00428597.).

7 Article Expression and Molecular Regulation of the Cox2 Gene in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors and Antiproliferation of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). 2018

Gao, Feng / Zafar, Mohammad Ishraq / Jüttner, Stefan / Höcker, Michael / Wiedenmann, Bertram. ·Department of Endocrinology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China (mainland). · Medical Department, Division of Hepatology and Gastroenterology (including Metabolic Diseases), Charité, Campus Mitte (CCM) and Campus Virchow-Klinikum (CVK), Berlin, Germany. · Department of Pathology, Pathologie Ansbach, Ansbach, Germany. · HMNC Holding, München, Germany. ·Med Sci Monit · Pubmed #30420588.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) has had a significant increase over the past 4 decades. The pathophysiological role of the cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) gene and factors responsible for the expression in GEP-NETs is of clinical value. Current study determined the expression of cox-2 gene in human GEP-NET tissues and corresponding cell lines, investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cox-2 gene expression and assessed the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on both anchorage-dependent and independent growth of GEP-NET cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS GEP-NET tissues and QGP-1, BON, and LCC-18 GEP-NET cell lines were used. The expression of cox-2 gene was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, western blot, RT-PCR, and enzyme immunoassay. Transient transfection and luciferase assays along with electrophoretic mobility shift assays were conducted to explore the regulation of cox-2 gene expression. The effect of COX-inhibitors on GEP-NET cell growth was determined by proliferation assays and colony growth assessment. RESULTS We found 87.8% of GEP-NET tissues stained positive for COX-2. QGP-1 and LCC-18 cells expressed cox-2 gene. PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) amounts quantified in the supernatants of NET cells matched to cox-2 expression level. The CRE-E-box element (-56 to -48 bp) and binding of USF1, USF2, and CREB transcription factors to this proximal promoter element were essential for cox-2 promoter activity in GEP-NET cells. COX-2-specific inhibitor NS-398 potently and dose-dependently inhibited PGE2 release from QGP-1 cells. Interestingly, both NS-398 and acetylic salicylic acid effectively suppressed proliferation of QGP-1 and BON cells in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS The majority of GEP-NETs over express cox-2 gene. The binding of CREB and USF-1/-2 transcription factors to a proximal, overlapping CRE-Ebox element is the underlying mechanism for cox-2 gene expression. NSAIDs potently suppressed the proliferations and may offer a novel approach for chemoprevention and therapy of GEP-NETs.

8 Article Competitive Testing of the WHO 2010 versus the WHO 2017 Grading of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Data from a Large International Cohort Study. 2018

Rindi, Guido / Klersy, Catherine / Albarello, Luca / Baudin, Eric / Bianchi, Antonio / Buchler, Markus W / Caplin, Martyn / Couvelard, Anne / Cros, Jérôme / de Herder, Wouter W / Delle Fave, Gianfranco / Doglioni, Claudio / Federspiel, Birgitte / Fischer, Lars / Fusai, Giuseppe / Gavazzi, Francesca / Hansen, Carsten P / Inzani, Frediano / Jann, Henning / Komminoth, Paul / Knigge, Ulrich P / Landoni, Luca / La Rosa, Stefano / Lawlor, Rita T / Luong, Tu V / Marinoni, Ilaria / Panzuto, F / Pape, Ulrich-Frank / Partelli, Stefano / Perren, Aurel / Rinzivillo, Maria / Rubini, Corrado / Ruszniewski, Philippe / Scarpa, Aldo / Schmitt, Anja / Schinzari, Giovanni / Scoazec, Jean-Yves / Sessa, Fausto / Solcia, Enrico / Spaggiari, Paola / Toumpanakis, Christos / Vanoli, Alessandro / Wiedenmann, Bertram / Zamboni, Giuseppe / Zandee, Wouter T / Zerbi, Alessandro / Falconi, Massimo. ·Institute of Pathology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma-Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma ENETS Center of Excellence, Rome, Italyguido.rindi@unicatt.it. · Service of Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology, Research Department, and IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. · Pathology Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Department of Oncology, Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. · Department of Endocrinology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma-Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma ENETS Center of Excellence, Rome, Italy. · Department of Surgery, University Hospital Heidelberg, Neu Heidelberg, Germany. · Neuroendocrine Tumour Unit, Centre for Gastroenterology, London, United Kingdom. · Department of Pathology, Hopital Beaujon, Paris ENETS Center of Excellence, Clichy, France. · Section Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center and and Erasmus MC Cancer Institute Rotterdam, Rotterdam ENETS Center of Excellence, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. · Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, Sant'Andrea University Hospital, Roma ENETS Center of Excellence, Rome, Italy. · Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen ENETS Center of Excellence, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Department of Surgery, University College, Royal Free Hospital, London ENETS Center of Excellence, London, United Kingdom. · Pancreatic Surgery, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Humanitas Milan ENETS Center of Excellence, Milan, Italy. · Department of Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen ENETS Center of Excellence, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Institute of Pathology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma-Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma ENETS Center of Excellence, Rome, Italy. · Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Charité, Campus Virchow Klinikum and Charite Mitte, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin ENETS Center of Excellence, Berlin, Germany. · Institute of Pathology, Stadtspital Triemli, Zurich, Switzerland. · Department of Surgery and Oncology, General and Pancreatic Surgery, The Pancreas Institute, Verona ENETS Center of Excellence, Verona, Italy. · Department of Pathology, Ospedale di Circolo, Università dell'Insubria, Varese, Italy. · Section of Pathology and ARC-Net Research Centre, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona ENETS Center of Excellence, Verona, Italy. · Department of Pathology, University College, Royal Free Hospital, London ENETS Center of Excellence, London, United Kingdom. · Institute of Pathology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. · Pancreatic Surgery Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Department of Pathology, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy. · Department of Gastroenterology and Pancreatology, Hopital Beaujon, Paris ENETS Center of Excellence, Clichy, France. · Department of Medical Oncology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma-Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma ENETS Center of Excellence, Rome, Italy. · Department of Medical Biology and Pathology, Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. · Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy. · Pathology Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Humanitas Milan ENETS Center of Excellence, Milan, Italy. · Department of Pathology, Sacro Cuore-Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar, Italy. ·Neuroendocrinology · Pubmed #30300897.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Joint Cancer Committee (AJCC) modified the grading of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms from a three-tier (WHO-AJCC 2010) to a four-tier system by introducing the novel category of NET G3 (WHO-AJCC 2017). OBJECTIVES: This study aims at validating the WHO-AJCC 2017 and identifying the most effective grading system. METHOD: A total of 2,102 patients were enrolled; entry criteria were: (i) patient underwent surgery; (ii) at least 2 years of follow-up; (iii) observation time up to 2015. Data from 34 variables were collected; grading was assessed and compared for efficacy by statistical means including Kaplan-Meier method, Cox regression analysis, Harrell's C statistics, and Royston's explained variation in univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: In descriptive analysis, the two grading systems demonstrated statistically significant differences for the major category sex but not for age groups. In Cox regression analysis, both grading systems showed statistically significant differences between grades for OS and EFS; however, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two G3 classes of WHO-AJCC 2017. In multivariable analysis for the two models fitted to compare efficacy, the two grading systems performed equally well with substantially similar optimal discrimination and well-explained variation for both OS and EFS. The WHO-AJCC 2017 grading system retained statistically significant difference between the two G3 classes for OS but not for EFS. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO-AJCC 2017 grading system is at least equally performing as the WHO-AJCC 2010 but allows the successful identification of the most aggressive PanNET subgroup. Grading is confirmed as probably the most powerful tool for predicting patient survival.

