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Pancreatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by Alexander P. Stark
Based on 6 articles published since 2010
(Why 6 articles?)

Between 2010 and 2020, Alexander Stark wrote the following 6 articles about Pancreatic Neoplasms.
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Editorial A Cutoff of 2 cm Instead of 3 cm Would Detect More Malignant BD-IPMNs: Is There a Reason to Be Wary of the International Consensus Guidelines? 2016

Hines, O Joe / Stark, Alexander P. ·Department of Surgery, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. ·Pancreas · Pubmed #26658036.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Review Pancreatic Cyst Disease: A Review. 2016

Stark, Alexander / Donahue, Timothy R / Reber, Howard A / Hines, O Joe. ·Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California. ·JAMA · Pubmed #27139061.

ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE: Cystic lesions of the pancreas are common and increasingly detected in the primary care setting. Some patients have a low risk for developing a malignancy and others have a high risk and need further testing and interventions. OBSERVATIONS: Pancreatic cysts may be intraductal mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, serous cystadenomas, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, cystic variations of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, or 1 of several types of nonneoplastic cysts. Mucinous (intraductal mucinous neoplasm or mucinous cystic neoplasm) lesions have malignant potential and should be distinguished from serous lesions (serous cystadenomas) that are nearly always benign. Symptomatic patients or those having high-risk features on initial imaging (eg, main pancreatic duct dilatation, a solid component, or mural nodule) require further evaluation with advanced imaging, possibly followed by surgical resection. Advanced imaging includes endoscopic ultrasound with cyst fluid analysis and cytology to confirm the type of cyst and determine the risk of malignancy. Small cysts (size <3 cm) in asymptomatic patients without any suspicious features may be observed with serial imaging because the risk for malignancy is low. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The management of pancreatic cysts requires risk stratification for malignant potential based on the presence or absence of symptoms and high-risk features on cross-sectional imaging. Because pancreatic cysts are becoming more frequently diagnosed, clinicians should have a systematic approach for establishing a diagnosis and determining which patients require treatment.

3 Review Endoscopic and operative palliation strategies for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. 2015

Stark, Alexander / Hines, O Joe. ·Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA. · Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address: joehines@mednet.ucla.edu. ·Semin Oncol · Pubmed #25726060.

ABSTRACT: Malignant biliary obstruction, duodenal, and gastric outlet obstruction, and tumor-related pain are the complications of unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma that most frequently require palliative intervention. Surgery involving biliary bypass with or without gastrojejunostomy was once the mainstay of treatment in these patients. However, advances in non-operative techniques-most notably the widespread availability of endoscopic biliary and duodenal stents-have shifted the paradigm of treatment away from traditional surgical management. Questions regarding the efficacy and durability of endoscopic stents for biliary and gastric outlet obstruction are reviewed and demonstrate high rates of therapeutic success, low rates of morbidity, and decreased cost. Surgery remains an effective treatment modality, and still produces the most durable relief in appropriately selected patients.

4 Article Long-term survival in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. 2016

Stark, Alexander P / Sacks, Greg D / Rochefort, Matthew M / Donahue, Timothy R / Reber, Howard A / Tomlinson, James S / Dawson, David W / Eibl, Guido / Hines, O Joe. ·Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. · Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; Department of Surgery, Greater Los Angeles VA Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA. · Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. · Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address: joehines@mednet.ucla.edu. ·Surgery · Pubmed #26847803.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Long-term survival (LTS) is uncommon for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We sought to identify factors that predict 10-year, LTS after resection of PDAC. METHODS: We identified all patients with PDAC who underwent resection at UCLA after 1990 and included all patients eligible for observed LTS (1/1/1990-12/31/2004). An independent pathologist reconfirmed the diagnosis of PDAC in patients with LTS. Logistic regression was used to predict LTS on the basis of patient and tumor characteristics. RESULTS: Of 173 included patients, 53% were male, median age at diagnosis was 66 years, and median survival was 23 months. The rate of observed LTS was 12.1% (n = 21). Age, sex, number of lymph nodes evaluated, margin status, lymphovascular invasion, and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation were not associated with LTS. The following were associated with LTS on bivariate analysis: low AJCC stage (Ia, Ib, IIa) (P = .034), negative lymph node status (P = .034), low grade (well-, moderately-differentiated) (P = .001), and absence of perineural invasion (P = .019). Only low grade (odds ratio 7.17, P = .012) and absent perineural invasion (odds ratio 3.28, P = .036) were independently associated with increased odds of LTS. Our multivariate model demonstrated good discriminatory power for LTS, as indicated by a c-statistic of 0.7856. CONCLUSION: Absence of perineural invasion and low tumor grade were associated with greater likelihood of LTS. Understanding the tumor biology of LTS may provide critical insight into a disease that is typically marked by aggressive behavior and limited survival.

