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Pancreatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by Jill P. Smith
Based on 19 articles published since 2009
(Why 19 articles?)
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Between 2009 and 2019, Jill P. Smith wrote the following 19 articles about Pancreatic Neoplasms.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review The Role of Gastrin and CCK Receptors in Pancreatic Cancer and other Malignancies. 2016

Smith, Jill P / Fonkoua, Lionel K / Moody, Terry W. ·1. Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA. · 2. Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA. · 3. National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. ·Int J Biol Sci · Pubmed #26929735.

ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal (GI) peptide gastrin is an important regulator of the release of gastric acid from the stomach parietal cells and it also plays an important role in growth of the gastrointestinal tract. It has become apparent that gastrin and its related peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) are also significantly involved with growth of GI cancers as well as other malignancies through activation of the cholecystokinin-B (CCK-B) receptor. Of interest, gastrin is expressed in the embryologic pancreas but not in the adult pancreas; however, gastrin becomes re-expressed in pancreatic cancer where it stimulates growth of this malignancy by an autocrine mechanism. Strategies to down-regulate gastrin or interfere with its interface with the CCK receptor with selective antibodies or receptor antagonists hold promise for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and other gastrin--responsive tumors.

2 Review Novel strategies for managing pancreatic cancer. 2014

Loc, Welley S / Smith, Jill P / Matters, Gail / Kester, Mark / Adair, James H. ·Welley S Loc, Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, United States. ·World J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #25356034.

ABSTRACT: With the incidence reports of pancreatic cancer increasing every year, research over the last several decades has been focused on the means to achieve early diagnosis in patients that are at a high risk of developing the malignancy. This review covers current strategies for managing pancreatic cancer and further discusses efforts in understanding the role of early onset symptoms leading to tumor progression. Recent investigations in this discussion include type 3c diabetes, selected biomarkers and pathways related to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions, drug resistance, and advances in nanomedicine which may provide significant solutions for improving early detection and treatments in future medicine.

3 Review Cholecystokinin and pancreatic cancer: the chicken or the egg? 2014

Smith, Jill P / Solomon, Travis E. ·6707 Democracy Blvd., Rm. 655, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892. jsmith2@psu.edu. ·Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol · Pubmed #24177032.

ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) causes the release of pancreatic digestive enzymes and growth of the normal pancreas. Exogenous CCK administration has been used in animal models to study pancreatitis and also as a promoter of carcinogen-induced or Kras-driven pancreatic cancer. Defining CCK receptors in normal human pancreas has been problematic because of its retroperitoneal location, high concentrations of pancreatic proteases, and endogenous RNase. Most studies indicate that the predominant receptor in human pancreas is the CCK-B type, and CCK-A is the predominant form in rodent pancreas. In pancreatic cancer cells and tumors, the role of CCK is better established because receptors are often overexpressed by these cancer cells and stimulation of such receptors promotes growth. Furthermore, in established cancer, endogenous production of CCK and/or gastrin occurs and their actions stimulate the synthesis of more receptors plus growth by an autocrine mechanism. Initially it was thought that the mechanism by which CCK served to potentiate carcinogenesis was by interplay with inflammation in the pancreatic microenvironment. But with the recent findings of CCK receptors on early PanIN (pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia) lesions and on stellate cells, the question has been raised that perhaps CCK actions are not the result of cancer but an early driving promoter of cancer. This review will summarize what is known regarding CCK, its receptors, and pancreatic cancer, and also what is unknown and requires further investigation to determine which comes first, the chicken or the egg, "CCK or the cancer."

4 Article Gastrin vaccine improves response to immune checkpoint antibody in murine pancreatic cancer by altering the tumor microenvironment. 2019

Osborne, Nicholas / Sundseth, Rebecca / Burks, Julian / Cao, Hong / Liu, Xunxian / Kroemer, Alexander H / Sutton, Lynda / Cato, Allen / Smith, Jill P. ·Cato Research, Durham, NC, USA. · Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, 4000 Reservoir Rd, NW, Building D, Room 338, Washington, DC, 20007, USA. · The MedStar Georgetown Transplant Institute, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA. · Cancer Advances, Inc., Durham, NC, USA. · Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, 4000 Reservoir Rd, NW, Building D, Room 338, Washington, DC, 20007, USA. jps261@georgetown.edu. ·Cancer Immunol Immunother · Pubmed #31549214.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer has been termed a 'recalcitrant cancer' due to its relative resistance to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. This resistance is thought to be due in part to the dense fibrotic tumor microenvironment and lack of tumor infiltrating CD8 + T cells. The gastrointestinal peptide, gastrin, has been shown to stimulate growth of pancreatic cancer by both a paracrine and autocrine mechanism. Interruption of gastrin at the CCK receptor may reduce tumor-associated fibrosis and alter tumor immune cells. Polyclonal Ab Stimulator (PAS) is a vaccine that targets gastrin and has been shown to prolong survival of patients with pancreatic cancer. Here, we report that PAS vaccination monotherapy elicits both a humoral and cellular immune response when used in immune competent mice-bearing pancreatic tumors and that PAS monotherapy produced a marked T-cell activation and influx of CD8 + lymphocytes into pancreatic tumors. Isolated peripheral lymphocytes elicited cytokine release upon re-stimulation with gastrin in vitro demonstrating specificity of immune activation for the target peptide. Combination therapy with PAS and PD-1 Ab activated CD4 -/CD8 - TEMRA cells important in T-cell-mediated tumor death and memory. Tumors of mice treated with PAS (250 μg) or PAS (100 and 250 μg) in combination with a PD-1 Ab were significantly smaller compared to tumors from PBS or PD-1 Ab-treated mice. When PAS was given in combination with PD-1 Ab, tumors had less fibrosis, fewer inhibitory Treg lymphocytes, and fewer tumor-associated macrophages. These findings reveal a novel approach to improve treatment strategies for pancreatic cancer.