9 Article A precision oncology approach to the pharmacological targeting of mechanistic dependencies in neuroendocrine tumors. 2018

Alvarez, Mariano J / Subramaniam, Prem S / Tang, Laura H / Grunn, Adina / Aburi, Mahalaxmi / Rieckhof, Gabrielle / Komissarova, Elena V / Hagan, Elizabeth A / Bodei, Lisa / Clemons, Paul A / Dela Cruz, Filemon S / Dhall, Deepti / Diolaiti, Daniel / Fraker, Douglas A / Ghavami, Afshin / Kaemmerer, Daniel / Karan, Charles / Kidd, Mark / Kim, Kyoung M / Kim, Hee C / Kunju, Lakshmi P / Langel, Ülo / Li, Zhong / Lee, Jeeyun / Li, Hai / LiVolsi, Virginia / Pfragner, Roswitha / Rainey, Allison R / Realubit, Ronald B / Remotti, Helen / Regberg, Jakob / Roses, Robert / Rustgi, Anil / Sepulveda, Antonia R / Serra, Stefano / Shi, Chanjuan / Yuan, Xiaopu / Barberis, Massimo / Bergamaschi, Roberto / Chinnaiyan, Arul M / Detre, Tony / Ezzat, Shereen / Frilling, Andrea / Hommann, Merten / Jaeger, Dirk / Kim, Michelle K / Knudsen, Beatrice S / Kung, Andrew L / Leahy, Emer / Metz, David C / Milsom, Jeffrey W / Park, Young S / Reidy-Lagunes, Diane / Schreiber, Stuart / Washington, Kay / Wiedenmann, Bertram / Modlin, Irvin / Califano, Andrea. ·Department of Systems Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. · DarwinHealth Inc, New York, NY, USA. · Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. · Institute for Systems Genetics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Urology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. · Division of Pathology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. · Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA. · Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. · Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · PsychoGenics Inc., Tarrytown, NY, USA. · Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Zentralklinik, Bad Berka, Germany. · Sulzberger Columbia Genome Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. · Wren Laboratories, Branford, CT, USA. · Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. · Michigan Center for Translational Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · Department of Neurochemistry, the Arrhenius Laboratories for Nat. Sci., Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. · Laboratory of Molecular Biotechnology, Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia. · Falconwood Foundation, New York, NY, USA. · Institute of Pathophysiology and Immunology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. · Department of Pathology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Pathology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. · Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. · Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA. · Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · Department of Urology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · Imperial College London, London, UK. · Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases Heidelberg, University Medical Center Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. · Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Surgery, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. · Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Charite, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · Emeritus Professor Gastrointestinal Surgery, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. imodlin@irvinmodlin.com. · Department of Systems Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. califano@cumc.columbia.edu. · Department of Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. califano@cumc.columbia.edu. · Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. califano@cumc.columbia.edu. · J.P. Sulzberger Columbia Genome Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. califano@cumc.columbia.edu. · Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. califano@cumc.columbia.edu. ·Nat Genet · Pubmed #29915428.

