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Pancreatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by Owen J. Sansom
Based on 37 articles published since 2009
(Why 37 articles?)
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Between 2009 and 2019, O. Sansom wrote the following 37 articles about Pancreatic Neoplasms.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2
1 Editorial CXCR2 inhibition in pancreatic cancer: opportunities for immunotherapy? 2017

Morton, Jennifer P / Sansom, Owen J. ·Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Switchback Rd, Glasgow, G61 1BD, UK. · Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK. ·Immunotherapy · Pubmed #28000523.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Timing is everything: Brca2 and p53 mutations in pancreatic cancer. 2011

Morton, Jennifer P / Steele, Colin W / Sansom, Owen J. · ·Gastroenterology · Pubmed #21352873.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Review GEMMs as preclinical models for testing pancreatic cancer therapies. 2015

Gopinathan, Aarthi / Morton, Jennifer P / Jodrell, Duncan I / Sansom, Owen J. ·Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge, CB2 0RE, UK Aarthi.Gopinathan@cruk.cam.ac.uk o.sansom@beatson.gla.ac.uk. · Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Glasgow, G61 1BD, UK. · Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge, CB2 0RE, UK. · Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Glasgow, G61 1BD, UK Aarthi.Gopinathan@cruk.cam.ac.uk o.sansom@beatson.gla.ac.uk. ·Dis Model Mech · Pubmed #26438692.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common form of pancreatic tumour, with a very limited survival rate and currently no available disease-modifying treatments. Despite recent advances in the production of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), the development of new therapies for pancreatic cancer is still hampered by a lack of reliable and predictive preclinical animal models for this disease. Preclinical models are vitally important for assessing therapies in the first stages of the drug development pipeline, prior to their transition to the clinical arena. GEMMs carry mutations in genes that are associated with specific human diseases and they can thus accurately mimic the genetic, phenotypic and physiological aspects of human pathologies. Here, we discuss different GEMMs of human pancreatic cancer, with a focus on the Lox-Stop-Lox (LSL)-Kras(G12D); LSL-Trp53(R172H); Pdx1-cre (KPC) model, one of the most widely used preclinical models for this disease. We describe its application in preclinical research, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages, its potential for predicting clinical outcomes in humans and the factors that can affect such outcomes, and, finally, future developments that could advance the discovery of new therapies for pancreatic cancer.

4 Review Exploiting inflammation for therapeutic gain in pancreatic cancer. 2013

Steele, C W / Jamieson, N B / Evans, T R J / McKay, C J / Sansom, O J / Morton, J P / Carter, C R. ·The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK. ·Br J Cancer · Pubmed #23385734.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy associated with <5% 5-year survival, in which standard chemotherapeutics have limited benefit. The disease is associated with significant intra- and peritumoral inflammation and failure of protective immunosurveillance. Indeed, inflammatory signals are implicated in both tumour initiation and tumour progression. The major pathways regulating PDAC-associated inflammation are now being explored. Activation of leukocytes, and upregulation of cytokine and chemokine signalling pathways, both have been shown to modulate PDAC progression. Therefore, targeting inflammatory pathways may be of benefit as part of a multi-target approach to PDAC therapy. This review explores the pathways known to modulate inflammation at different stages of tumour development, drawing conclusions on their potential as therapeutic targets in PDAC.

5 Article GPR55 signalling promotes proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells and tumour growth in mice, and its inhibition increases effects of gemcitabine. 2018

Ferro, R / Adamska, A / Lattanzio, R / Mavrommati, I / Edling, C E / Arifin, S A / Fyffe, C A / Sala, G / Sacchetto, L / Chiorino, G / De Laurenzi, V / Piantelli, M / Sansom, O J / Maffucci, T / Falasca, M. ·Queen Mary University of London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Blizard Institute, Centre for Cell Biology and Cutaneous Research, 4 Newark Street, London, E1 2AT, UK. · Metabolic Signalling Group, School of Pharmacy & Biomedical Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, 6102, Perth, WA, Australia. · Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Orali e Biotecnologiche, University "G. d'Annunzio" di Chieti-Pescara, Centro Studi sull'Invecchiamento, CeSI-MeT, Chieti, 66100, Italy. · Cancer Genomics Laboratory, Fondazione Edo and Elvo Tempia, Biella, Italy. · Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Glasgow, G61 1BD, UK. · Queen Mary University of London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Blizard Institute, Centre for Cell Biology and Cutaneous Research, 4 Newark Street, London, E1 2AT, UK. marco.falasca@curtin.edu.au. · Metabolic Signalling Group, School of Pharmacy & Biomedical Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, 6102, Perth, WA, Australia. marco.falasca@curtin.edu.au. ·Oncogene · Pubmed #30061636.