5 Article Dietary fat stimulates pancreatic cancer growth and promotes fibrosis of the tumor microenvironment through the cholecystokinin receptor. 2018

Nadella, Sandeep / Burks, Julian / Al-Sabban, Abdulhameed / Inyang, Gloria / Wang, Juan / Tucker, Robin D / Zamanis, Marie E / Bukowski, William / Shivapurkar, Narayan / Smith, Jill P. ·Department of Medicine, Georgetown University , Washington, District of Columbia. · Department of Oncology, Georgetown University , Washington, District of Columbia. · Department of Biochemistry, Georgetown University , Washington, District of Columbia. · Department of Comparative Medicine, Georgetown University , Washington, District of Columbia. ·Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol · Pubmed #29927319.

ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) is released from the duodenum in response to dietary fat to aid in digestion, and plasma CCK levels are elevated with the consumption of high-fat diets. CCK is also a trophic peptide for the pancreas and has also been shown to stimulate growth of pancreatic cancer. In the current investigation, we studied the influence of a diet high in saturated fat on the growth of pancreatic cancer in syngeneic murine models before the mice became obese to exclude the confounding factors associated with obesity. The high-fat diet significantly increased growth and metastasis of pancreatic cancer compared with the control diet, and the stimulatory effect was blocked by the CCK-receptor antagonist proglumide. We then selectively knocked out the CCK receptor on the pancreatic cancer cells using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats technology and showed that without CCK-receptors, dietary fat was unable to stimulate cancer growth. We next demonstrated that dietary fat failed to influence pancreatic cancer xenograft growth in genetically engineered CCK peptide knockout mice. The tumor-associated fibrosis that is so prevalent in the pancreatic cancer microenvironment was significantly decreased with CCK-receptor antagonist therapy because fibroblasts also have CCK receptors. The CCK-receptor antagonist proglumide also altered tumor metalloprotease expression and increased tumor suppressor genes by a PCR array. Our studies confirm that a diet high in saturated fat promotes growth of pancreatic cancer and the action is mediated by the CCK-receptor pathway. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Diets high in long-chain saturated fats promote growth of pancreatic cancer independent of obesity. The mechanism through which dietary fat promotes cancer is mediated through the cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor pathway. Therapy with a CCK-receptor antagonist altered the tumor microenvironment by reducing fibrosis, increasing cluster of differentiation 8

6 Article Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies five new susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer. 2018