ABSTRACT: We introduce and validate a new precision oncology framework for the systematic prioritization of drugs targeting mechanistic tumor dependencies in individual patients. Compounds are prioritized on the basis of their ability to invert the concerted activity of master regulator proteins that mechanistically regulate tumor cell state, as assessed from systematic drug perturbation assays. We validated the approach on a cohort of 212 gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), a rare malignancy originating in the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. The analysis identified several master regulator proteins, including key regulators of neuroendocrine lineage progenitor state and immunoevasion, whose role as critical tumor dependencies was experimentally confirmed. Transcriptome analysis of GEP-NET-derived cells, perturbed with a library of 107 compounds, identified the HDAC class I inhibitor entinostat as a potent inhibitor of master regulator activity for 42% of metastatic GEP-NET patients, abrogating tumor growth in vivo. This approach may thus complement current efforts in precision oncology.

10 Article Functional Imaging in the Follow-Up of Enteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Clinical Usefulness and Indications. 2017

Merola, Elettra / Pavel, Marianne E / Panzuto, Francesco / Capurso, Gabriele / Cicchese, Noemi / Rinke, Anja / Gress, Thomas M / Iannicelli, Elsa / Prosperi, Daniela / Pizzichini, Patrizia / Prasad, Vikas / Kump, Patrizia / Lipp, Rainer / Partelli, Stefano / Falconi, Massimo / Wiedenmann, Bertram / Delle Fave, Gianfranco. ·Digestive and Liver Diseases Unit, Sant'Andrea Hospital, 00189 Rome, Italy. · Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Charité Universitätsmedizin, 13353 Berlin, Germany. · Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital, 35043 Marburg, Germany. · Department of Radiology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, 00189 Rome, Italy. · Division of Nuclear Medicine, Sant'Andrea Hospital, 00189 Rome, Italy. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité Universitätsmedizin, 13353 Berlin, Germany. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University, 8036 Graz Austria. · Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Medical University, 8036 Graz Austria. · Pancreatic Surgery Unit, Vita-Salute University, San Raffaele Hospital Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, 20132 Milan, Italy. ·J Clin Endocrinol Metab · Pubmed #28324047.

ABSTRACT: Context: Functional imaging tests (FITs) detecting somatostatin receptor expression [i.e., somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, 68Ga-DOTA positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT)] have a pivotal role in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), although their indication during follow-up still needs to be clarified. Objective: Investigate the role of FITs after diagnosis of metastatic enteropancreatic NETs, identifying patients who might benefit from these exams. Design: Multicenter retrospective analysis of metastatic enteropancreatic NETs. Setting: Analysis of imaging tests performed between January 1995 and December 2015 in Rome, Berlin, Milan, Marburg, or Graz. Subjects: One hundred forty-three patients with metastatic pancreatic NETs and small intestine NETs, at least 2-year follow-up, and positive FITs. Interventions: Patients had received CT every 6 months (unless clinical conditions and tumor behavior required shorter intervals) and FIT every 12 months. Main Outcome Measures: Clinical usefulness of FITs, defined as changes in patient management (indication to biopsy, medical therapy, surgery, or further imaging tests) due only to FITs. Results: FITs affected management in 73.4% of patients, mostly when G2 vs G1 [odds ratio (OR), 2.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09 to 5.27; P = 0.03]. Changes were observed in a 12-month time frame especially with pancreatic NETs vs small intestine NETs (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.09 - 7.67; P = 0.03) or metastases since diagnosis vs developed during follow-up (OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 1.43 to 11.17; P < 0.01). Conclusions: FITs used in addition to CT in the follow-up of stage IV enteropancreatic NETs improve patient management (especially for G2 tumors). Follow-up program should be tailored according to tumor features.

11 Article Stage IV Gastro-Entero-Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: A Risk Score to Predict Clinical Outcome. 2017

Panzuto, Francesco / Merola, Elettra / Pavel, Marianne Ellen / Rinke, Anja / Kump, Patrizia / Partelli, Stefano / Rinzivillo, Maria / Rodriguez-Laval, Victor / Pape, Ulrich Frank / Lipp, Rainer / Gress, Thomas / Wiedenmann, Bertram / Falconi, Massimo / Delle Fave, Gianfranco. ·Department of Digestive and Liver Disease, Sapienza University of Rome - Sant'Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy. · Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Charité Campus Mitte and Virchow Clinic, Charité University Medicine, Berlin, Germany. · Department of Gastroenterology, Philipps-University of Marburg, Germany. · Clinical Division of Gastroenterology, Medical University Graz, Austria. · Division of Pancreatic Surgery, Vita-Salute University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Department of Radiology Charité University, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Berlin, Germany. · Clinical Division of Oncology, Medical University Graz, Austria. · Department of Digestive and Liver Disease, Sapienza University of Rome - Sant'Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy gianfranco.dellefave@uniroma1.it. ·Oncologist · Pubmed #28232598.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Several risk factors predict clinical outcome in gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs); however, the impact of their combination has not been investigated so far. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of stage IV GEP-NENs was performed. Multivariate analysis for progression of disease (PD) was performed by Cox proportional hazards method to obtain a risk score. Area under the curve obtained by receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the score performance. Progression-free survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-three stage IV GEP-NENs were evaluated, including 93 grade 1 neuroendocrine tumors (32.9%), 153 grade 2 neuroendocrine tumors (54%), and 37 grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinomas (13.1%). Independent risk factors for PD were Ki67, proportion of metastatic liver involvement, and presence of extra-abdominal metastases. The risk score was calculated as follows: (0.025 × Ki67) + [(0 if no liver metastases or liver involvement <25%) OR (0.405 if liver involvement 25%-50%) OR (0.462 if liver involvement >50%)] + [(0 if no extra-abdominal metastases) OR (0.528 if extra-abdominal metastases present)]. The risk score accuracy to predict PD was superior compared with the G grading system (area under the curve: 0.705 and 0.622, respectively). Three subgroups of patients with low, intermediate, and high risk of PD according to risk score were identified, median progression-free survival being 26 months, 19 months, and 12 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: In stage IV GEP-NENs, a risk score able to predict PD was obtained by combining Ki67, proportion of metastatic liver involvement, and presence of extra-abdominal metastases. The score may help to discriminate patients with different progression risk level to plan tailored therapeutic approaches and follow-up programs.