5 Article Robust Early Inflammation of the Peripancreatic Visceral Adipose Tissue During Diet-Induced Obesity in the KrasG12D Model of Pancreatic Cancer. 2016

Hertzer, Kathleen M / Xu, Mu / Moro, Aune / Dawson, David W / Du, Lin / Li, Gang / Chang, Hui-Hua / Stark, Alexander P / Jung, Xiaoman / Hines, Oscar Joe / Eibl, Guido. ·From the Departments of *Surgery and †Pathology and Laboratory Medicine,David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA; and ‡Department of Biostatistics, Fielding School of Public Health at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA. ·Pancreas · Pubmed #26495779.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Obesity increases the incidence of multiple types of cancer. Our previous work has shown that a high-fat, high-calorie diet (HFCD) leads to visceral obesity, pancreatic inflammation, and accelerated pancreatic neoplasia in KrasG12D (KC) mice. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of an HFCD on visceral adipose inflammation with emphasis on potential differences between distinct visceral adipose depots. METHODS: We examined the weight and visceral obesity in both wild-type and KC mice on either control diet (CD) or HFCD. After 3 months, mice were killed for histological examination. Multiplex assays were also performed to obtain cytokine profiles between different adipose depots. RESULTS: Both wild-type and KC mice on an HFCD exhibited significantly increased inflammation in the visceral adipose tissue, particularly in the peripancreatic fat (PPF), compared with animals on a CD. This was associated with significantly increased inflammation in the pancreas. Cytokine profiles were different between visceral adipose depots and between mice on the HFCD and CD. CONCLUSIONS: Our results clearly demonstrate that an HFCD leads to obesity and inflammation in the visceral adipose tissue, particularly the PPF. These data suggest that obesity-associated inflammation in PPF may accelerate pancreatic neoplasia in KC mice.

6 Article E-cadherin expression in obesity-associated, Kras-initiated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in mice. 2015

Stark, Alexander P / Chang, Hui-Hua / Jung, Xiaoman / Moro, Aune / Hertzer, Kathleen / Xu, Mu / Schmidt, Andrea / Hines, O Joe / Eibl, Guido. ·Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA. · Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address: Geibl@mednet.ucla.edu. ·Surgery · Pubmed #26297056.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical in the development of invasive epithelial malignancies. EMT is accelerated by inflammation and results in decreased E-cadherin expression. Diet-induced obesity is an inflammatory state that accelerates pancreatic carcinogenesis; its effect on EMT and E-cadherin expression in the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is unclear. METHODS: Conditional Kras(G12D) mice were fed a control diet or a high-fat, high-calorie diet for 3 or 9 months (n = 10 each). Immunohistochemistry with anti-E-cadherin antibody was performed. E-cadherin expression was characterized by staining intensity, location, and proportion of positive cells. In vitro expression of E-cadherin and Slug in primary pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and cancer cells was determined by Western blot. RESULTS: The HFCD led to increased weight gain in both 3- (15.8 vs 5.6 g, P < .001) and 9-month (19.8 vs 12.9 g, P = .007) mice. No differences in E-cadherin expression among various stages of preinvasive PanIN lesions were found--regardless of age or diet. In invasive cancer, E-cadherin expression was aberrant, with loss of membranous staining and prominent cytoplasmic staining, associated with strong, cytoplasmic expression of β-catenin. In vitro expression of E-cadherin was greatest in primary PanIN cells, accompanied by absent Slug expression. Cancer cell lines demonstrated significantly decreased E-cadherin expression in the presence of upregulated Slug. CONCLUSION: Despite increased pancreatic inflammation and accelerated carcinogenesis, the high-fat, high-calorie diet did not induce changes in E-cadherin expression in PanIN lesions of all stages. Invasive lesions demonstrated aberrant cytoplasmic E-cadherin staining. Loss of normal membranous localization may reflect a functional loss of E-cadherin.