Klein, Alison P / Wolpin, Brian M / Risch, Harvey A / Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z / Mocci, Evelina / Zhang, Mingfeng / Canzian, Federico / Childs, Erica J / Hoskins, Jason W / Jermusyk, Ashley / Zhong, Jun / Chen, Fei / Albanes, Demetrius / Andreotti, Gabriella / Arslan, Alan A / Babic, Ana / Bamlet, William R / Beane-Freeman, Laura / Berndt, Sonja I / Blackford, Amanda / Borges, Michael / Borgida, Ayelet / Bracci, Paige M / Brais, Lauren / Brennan, Paul / Brenner, Hermann / Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas / Buring, Julie / Campa, Daniele / Capurso, Gabriele / Cavestro, Giulia Martina / Chaffee, Kari G / Chung, Charles C / Cleary, Sean / Cotterchio, Michelle / Dijk, Frederike / Duell, Eric J / Foretova, Lenka / Fuchs, Charles / Funel, Niccola / Gallinger, Steven / M Gaziano, J Michael / Gazouli, Maria / Giles, Graham G / Giovannucci, Edward / Goggins, Michael / Goodman, Gary E / Goodman, Phyllis J / Hackert, Thilo / Haiman, Christopher / Hartge, Patricia / Hasan, Manal / Hegyi, Peter / Helzlsouer, Kathy J / Herman, Joseph / Holcatova, Ivana / Holly, Elizabeth A / Hoover, Robert / Hung, Rayjean J / Jacobs, Eric J / Jamroziak, Krzysztof / Janout, Vladimir / Kaaks, Rudolf / Khaw, Kay-Tee / Klein, Eric A / Kogevinas, Manolis / Kooperberg, Charles / Kulke, Matthew H / Kupcinskas, Juozas / Kurtz, Robert J / Laheru, Daniel / Landi, Stefano / Lawlor, Rita T / Lee, I-Min / LeMarchand, Loic / Lu, Lingeng / Malats, Núria / Mambrini, Andrea / Mannisto, Satu / Milne, Roger L / Mohelníková-Duchoňová, Beatrice / Neale, Rachel E / Neoptolemos, John P / Oberg, Ann L / Olson, Sara H / Orlow, Irene / Pasquali, Claudio / Patel, Alpa V / Peters, Ulrike / Pezzilli, Raffaele / Porta, Miquel / Real, Francisco X / Rothman, Nathaniel / Scelo, Ghislaine / Sesso, Howard D / Severi, Gianluca / Shu, Xiao-Ou / Silverman, Debra / Smith, Jill P / Soucek, Pavel / Sund, Malin / Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata / Tavano, Francesca / Thornquist, Mark D / Tobias, Geoffrey S / Van Den Eeden, Stephen K / Vashist, Yogesh / Visvanathan, Kala / Vodicka, Pavel / Wactawski-Wende, Jean / Wang, Zhaoming / Wentzensen, Nicolas / White, Emily / Yu, Herbert / Yu, Kai / Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne / Zheng, Wei / Kraft, Peter / Li, Donghui / Chanock, Stephen / Obazee, Ofure / Petersen, Gloria M / Amundadottir, Laufey T. ·Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA. aklein1@jhmi.edu. · Department of Pathology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA. aklein1@jhmi.edu. · Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. · Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA. · Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. · Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA. · Laboratory of Translational Genomics, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. · Genomic Epidemiology Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120, Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016, USA. · Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016, USA. · Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016, USA. · Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA. · Department of Pathology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA. · Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1×5, Canada. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA. · International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 69372, Lyon, France. · Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120, Heidelberg, Germany. · Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120, Heidelberg, Germany. · National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), 69120, Heidelberg, Germany. · Department for Determinants of Chronic Diseases (DCD), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), 3720 BA, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. · Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Centre, 3584 CX, Utrecht, The Netherlands. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK. · Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. · Department of Biology, University of Pisa, 56126, Pisa, Italy. · Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, 'Sapienza' University of Rome, 00185, Rome, Italy. · Gastroenterology and Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132, Milan, Italy. · Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, 21702, USA. · Cancer Care Ontario, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2L7, Canada. · Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 3M7, Canada. · Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1007 MB, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Barcelona, 08908, Spain. · Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, 65653, Brno, Czech Republic. · Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA. · Department of Translational Research and The New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, 56126, Pisa, Italy. · Division of Aging, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. · Boston VA Healthcare System, Boston, MA, 02132, USA. · Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Laboratory of Biology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 106 79, Athens, Greece. · Cancer Epidemiology and Intelligence Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia. · Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia. · Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia. · Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA. · SWOG Statistical Center, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA. · Department of General Surgery, University Hospital Heidelberg, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90032, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77230, USA. · First Department of Medicine, University of Szeged, 6725, Szeged, Hungary. · Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA. · Institute of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Charles University, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, 150 06, Prague 5, Czech Republic. · Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, 30303, USA. · Department of Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, 02-776, Warsaw, Poland. · Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava, 701 03, Ostrava, Czech Republic. · Faculty of Medicine, University of Olomouc, 771 47, Olomouc, Czech Republic. · Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120, Heidelberg, Germany. · School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0SP, UK. · Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA. · ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), 08003, Barcelona, Spain. · CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 08003, Barcelona, Spain. · Hospital del Mar Institute of Medical Research (IMIM), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. · Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), 08002, Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Gastroenterology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, 44307, Kaunas, Lithuania. · Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA. · ARC-NET: Centre for Applied Research on Cancer, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, 37134, Verona, Italy. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. · Cancer Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA. · Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO), 28029, Madrid, Spain. · CIBERONC, 28029, Madrid, Spain. · Oncology Department, ASL1 Massa Carrara, Carrara, 54033, Italy. · Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271, Helsinki, Finland. · Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc and University Hospital, 775 20, Olomouc, Czech Republic. · Population Health Department, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, 4029, Australia. · Department of General Surgery, University of Heidelburg, Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA. · Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology (DiSCOG), University of Padua, 35124, Padua, Italy. · Pancreas Unit, Department of Digestive Diseases and Internal Medicine, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40138, Bologna, Italy. · Epithelial Carcinogenesis Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre-CNIO, 28029, Madrid, Spain. · Departament de Ciències Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08002, Barcelona, Spain. · Centre de Recherche en Épidémiologie et Santé des Populations (CESP, Inserm U1018), Facultés de Medicine, Université Paris-Saclay, UPS, UVSQ, Gustave Roussy, 94800, Villejuif, France. · Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA. · Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, 20057, USA. · Laboratory for Pharmacogenomics, Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, 323 00, Pilsen, Czech Republic. · Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University, 901 85, Umeå, Sweden. · Department of Digestive Tract Diseases, Medical University of Łodz, 90-647, Łodz, Poland. · Division of Gastroenterology and Research Laboratory, IRCCS Scientific Institute and Regional General Hospital "Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza", 71013, San Giovanni Rotondo, FG, Italy. · Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, 94612, USA. · Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, University Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246, Hamburg, Germany. · Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA. · Department of Molecular Biology of Cancer, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 142 20, Prague 4, Czech Republic. · Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 14214, USA. · Department of Computational Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 38105, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA. · Perlmutter Cancer Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016, USA. · Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. · Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. · Laboratory of Translational Genomics, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. amundadottirl@mail.nih.gov. ·Nat Commun · Pubmed #29422604.