12 Article Syndromic versus non-syndromic sporadic gastrin-producing neuroendocrine tumors of the duodenum: comparison of pathological features and biological behavior. 2016

Rosentraeger, M Johannes / Garbrecht, Nele / Anlauf, Martin / Raffel, Andreas / Knoefel, Wolfram T / Wiedenmann, Bertram / Klöppel, Günter. ·First Department of Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Christian-Albrechts University, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3, Kiel, 24105, Germany. johannes.rosentraeger@uksh.de. · Department of Pathology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany. · Institute of Pathology and Cytology, St. Vincenz Hospital, Limburg, Germany. · Department of General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany. · Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Charité, Campus Virchow Clinic, Berlin, Germany. · Department of Pathology, Consultation Center for Pancreatic and Endocrine Tumors, Technical University, Munich, Germany. ·Virchows Arch · Pubmed #26649731.

ABSTRACT: Sporadic gastrin-producing neuroendocrine tumors of the duodenum present either with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) or with unspecific symptoms. While syndromic gastrin-producing neuroendocrine tumors often show metastases at the time of diagnosis, those without a syndrome do not. The aim of the study was to search for clinicopathological features that may distinguish the two categories of gastrin-producing duodenal tumors. In a retrospective study, we analyzed the clinical and pathological data in a series of 41 patients with syndromic (i.e., gastrinomas) or non-syndromic duodenal gastrin-producing neuroendocrine tumors (ns-gas-NETs). Twenty-four (59 %) of the 41 patients had tumors that were associated with a ZES and were classified as gastrinomas. These tumors showed a higher Ki-67 index than that of the ns-gas-NETs (1.74 vs. 0.85 %, p = 0.012). In addition, they had more lymph node metastases (75 vs. 6 %, p < 0.001) and showed liver metastases and thus presented much more frequently in TNM stage ≥III (75 vs. 6 %; p < 0.001) than their non-syndromic counterparts. Gastrinomas were removed surgically, ns-gas-NETs endoscopically. We did not observe any significant differences in overall survival or recurrence of disease. Duodenal gastrinomas show no clear morphological features that distinguish them from their non-syndromic counterparts. However, the patients with gastrinomas present in a more advanced stage of disease and need surgical treatment, while non-syndromic gastrin-producing duodenal NETs may be cured by complete endoscopical removal.

13 Article A Cross-Species Analysis in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Reveals Molecular Subtypes with Distinctive Clinical, Metastatic, Developmental, and Metabolic Characteristics. 2015

Sadanandam, Anguraj / Wullschleger, Stephan / Lyssiotis, Costas A / Grötzinger, Carsten / Barbi, Stefano / Bersani, Samantha / Körner, Jan / Wafy, Ismael / Mafficini, Andrea / Lawlor, Rita T / Simbolo, Michele / Asara, John M / Bläker, Hendrik / Cantley, Lewis C / Wiedenmann, Bertram / Scarpa, Aldo / Hanahan, Douglas. ·Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), Lausanne, Switzerland. Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), Swiss Federal Institute of Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland. Division of Molecular Pathology, Institute of Cancer Research (ICR), London, United Kingdom. anguraj.sadanandam@icr.ac.uk douglas.hanahan@epfl.ch aldo.scarpa@univr.it. · Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), Swiss Federal Institute of Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland. · Meyer Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York. · Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · ARC-Net Research Centre and Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy. · Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts. · Institut für Pathologie, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, University Medicine, Berlin, Germany. · ARC-Net Research Centre and Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy. anguraj.sadanandam@icr.ac.uk douglas.hanahan@epfl.ch aldo.scarpa@univr.it. · Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), Swiss Federal Institute of Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland. anguraj.sadanandam@icr.ac.uk douglas.hanahan@epfl.ch aldo.scarpa@univr.it. ·Cancer Discov · Pubmed #26446169.

ABSTRACT: SIGNIFICANCE: This study involves a comprehensive cross-species integrated analysis of multi-omics profiles and histology to stratify PanNETs into subtypes with distinctive characteristics. We provide support for the RIP1-TAG2 mouse model as representative of its cognate human cancer with prospects to better understand PanNET heterogeneity and consider future applications of personalized cancer therapy.