ABSTRACT: In 2020, 146,063 deaths due to pancreatic cancer are estimated to occur in Europe and the United States combined. To identify common susceptibility alleles, we performed the largest pancreatic cancer GWAS to date, including 9040 patients and 12,496 controls of European ancestry from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Here, we find significant evidence of a novel association at rs78417682 (7p12/TNS3, P = 4.35 × 10

7 Article Cholecystokinin receptor antagonist alters pancreatic cancer microenvironment and increases efficacy of immune checkpoint antibody therapy in mice. 2018

Smith, Jill P / Wang, Shangzi / Nadella, Sandeep / Jablonski, Sandra A / Weiner, Louis M. ·Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Building D, Room 338, 4000 Reservoir Rd, Washington DC, NW, 20007, USA. jps261@georgetown.edu. · Department of Oncology, Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA. jps261@georgetown.edu. · Department of Oncology, Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA. · Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Building D, Room 338, 4000 Reservoir Rd, Washington DC, NW, 20007, USA. ·Cancer Immunol Immunother · Pubmed #29043413.

ABSTRACT: Advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has typically been resistant to chemotherapy and immunotherapy; therefore, novel strategies are needed to enhance therapeutic response. Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been shown to stimulate growth of pancreatic cancer. CCK receptors (CCKRs) are present on pancreatic cancer cells, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes. We hypothesized that CCKR blockade would improve response to immune checkpoint antibodies by promoting influx of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and reducing fibrosis. We examined the effects of CCKR antagonists or immune checkpoint blockade antibodies alone or in combination in murine models of PDAC. Monotherapy with CCKR blockade significantly decreased tumor size and metastases in SCID mice with orthotopic PDAC, and in C57BL/6 mice, it reduced fibrosis and induced the influx of TILs. Immune-competent mice bearing syngeneic pancreatic cancer (Panc02 and mT3-2D) that were treated with the combination of CCK receptor antagonists and immune checkpoint blockade antibodies survived significantly longer with smaller tumors. Tumor immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry demonstrated that the tumors of mice treated with the combination regimen had a significant reduction in Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells and an increase in CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Masson's trichrome stain analysis revealed 50% less fibrosis in the tumors of mice treated with CCKR antagonist compared to controls and compared to checkpoint antibody therapy. CCKR antagonists given with immune checkpoint antibody therapy represent a novel approach for improving survival of PDAC. The mechanism by which this combination therapy improves the survival of PDAC may be related to the decreased fibrosis and immune cells of the tumor microenvironment.

8 Article Characterising 2018

Zhang, Mingfeng / Lykke-Andersen, Soren / Zhu, Bin / Xiao, Wenming / Hoskins, Jason W / Zhang, Xijun / Rost, Lauren M / Collins, Irene / Bunt, Martijn van de / Jia, Jinping / Parikh, Hemang / Zhang, Tongwu / Song, Lei / Jermusyk, Ashley / Chung, Charles C / Zhu, Bin / Zhou, Weiyin / Matters, Gail L / Kurtz, Robert C / Yeager, Meredith / Jensen, Torben Heick / Brown, Kevin M / Ongen, Halit / Bamlet, William R / Murray, Bradley A / McCarthy, Mark I / Chanock, Stephen J / Chatterjee, Nilanjan / Wolpin, Brian M / Smith, Jill P / Olson, Sara H / Petersen, Gloria M / Shi, Jianxin / Amundadottir, Laufey. ·Laboratory of Translational Genomics, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. · Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. · Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. · Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. · Division of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, Missouri, USA. · Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc, Frederick, Maryland, USA. · Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. · Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. · Health Informatics Institute, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA. · Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA. · Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, New York, USA. · Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland. · Department of Health Sciences Research, Division of Epidemiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. · The Eli and Edythe L Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University Cambridge, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. · Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK. · Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. · Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, D.C., USA. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, New York, USA. ·Gut · Pubmed #28634199.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the genetic architecture of gene expression in pancreatic tissues. DESIGN: We performed expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (n=95) using RNA sequencing and the corresponding 1000 genomes imputed germline genotypes. Data from pancreatic tumour-derived tissue samples (n=115) from The Cancer Genome Atlas were included for comparison. RESULTS: We identified 38 615 CONCLUSIONS: We have identified

9 Article Effective encapsulation and biological activity of phosphorylated chemotherapeutics in calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. 2017

Loc, Welley S / Linton, Samuel S / Wilczynski, Zachary R / Matters, Gail L / McGovern, Christopher O / Abraham, Thomas / Fox, Todd / Gigliotti, Christopher M / Tang, Xiaomeng / Tabakovic, Amra / Martin, Jo Ann / Clawson, Gary A / Smith, Jill P / Butler, Peter J / Kester, Mark / Adair, James H. ·Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA. · Department of Pharmacology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA. · Department of Biomedical Engineering/Bioengineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA. · Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA. · Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences and the Microscopy Imaging Facility, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA. · Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA. · Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA. · Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. · Department of Pathology and Gittlen Cancer Institute, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA. · Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA. · Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Pharmacology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering/Bioengineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA. Electronic address: jha3@ems.psu.edu. ·Nanomedicine · Pubmed #28673852.

ABSTRACT: Drug resistant cancers like pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are difficult to treat, and nanoparticle drug delivery systems can overcome some of the limitations of conventional systemic chemotherapy. In this study, we demonstrate that FdUMP and dFdCMP, the bioactive, phosphorylated metabolites of the chemotherapy drugs 5-FU and gemcitabine, can be encapsulated into calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles (CPSNPs). The non-phosphorylated drug analogs were not well encapsulated by CPSNPs, suggesting the phosphate modification is essential for effective encapsulation. In vitro proliferation assays, cell cycle analyses and/or thymidylate synthase inhibition assays verified that CPSNP-encapsulated phospho-drugs retained biological activity. Analysis of orthotopic tumors from mice treated systemically with tumor-targeted FdUMP-CPSNPs confirmed the in vivo up take of these particles by PDAC tumor cells and release of active drug cargos intracellularly. These findings demonstrate a novel methodology to efficiently encapsulate chemotherapeutic agents into the CPSNPs and to effectively deliver them to pancreatic tumor cells.

10 Article A Cholecystokinin B Receptor-Specific DNA Aptamer for Targeting Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. 2017

Clawson, Gary A / Abraham, Thomas / Pan, Weihua / Tang, Xiaomeng / Linton, Samuel S / McGovern, Christopher O / Loc, Welley S / Smith, Jill P / Butler, Peter J / Kester, Mark / Adair, James H / Matters, Gail L. ·1 Department of Pathology, Gittlen Cancer Research Laboratories, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine , Hershey, Pennsylvania. · 2 Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences and the Microscopy Imaging Facility, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine , Hershey, Pennsylvania. · 3 Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University , University Park, Pennsylvania. · 4 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University , University Park, Pennsylvania. · 5 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine , Hershey, Pennsylvania. · 6 Department of Medicine, Georgetown University , Washington, District of Columbia. · 7 Department of Bioengineering, Pennsylvania State University , University Park, Pennsylvania. · 8 Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia , Charlottesville, Virginia. ·Nucleic Acid Ther · Pubmed #27754762.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) constitutively express the G-protein-coupled cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR). In this study, we identified DNA aptamers (APs) that bind to the CCKBR and describe their characterization and targeting efficacy. Using dual SELEX selection against "exposed" CCKBR peptides and CCKBR-expressing PDAC cells, a pool of DNA APs was identified. Further downselection was based on predicted structures and properties, and we selected eight APs for initial characterizations. The APs bound specifically to the CCKBR, and we showed not only that they did not stimulate proliferation of PDAC cell lines but rather inhibited their proliferation. We chose one AP, termed AP1153, for further binding and localization studies. We found that AP1153 did not activate CCKBR signaling pathways, and three-dimensional Confocal microscopy showed that AP1153 was internalized by PDAC cells in a receptor-mediated manner. AP1153 showed a binding affinity of 15 pM. Bioconjugation of AP1153 to the surface of fluorescent NPs greatly facilitated delivery of NPs to PDAC tumors in vivo. The selectivity of this AP-targeted NP delivery system holds promise for enhanced early detection of PDAC lesions as well as improved chemotherapeutic treatments for PDAC patients.