14 Article Streptozocin/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy is associated with durable response in patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. 2015

Dilz, Lisa-Marie / Denecke, Timm / Steffen, Ingo G / Prasad, Vikas / von Weikersthal, Ludwig Fischer / Pape, Ulrich-Frank / Wiedenmann, Bertram / Pavel, Marianne. ·Dept. of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. · Dept. of Radiology, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. · Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. · Klinikum St. Marien, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Amberg, Germany. · Dept. of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: marianne.pavel@charite.de. ·Eur J Cancer · Pubmed #25935542.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The role of systemic chemotherapy for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNET) is controversially discussed. Objective response rates (RR) reported for streptozocin (STZ)-based chemotherapy are variable and novel targeted drugs have recently been approved. However, the sequence of treatment remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of STZ plus 5-fluorouracil (STZ/5-FU) in a large pNET cohort. METHODS: Data from 96 pNET patients treated with STZ/5-FU were analysed retrospectively. Endpoints of the study were RR, time to tumour progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Mean age of patients at the start of chemotherapy was 57.6years (range, 32.1-80.4). STZ/5-FU was the 1st line treatment in 56.3%. 11.5% had G1, 79.2% G2 and 6.3% G3 neoplasms. Baseline progression was evident in 74%. Objective response rate was 42.7%. 40.6% of patients showed stable disease as best response while 16.7% showed progressive disease. Treatment was discontinued due to toxicity in 16 patients. Median TTP and OS were 19.4 (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.6-25.2) and 54.8months (95% CI, 34.7-74.9), respectively. In Cox regression analysis, Ki67>15% was the only negative prognostic factor for TTP (hazard ratio (HR), 3.3; P<0.001), confirmed by multivariate analysis (HR, 6.7; P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: STZ/5-FU was associated with considerable RR. Treatment was associated with durable TTP especially in patients with Ki67-index of ⩽15%. These findings along with good tolerability strengthen the value of this two-drug chemotherapy for the management of unresectable pNET.

15 Article Axon guidance factor SLIT2 inhibits neural invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. 2014

Göhrig, Andreas / Detjen, Katharina M / Hilfenhaus, Georg / Körner, Jan L / Welzel, Martina / Arsenic, Ruza / Schmuck, Rosa / Bahra, Marcus / Wu, Jane Y / Wiedenmann, Bertram / Fischer, Christian. ·Authors' Affiliations: Experimental and Clinical Research Center, a joint cooperation between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany; Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Hepatologie und Gastroenterologie; Klinik für Viszeral-, Allgemein-, und Transplantationschirurgie; Institut für Pathologie, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; and Department of Neurology, Lurie Cancer Center, Center for Genetic Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. ·Cancer Res · Pubmed #24448236.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) metastasizes by neural, vascular, and local invasion routes, which limit patient survival. In nerves and vessels, SLIT2 and its ROBO receptors constitute repellent guidance cues that also direct epithelial branching. Thus, the SLIT2-ROBO system may represent a key pinch point to regulate PDAC spread. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that escaping from repellent SLIT2-ROBO signaling is essential to enable PDAC cells to appropriate their local stromal infrastructure for dissemination. Through immunohistochemical analysis, we detected SLIT2 receptors ROBO1 and ROBO4 on epithelia, nerves, and vessels in healthy pancreas and PDAC specimens, respectively. SLIT2 mRNA expression was reduced in PDAC compared with nontransformed pancreatic tissues and cell lines, suggesting a reduction in SLIT2-ROBO pathway activity in PDAC. In support of this interpretation, restoring the SLIT2 expression in SLIT2-deficient PDAC cells inhibited their bidirectional chemoattraction with neural cells, and more specifically, impaired unidirectional PDAC cell navigation along outgrowing neurites in models of neural invasion. Restoring autocrine/paracrine SLIT2 signaling was also sufficient to inhibit the directed motility of PDAC cells, but not their random movement. Conversely, RNA interference-mediated silencing of ROBO1 stimulated the motility of SLIT2-competent PDAC cells. Furthermore, culture supernatants from SLIT2-competent PDAC cells impaired migration of endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), whereas an N-terminal SLIT2 cleavage fragment stimulated such migration. In vivo investigations of pancreatic tumors with restored SLIT2 expression demonstrated reduced invasion, metastasis, and vascularization, with opposing effects produced by ROBO1 silencing in tumor cells or sequestration of endogenous SLIT2. Analysis of clinical specimens of PDAC showed that those with low SLIT2 mRNA expression exhibited a higher incidence and a higher fraction of tumor-infiltrated lymph nodes. Taken together, our findings argue that disrupting SLIT2-ROBO signaling in PDAC may enhance metastasis and predispose PDAC cells to neural invasion.

16 Article Evaluation of radiological prognostic factors of hepatic metastases in patients with non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. 2013

Denecke, Timm / Baur, Alexander D J / Ihm, Claudia / Steffen, Ingo G / Tischer, Elisabeth / Arsenic, Ruza / Pascher, Andreas / Wiedenmann, Bertram / Pavel, Marianne. ·Klinik für Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. ·Eur J Radiol · Pubmed #23891296.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: There are different therapeutic options in non-functional well to moderately differentiated (G1 and G2) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) with unresectable hepatic metastases including systemic chemotherapy and novel molecular targeted therapies. Treatment with somatostatin analogs (SSA) as antiproliferative agents is optional. At initial diagnosis watchful waiting until tumor progression is a well-established approach. Goal of this study was to evaluate imaging features as potential prognostic factors predicting early tumor progression in order to select patients that might benefit from an earlier initiation of medical treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 44 patients we correlated tumor grade, chromogranin A (CgA) levels, treatment with SSA and imaging features of hepatic metastases on contrast-enhanced multiphase CT and MR imaging with time to tumor progression (TTP) according to RECIST 1.0. RESULTS: In the total patient cohort none of the tested imaging features was found to be a statistically significant prognostic factor for TTP. Since treatment with SSA was associated with an increased TTP we also analyzed a subgroup of 30 patients not treated with SSA. In this subgroup of patients hypoenhancement of hepatic metastases during early contrast phases was found to be a negative prognostic factor for early tumor progression within 12 months (p=0.039). The other evaluated parameters including hepatic tumor load, number of metastases, and presence of regressive morphological changes did not reveal significant results. CONCLUSION: Hypovascularization of liver metastases from G1 and G2 pNET reflected by hypoenhancement during the early contrast phases seems to be associated with early tumor progression. In patients with hypoenhancing metastases repeated biopsy for reassessment of grading of these metastases, and early initiation of therapy should be considered.

17 Article Impact of octreotide long-acting release on tumour growth control as a first-line treatment in neuroendocrine tumours of pancreatic origin. 2013

Jann, H / Denecke, T / Koch, M / Pape, U F / Wiedenmann, B / Pavel, M. ·Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Charité, Berlin, Germany. ·Neuroendocrinology · Pubmed #23797176.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Somatostatin analogues (SSA) are widely used in the treatment of patients with functioning and non-functioning neuroendocrine tumours (NET). The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of SSA in patients with pancreatic NET. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed records of 43 patients with pancreatic NET treated at our clinic with octreotide long-lasting release as a first-line therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the overall best response according to the RECIST criteria, overall best response defined as disease control rate (SD+PR), response and disease control rate at 12 months, and time to tumour progression (TTP). RESULTS: The mean age (± SD) of the patients (16 female/27 male) at initial diagnosis was 54.7 ± 11.86 years. At the start of therapy, 39 of 43 patients were classified as stage IV according to ENETS-TNM. Tumours were graded, based on MiB-1/Ki67 staining, as G1 (n = 8), G2 (n = 30) or unknown (n = 5). The octreoscan was positive in 37 patients, negative in 2 and unknown in 4 cases. Nineteen patients had functioning tumours, 24 patients had non-functioning tumours. Median overall survival was 98 months, and median TTP was 13 months. Analysis of grading showed a statistically significant influence on TTP when comparing the median TTP for Ki67 >10% with Ki67 <5% (p = 0.009) and Ki67 5-10% (p = 0.036). CONCLUSION: SSA may be considered as a first-line treatment for antiproliferative purposes in metastatic NET of the pancreas. Patients with a proliferation index <10% displayed a more durable response compared to those with a higher proliferation index.

18 Article Placental growth factor supports neuroendocrine tumor growth and predicts disease prognosis in patients. 2013

Hilfenhaus, Georg / Göhrig, Andreas / Pape, Ulrich-Frank / Neumann, Tabea / Jann, Henning / Zdunek, Dietmar / Hess, Georg / Stassen, Jean Marie / Wiedenmann, Bertram / Detjen, Katharina / Pavel, Marianne / Fischer, Christian. ·Charité Medical Faculty and the Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Lindenberger Weg 80, 13125 Berlin, Germany. ·Endocr Relat Cancer · Pubmed #23463017.

ABSTRACT: Placental growth factor (PlGF), a VEGF-homolog implicated in tumor angiogenesis and adaptation to antiangiogenic therapy, is emerging as candidate target in malignancies. Here, we addressed the expression, function, and prognostic value of PlGF in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). PlGF was determined in NET patients' sera collected retrospectively (n=88) and prospectively (n=87) using Roche-Elecsys and correlated with clinicopathological data. Tumoral PlGF was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, effects of PlGF on proliferation and migration in vitro were assessed using different NET cell lines and effects on tumor growth in vivo in orthotopic xenografts. Circulating and tumoral PlGF was elevated in patients with pancreatic NETs (pNETs) compared with control sera and respective healthy tissue. De novo PlGF expression occurred primarily in the tumor stroma, suggesting paracrine stimulatory circuits. Indeed, PlGF enhanced NET proliferation and migration in vitro and, conversely, neutralizing antibodies to PlGF reduced tumor growth in vivo. Elevated circulating PlGF levels in NET patients correlated with advanced tumor grading and were associated with reduced tumor-related survival in pNETs. Subsequent determinations confirmed and extended our observation of elevated PlGF levels in a prospective cohort of grade 1 and grade 2 pNETs (n=30) and intestinal NETs (n=57). In low-grade pNETs, normal circulating PlGF levels were associated with better survival. In intestinal NETs, circulating PlGF above median emerged as an independent prognostic factor for shorter time-to-progression in multivariate analyses. These data assign to PlGF a novel function in the pathobiology of NETs and propose PlGF as a prognostic parameter and therapeutic target.