11 Article Distribution of cholecystokinin-B receptor genotype between patients with pancreatic cancer and controls and its impact on survival. 2015

Smith, Jill P / Whitcomb, David C / Matters, Gail L / Brand, Randall E / Liao, Jiangang / Huang, Yu-Jing / Frazier, Marsha L. ·From the *Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC; †Department of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey; ‡Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh; §University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh; Departments of ∥Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and ¶Public Health Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey, PA; and #Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas at MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. ·Pancreas · Pubmed #25469546.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin stimulate growth of pancreatic cancer through the CCK-B receptor (CCK-BR). A splice variant of the CCK-BR that results from a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been identified. Because the splice variant receptor has an extended third intracellular loop, an area involved in cell signaling and growth, we hypothesized that this genetic variant could contribute to the poor prognosis and short survival of this malignancy. METHODS: DNA from 931 patients with pancreatic cancer was evaluated for the SNP (C > A; rs1800843) in the CCK-BR gene. For statistical analysis, the Fisher exact test was used to compare the genotype and allele frequency between the cancer cohort and normal controls and the dependence of genotype on factors, such as stage of disease and age, was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Compared to the normal cohort, the frequency of the A-allele in pancreatic cancer subjects was increased (P = 0.01123; odds ratio, 2.283). Even after adjustment for stage of disease, survival of subjects with the minor allele was significantly shorter than those with the wild-genotype (hazard ratio, 1.83; P = 3.11 × 10(-11)). CONCLUSIONS: The CCK-BR SNP predicts survival and should be studied as a candidate genetic biomarker for those at risk of pancreatic cancer.

12 Article Cholecystokinin receptor antagonist halts progression of pancreatic cancer precursor lesions and fibrosis in mice. 2014

Smith, Jill P / Cooper, Timothy K / McGovern, Christopher O / Gilius, Evan L / Zhong, Qing / Liao, Jiangang / Molinolo, Alfredo A / Gutkind, J Silvio / Matters, Gail L. ·From the *National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Departments of †Medicine, ‡Comparative Medicine and Pathology, §Public Health Sciences, and ∥Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey, PA; and ¶National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. ·Pancreas · Pubmed #25058882.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Exogenous administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) induces hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pancreas with an increase in DNA content. We hypothesized that endogenous CCK is involved in the malignant progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions and the fibrosis associated with pancreatic cancer. METHODS: The presence of CCK receptors in early PanIN lesions was examined by immunohistochemistry in mouse and human pancreas. Pdx1-Cre/LSL-Kras transgenic mice were randomized to receive either untreated drinking water or water supplemented with a CCK receptor antagonist (proglumide, 0.1 mg/mL). Pancreas from the mice were removed and examined histologically for number and grade of PanINs after 1, 2, or 4 months of antagonist therapy. RESULTS: Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were identified in early stage PanINs from mouse and human pancreas. The grade of PanIN lesions was reversed, and progression to advanced lesions arrested in mice treated with proglumide compared with the controls (P = 0.004). Furthermore, pancreatic fibrosis was significantly reduced in antagonist-treated animals compared with vehicle (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that endogenous CCK is in part responsible for the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. The use of CCK receptor antagonists may have a role in cancer prophylaxis in high-risk subjects and may reduce fibrosis in the microenvironment.

13 Article Cholecystokinin mediates progression and metastasis of pancreatic cancer associated with dietary fat. 2014

Matters, Gail L / Cooper, Timothy K / McGovern, Christopher O / Gilius, Evan L / Liao, Jiangang / Barth, Brian M / Kester, Mark / Smith, Jill P. ·Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, 17033, USA. ·Dig Dis Sci · Pubmed #24817409.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity and dietary fat are associated with increased risk of several malignancies including pancreatic cancer. The incidence of pancreatic cancer is increased in countries that consume diets high in fat. AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship and mechanism of action between dietary fat and endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) on pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis in an immunocompetent animal model. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were placed on regular, low-fat, or high-fat diets for 8 weeks before establishment of Panc-02 orthotopic pancreatic tumors. Mice were then treated with a CCK-A receptor antagonist, devazepide, or vehicle for an additional 2.5 weeks. Pancreas tumors were weighed and metastases counted. Blood CCK levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Tissues were examined histologically and studied for genes associated with metastasis by RT-PCR array. Effects of the CCK antagonist on Panc-02 cells invasiveness was assessed in a Matrigel invasion assay. RESULTS: Mice that received the high-fat diet had larger tumors and tenfold higher serum CCK levels by RIA compared to normal diet controls (p < 0.01). Pancreatic tumors in high-fat diet mice treated with the antagonist had fewer intravascular tumor emboli and metastases compared to controls. The reduction in tumor emboli correlated with decreased vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression in tumors (p < 6 × 10(-9)). In vitro invasiveness of Panc-02 cells also was reduced by CCK-A receptor antagonist treatment (p = 1.33 × 10(-6)). CONCLUSION: CCK is a mediator of dietary fat-associated pancreatic cancer. CCK is also involved in the invasiveness of pancreatic tumors through a mechanism involving VEGF-A.

14 Article Downregulation of the CCK-B receptor in pancreatic cancer cells blocks proliferation and promotes apoptosis. 2012

Fino, Kristin K / Matters, Gail L / McGovern, Christopher O / Gilius, Evan L / Smith, Jill P. ·Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, 17033, USA. ·Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol · Pubmed #22442157.