19 Article Assessment and clinical implications of RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway as markers of bone tumor progression in patients with NET harboring bone metastases. 2013

Milone, F / Pivonello, C / Cariati, F / Sarnataro, M / Ramundo, V / Marotta, V / Jann, H / Pape, U-F / Wiedenmann, B / Colao, A / Pavel, M / Faggiano, A. ·Department of Molecular and Clinical Endocrinology and Oncology, Federico II University, Naples, Italy. ·Biomarkers · Pubmed #23336103.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The impact on the survival of bone metastases (BM) in patients with neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is a matter of debate. BM have a key role in causing symptoms and in decreasing patients' quality of life. Although the mechanisms of the development of BM are not completely clear, it is now well understood that the Receptor Activator of Nuclear factor Kappa-B-/Ligand (RANK/RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway plays a relevant role. AIM: To characterize the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway in patients affected with NET. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two cohorts of 15 patients each were enrolled in the study; one cohort was affected with NET without BM and the second cohort was affected with NET with BM. The serum RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway was assessed in both the groups. RESULTS: Serum OPG levels and RANKL/OPG ratio were lower and higher, respectively, in NET patients harboring BM than in those without BM. During the ROC analysis, a cut-off value of 1071 pg/ml for OPG and 0.62 for RANKL/OPG ratio were able to significantly distinguish between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway is imbalanced in patients with NET harboring BM. Specific alterations of this pathway could predict an early development of BM.

20 Article Foreword. 2013

Ahlman, Håkan / Wiedenmann, Bertram. · ·Neuroendocrinology · Pubmed #23147070.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

21 Article [Gastroenteropancreatic neuro-endocrine neoplasms]. 2012

Sigal, M / Pape, U / Wiedenmann, B. ·Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie, interdisziplinäres Stoffwechselzentrum, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin. ·Ther Umsch · Pubmed #23026885.

ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) occur in the entire gastrointestinal tract. The updated classification of the WHO (2010) and current TNM-classification provide a basis for the therapeutic decision and assess the prognosis. Endoscopy and different imaging techniques are important for the localization of the primary tumor as well as local and distant metastases. The most important diagnostic imaging technique is somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Therapeutic strategy should be discussed within the scope of a multidisciplinary tumor board. Surgery of NEN is the sole curative option. The treatment options for liver metastases include surgical resection as well as radiofrequency ablation and hepatic artery embolization. In advanced stage, systemic therapy should be used. Recent studies demonstrated a significantly prolonged progression-free survival using octreotide in well differentiated NEN. Besides the well established steptozotocine based chemotherapy regimens for pancreatic NEN, novel agents such as the mTOR-inhibitor everolimus and multityrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib have recently also shown a prolonged progression-free survival. Moreover, temozolomide-based chemotherapy appears to be effective in pancreatic NEN. Finally, somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapy can be effective in progressing gastroenteropancreatic NEN.

22 Article TNM staging of neoplasms of the endocrine pancreas: results from a large international cohort study. 2012

Rindi, G / Falconi, M / Klersy, C / Albarello, L / Boninsegna, L / Buchler, M W / Capella, C / Caplin, M / Couvelard, A / Doglioni, C / Delle Fave, G / Fischer, L / Fusai, G / de Herder, W W / Jann, H / Komminoth, P / de Krijger, R R / La Rosa, S / Luong, T V / Pape, U / Perren, A / Ruszniewski, P / Scarpa, A / Schmitt, A / Solcia, E / Wiedenmann, B. ·Institute of Anatomic Pathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Histopathology and Cytodiagnosis Unit, Policlinico Gemelli, Largo A. Gemelli, 8, Roma I-00168, Italy. guido.rindi@rm.unicatt.it ·J Natl Cancer Inst · Pubmed #22525418.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Both the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) and the International Union for Cancer Control/American Joint Cancer Committee/World Health Organization (UICC/AJCC/WHO) have proposed TNM staging systems for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. This study aims to identify the most accurate and useful TNM system for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. METHODS: The study included 1072 patients who had undergone previous surgery for their cancer and for which at least 2 years of follow-up from 1990 to 2007 was available. Data on 28 variables were collected, and the performance of the two TNM staging systems was compared by Cox regression analysis and multivariable analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Differences in distribution of sex and age were observed for the ENETS TNM staging system. At Cox regression analysis, only the ENETS TNM staging system perfectly allocated patients into four statistically significantly different and equally populated risk groups (with stage I as the reference; stage II hazard ratio [HR] of death = 16.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.14 to 123, P = .007; stage III HR of death = 51.81, 95% CI = 7.11 to 377, P < .001; and stage IV HR of death = 160, 95% CI = 22.30 to 1143, P < .001). However, the UICC/AJCC/WHO 2010 TNM staging system compressed the disease into three differently populated classes, with most patients in stage I, and with the patients being equally distributed into stages II-III (statistically similar) and IV (with stage I as the reference; stage II HR of death = 9.57, 95% CI = 4.62 to 19.88, P < .001; stage III HR of death = 9.32, 95% CI = 3.69 to 23.53, P = .94; and stage IV HR of death = 30.84, 95% CI = 15.62 to 60.87, P < .001). Multivariable modeling indicated curative surgery, TNM staging, and grading were effective predictors of death, and grading was the second most effective independent predictor of survival in the absence of staging information. Though both TNM staging systems were independent predictors of survival, the UICC/AJCC/WHO 2010 TNM stages showed very large 95% confidence intervals for each stage, indicating an inaccurate predictive ability. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the ENETS TNM staging system is superior to the UICC/AJCC/WHO 2010 TNM staging system and supports its use in clinical practice.