ABSTRACT: Gastrin stimulates the growth of pancreatic cancer cells through the activation of the cholecystokinin-B receptor (CCK-BR), which has been found to be overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we proposed that the CCK-BR drives growth of pancreatic cancer; hence, interruption of CCK-BR activity could potentially be an ideal target for cancer therapeutics. The effect of CCK-BR downregulation in the human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells was examined by utilizing specific CCK-BR-targeted RNA interference reagents. The CCK-BR receptor expression was both transiently and stably downregulated by transfection with selective CCK-BR small-interfering RNA or short-hairpin RNA, respectively, and the effects on cell growth and apoptosis were assessed. CCK-BR downregulation resulted in reduced cancer cell proliferation, decreased DNA synthesis, and cell cycle arrest as demonstrated by an inhibition of G(1) to S phase progression. Furthermore, CCK-BR downregulation increased caspase-3 activity, TUNEL-positive cells, and decreased X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein expression, suggesting apoptotic activity. Pancreatic cancer cell mobility was decreased when the CCK-BR was downregulated, as assessed by a migration assay. These results show the importance of the CCK-BR in regulation of growth and apoptosis in pancreatic cancer. Strategies to decrease the CCK-BR expression and activity may be beneficial for the development of new methods to improve the treatment for patients with pancreatic cancer.

15 Article A single nucleotide polymorphism of the cholecystokinin-B receptor predicts risk for pancreatic cancer. 2012

Smith, Jill P / Harms, John F / Matters, Gail L / McGovern, Christopher O / Ruggiero, Francesca M / Liao, Jiangang / Fino, Kristin K / Ortega, Emily E / Gilius, Evan L / Phillips, John A. ·Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Medicine, Gastroenterology, Hershey, PA USA. ·Cancer Biol Ther · Pubmed #22277584.

ABSTRACT: There currently are no tests available for early diagnosis or for the identification of patients at risk for development of pancreatic cancer. We report the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR) gene predicts survival and risk of pancreatic cancer. Growth of human pancreatic cancer is stimulated by gastrin through the CCKBR and an alternatively spliced isoform of the CCKBR gene called CCKCR. One hundred and ten surgically resected benign and malignant pancreatic tissues as well as normal pancreas were prospectively evaluated for CCKBR genotype and protein expression. Analysis demonstrated the expression of the spliced isoform, CCKCR, was associated with a (SNP) (C > A) at position 32 of the intron 4 (IVS 4) of the CCKBR gene. Since the SNP is within an intron, it has not previously been identified in the GWAS studies. Only patients with the A/A or A/C genotypes, exhibited immunoreactivity to a selective CCKCR antibody. Survival among pancreatic cancer patients with the A-SNP was significantly shorter (p = 0.0001, hazard ratio = 3.63) compared with individuals with C/C genotype. Other variables such as surgical margins, lymph node status, histologic grade or adjuvant chemotherapy were not associated with survival. Furthermore, having one or two of the A-alleles was found to increase the risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma by 174% (p = 0.0192) compared with the C/C wild type. Cancer cells transfected to overexpress the CCKCR demonstrated increased proliferation over controls. Genetic screening for this SNP may aid in early detection of pancreatic cancer in high risk subjects.

16 Article Role of endogenous cholecystokinin on growth of human pancreatic cancer. 2011

Matters, Gail L / McGovern, Christopher / Harms, John F / Markovic, Kevin / Anson, Krystal / Jayakumar, Calpurnia / Martenis, Melissa / Awad, Christina / Smith, Jill P. ·Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA. ·Int J Oncol · Pubmed #21186400.

ABSTRACT: Cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin stimulate growth of pancreatic cancer. Although down-regulation of gastrin inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer, the contribution of endogenous CCK to tumor growth is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of endogenous CCK on autocrine growth of pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer cell lines were analyzed for CCK mRNA and peptide expression by real-time RT-PCR and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The effect of endogenous CCK on growth was evaluated by treating cancer cells with CCK neutralizing antibodies and by down-regulating CCK mRNA by RNAi. Wild-type pancreatic cancer cells expressed significantly lower CCK mRNA and peptide levels than gastrin. Neither treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with CCK antibodies nor the down-regulation of CCK mRNA and peptide by shRNAs altered growth in vitro or in vivo. Conversely, when gastrin mRNA expression was down-regulated, the same cells failed to produce tumors in spite of having sustained levels of endogenous CCK. Pancreatic cancer cells produce CCK and gastrin; however, the autocrine production of gastrin is more important for stimulating tumor growth.

17 Article Bioconjugation of calcium phosphosilicate composite nanoparticles for selective targeting of human breast and pancreatic cancers in vivo. 2010

Barth, Brian M / Sharma, Rahul / Altinoğlu, Erhan I / Morgan, Thomas T / Shanmugavelandy, Sriram S / Kaiser, James M / McGovern, Christopher / Matters, Gail L / Smith, Jill P / Kester, Mark / Adair, James H. ·Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ·ACS Nano · Pubmed #20180585.

ABSTRACT: The early diagnosis of cancer is the critical element in successful treatment and long-term favorable patient prognoses. The high rate of mortality is mainly attributed to the tendency for late diagnoses as symptoms may not occur until the disease has metastasized, as well as the lack of effective systemic therapies. Late diagnosis is often associated with the lack of timely sensitive imaging modalities. The promise of nanotechnology is presently limited by the inability to simultaneously seek, treat, and image cancerous lesions. This study describes the design and synthesis of fluorescent calcium phosphosilicate nanocomposite particles (CPNPs) that can be systemically targeted to breast and pancreatic cancer lesions. The CPNPs are a approximately 20 nm diameter composite composed of an amorphous calcium phosphate matrix doped with silicate in which a near-infrared imaging agent, indocyanine green (ICG), is embedded. In the present studies, we describe and validate CPNP bioconjugation of human holotransferrin, anti-CD71 antibody, and short gastrin peptides via an avidin-biotin or a novel PEG-maleimide coupling strategy. The conjugation of biotinylated human holotransferrin (diferric transferrin) and biotinylated anti-CD71 antibody (anti-transferrin receptor antibody) to avidin-conjugated CPNPs (Avidin-CPNPs) permits targeting of transferrin receptors, which are highly expressed on breast cancer cells. Similarly, the conjugation of biotinylated pentagastrin to Avidin-CPNPs and decagastrin (gastrin-10) to PEG-CPNPs via PEG-maleimide coupling permits targeting of gastrin receptors, which are overexpressed in pancreatic cancer lesions. These bioconjugated CPNPs have the potential to perform as a theranostic modality, simultaneously enhancing drug delivery, targeting, and imaging of breast and pancreatic cancer tumors.

18 Article Growth of human pancreatic cancer is inhibited by down-regulation of gastrin gene expression. 2009

Matters, Gail L / Harms, John F / McGovern, Christopher O / Jayakumar, Calpurnia / Crepin, Keisha / Smith, Zachary P / Nelson, Melissa C / Stock, Heather / Fenn, Craig W / Kaiser, James / Kester, Mark / Smith, Jill P. ·Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17011, USA. ·Pancreas · Pubmed #19465883.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of gastrin messenger RNA (mRNA) down-regulation on growth of human pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Gastrin expression was examined in human pancreatic cancer cell lines by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and peptide expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Gastrin was down-regulated using either stable transfection of an antisense gastrin cDNA or 1 of 3 shRNA (short hairpin RNA) constructs. Tumor formation was evaluated after either subcutaneous or orthotopic injections into nude mice. The effect of nanoliposomes loaded with gastrin siRNA (small interfering RNA) was tested in mice bearing pancreatic tumors. RESULTS: Stable transfection of gastrin antisense or shRNAs into BxPC-3 cells resulted in clones with more than 90% reduction in gastrin mRNA. Tumor growth rate and incidence of metastases in both wild-type and transfected pancreatic cancer cells were directly proportional to the degrees of gastrin mRNA expression. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that gastrin peptide levels were decreased in antisense and shRNA tumors. Gastrin knockdown clones had lower Ki-67 and increased cleaved caspase-3 staining, consistent with known effects of gastrin on proliferation and apoptosis. Tumors in mice treated with gastrin siRNA were smaller than controls. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that RNAi targeting of gastrin could serve as an effective treatment for pancreatic cancer.

19 Unspecified Pancreatitis-diabetes-pancreatic cancer: summary of an NIDDK-NCI workshop. 2013

Andersen, Dana K / Andren-Sandberg, Åke / Duell, Eric J / Goggins, Michael / Korc, Murray / Petersen, Gloria M / Smith, Jill P / Whitcomb, David C. ·From the *Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; †Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; ‡Unit of Nutrition, Environment and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain; §Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; ∥Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN; ¶Department of Epidemiology, Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, Rochester, MN; and #Departments of Medicine, Cell Biology and Physiology, and Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA. ·Pancreas · Pubmed #24152948.

ABSTRACT: A workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) on "Pancreatitis-Diabetes-Pancreatic Cancer" focused on the risk factors of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and diabetes mellitus (DM) on the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Sessions were held on (a) an overview of the problem of PDAC; (b) CP as a risk factor of PDAC; (c) DM as a risk factor of PDAC; (d) pancreatogenic, or type 3c, DM; (e) genomic associations of CP, DM, and PDAC; (f) surveillance of high-risk populations and early detection of PDAC; and (g) effects of DM treatment on PDAC. Recent data and current understandings of the mechanisms of CP- and DM-associated factors on PDAC development were discussed, and a detailed review of the possible risks of DM treatment on the development of PDAC was provided by representatives from academia, industry, and the Food and Drug Administration. The current status of possible biomarkers of PDAC and surveillance strategies for high-risk populations were discussed, and the gaps in knowledge and opportunities for further research were elucidated. A broad spectrum of expertise of the speakers and the discussants provided an unusually productive workshop, the highlights of which are summarized in the accompanying article.