23 Article The proline TP53 variant stimulates likely lymphangiogenesis in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. 2012

Otto, N / Schulz, P / Scholz, A / Hauff, P / Schlegelberger, B / Detjen, K M / Wiedenmann, B. ·1] Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Charité Berlin, Campus Virchow Clinic, 13353 Berlin, Germany. otto.noreen@mh-hannover.de ·Br J Cancer · Pubmed #22146521.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease characterised by high incidence of TP53 mutations. Restoration of TP53 function is perceived as a highly attractive therapeutic strategy, whose effects are not well characterised. METHODS: The current work adapted an inducible strategy of stage-specific reexpression of wild-type (wt) TP53 in an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. RESULTS: The reconstitution of wt TP53 function in TP53-mutant DanG and MiaPaCa-2 cells caused G1 cell cycle arrest but no evidence of apoptosis induction. Consistent with subcutaneous xenograft models, we found that wt TP53 reduced primary tumour growth. Wt TP53 reexpression during early tumour growth led to significant increase in vascularisation. This correlated with an unexpectedly high rate of micro-metastases in lymph nodes of animals with wt TP53 induction, despite the 90% decrease in median primary tumour weight. Reexpression of wt TP53 later in tumour development did not significantly affect the number of CD31-reactive vessels, but increased lymphatic vessel density. CONCLUSION: The increased number of lymphatic vessels and micro-metastases suggests that wt TP53 induction complexly affected the biology of different tumour constituents of pancreatic cancer. Our observation suggests that combination of the inducible system with an orthotopic model can yield important insights into in vivo pancreatic cancer biology.

24 Article Tumor suppressor p16INK4a controls oncogenic K-Ras function in human pancreatic cancer cells. 2012

Rabien, Anja / Sanchez-Ruderisch, Hugo / Schulz, Petra / Otto, Noreen / Wimmel, Anja / Wiedenmann, Bertram / Detjen, Katharina M. ·Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Charité- Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin, Germany. anja.rabien@charite.de ·Cancer Sci · Pubmed #22049925.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is characterized by oncogenic activation of K-Ras and inactivation of the cell cycle inhibitor p16(INK4a) . We previously demonstrated that reintroduction of p16(INK4a) reversed anoikis resistance and clonogenicity of human pancreatic cancer cells, properties commonly attributed to the transforming potential of oncogenic K-Ras. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of Ras after p16(INK4a) re-expression. Here, we show that restitution of p16(INK4a) in pancreatic cancer cell lines elicits a profound suppression of K-Ras activity. A more detailed analysis in p16(INK4a) reconstituted Capan-1 cells indicated selective reduction of both K-Ras activity and protein stability. Re-expression of K-Ras in p16(INK4a) restituted Capan-1 cells reversed the anoikis-sensitive phenotype and increased colony formation, indicating that K-Ras suppression was required for p16(INK4a) -mediated reversion of the transformed phenotype. Inducible expression of p16(INK4a) in DanG cells confirmed inhibition of K-Ras activity as well as an increase in anoikis susceptibility. Thus, our results delineate a novel functional interaction with defined biological consequences for the two most frequent alterations observed in pancreatic cancer.

25 Article Thermo-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 regulates intracellular calcium and triggers chromogranin A secretion in pancreatic neuroendocrine BON-1 tumor cells. 2012

Mergler, Stefan / Skrzypski, Marek / Sassek, Maciej / Pietrzak, Piotr / Pucci, Christina / Wiedenmann, Bertram / Strowski, Mathias Z. ·Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Clinic, Department of Ophthalmology, Berlin, Germany. stefan.mergler@charite.de ·Cell Signal · Pubmed #21945155.

ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) regulate tumor growth via calcium-dependent mechanisms. The (thermosensitive) capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is overexpressed in numerous highly aggressive cancers. TRPV1 has potent antiproliferative activity and is therefore potentially applicable in targeted therapy of malignancies. Recently, we characterized TRPM8 functions in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), however, the role of TRPV1 is unknown. Here, we studied the expression and the role of TRPV1 in regulating intracellular Ca(2+) and chromogranin A (CgA) secretion in pancreatic NET BON-1 cell line and in primary NET cells (prNET). TRPV1 expression was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. Intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured by fura-2; TRPV1 channel currents by the planar patch-clamp technique. Nonselective cation currents were analyzed by a color-coded plot method and CgA secretion by ELISA. Pancreatic BON-1 cells and NETs express TRPV1. Pharmacological blockade of TRPs by La(3+) (100 μM) or by ruthenium-red (RuR) or by capsazepine (CPZ) (both at 10 μM) suppressed the capsaicin (CAP)- or heat-stimulated increase of [Ca(2+)](i) in NET cells. CAP (20 μM) also increased nonselective cation channel currents in BON-1 cells. Furthermore, CAP (10 μM) stimulated CgA secretion, which was inhibited by CPZ or by RuR (both 10 μM). La(3+) potently reduced both stimulated and the basal CgA secretion. Our study shows for the first time that TRPV1 is expressed in pancreatic NETs. Activation of TRPV1 translates into changes of intracellular Ca(2+), a known mechanism triggering the secretion of CgA. The clinical relevance of TRPV1 activation in NETs requires further investigations.