ABSTRACT: The life expectancy for pancreatic cancer patients has seen no substantial changes in the last 40 years as very few and mostly just palliative treatments are available. As the five years survival rate remains around 5%, the identification of novel pharmacological targets and development of new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of the G protein-coupled receptor GPR55, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, reduces pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo and we propose that this may represent a novel strategy to inhibit pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) progression. Specifically, we show that genetic ablation of Gpr55 in the KRAS

6 Article Tailored first-line and second-line CDK4-targeting treatment combinations in mouse models of pancreatic cancer. 2018

Chou, Angela / Froio, Danielle / Nagrial, Adnan M / Parkin, Ashleigh / Murphy, Kendelle J / Chin, Venessa T / Wohl, Dalia / Steinmann, Angela / Stark, Rhys / Drury, Alison / Walters, Stacey N / Vennin, Claire / Burgess, Andrew / Pinese, Mark / Chantrill, Lorraine A / Cowley, Mark J / Molloy, Timothy J / Anonymous7621303 / Waddell, Nicola / Johns, Amber / Grimmond, Sean M / Chang, David K / Biankin, Andrew V / Sansom, Owen J / Morton, Jennifer P / Grey, Shane T / Cox, Thomas R / Turchini, John / Samra, Jaswinder / Clarke, Stephen J / Timpson, Paul / Gill, Anthony J / Pajic, Marina. ·The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Faculty of Medicine, St Vincent's Clinical School, University of NSW, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Department of Anatomical Pathology, SYDPATH, Darlinghurst, Australia. · Crown Princess Mary Cancer Centre, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · St. Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, Australia. · St Vincent's Centre for Applied Medical Research, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia. · Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Queensland, Australia. · University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. · West of Scotland Pancreatic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK. · Department of Surgery, Cancer Research UK, Beatson Institute, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. · Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Cancer Diagnosis and Pathology Research Group, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, New South Wales, Australia. · Department of Surgery, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ·Gut · Pubmed #29080858.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Extensive molecular heterogeneity of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), few effective therapies and high mortality make this disease a prime model for advancing development of tailored therapies. The p16-cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6-retinoblastoma (RB) protein (CDK4) pathway, regulator of cell proliferation, is deregulated in PDA. Our aim was to develop a novel personalised treatment strategy for PDA based on targeting CDK4. DESIGN: Sensitivity to potent CDK4/6 inhibitor PD-0332991 (palbociclib) was correlated to protein and genomic data in 19 primary patient-derived PDA lines to identify biomarkers of response. In vivo efficacy of PD-0332991 and combination therapies was determined in subcutaneous, intrasplenic and orthotopic tumour models derived from genome-sequenced patient specimens and genetically engineered model. Mechanistically, monotherapy and combination therapy were investigated in the context of tumour cell and extracellular matrix (ECM) signalling. Prognostic relevance of companion biomarker, RB protein, was evaluated and validated in independent PDA patient cohorts (>500 specimens). RESULTS: Subtype-specific in vivo efficacy of PD-0332991-based therapy was for the first time observed at multiple stages of PDA progression: primary tumour growth, recurrence (second-line therapy) and metastatic setting and may potentially be guided by a simple biomarker (RB protein). PD-0332991 significantly disrupted surrounding ECM organisation, leading to increased quiescence, apoptosis, improved chemosensitivity, decreased invasion, metastatic spread and PDA progression in vivo. RB protein is prevalent in primary operable and metastatic PDA and may present a promising predictive biomarker to guide this therapeutic approach. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the promise of CDK4 inhibition in PDA over standard therapy when applied in a molecular subtype-specific context.

7 Article MYC regulates ductal-neuroendocrine lineage plasticity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma associated with poor outcome and chemoresistance. 2017

Farrell, Amy S / Joly, Meghan Morrison / Allen-Petersen, Brittany L / Worth, Patrick J / Lanciault, Christian / Sauer, David / Link, Jason / Pelz, Carl / Heiser, Laura M / Morton, Jennifer P / Muthalagu, Nathiya / Hoffman, Megan T / Manning, Sara L / Pratt, Erica D / Kendsersky, Nicholas D / Egbukichi, Nkolika / Amery, Taylor S / Thoma, Mary C / Jenny, Zina P / Rhim, Andrew D / Murphy, Daniel J / Sansom, Owen J / Crawford, Howard C / Sheppard, Brett C / Sears, Rosalie C. ·Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. · Department of Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. · Department of Pathology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. · Brenden-Colson Center for Pancreatic Care, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S.W Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. · Computational Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. · Department of Biomedical Engineering and OHSU Center for Spatial Systems Biomedicine, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. · Cancer Research UK, Beatson Institute, Switchback Road, Bearsden, Glasgow, G61 1BD, UK. · Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 7744 MS II, 1137 E. Catherine St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA. · Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition and Zayed Center for Pancreatic Cancer Research, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1466, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. · Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK. · Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. · Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. searsr@ohsu.edu. · Brenden-Colson Center for Pancreatic Care, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S.W Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. searsr@ohsu.edu. · Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. searsr@ohsu.edu. ·Nat Commun · Pubmed #29170413.

ABSTRACT: Intratumoral phenotypic heterogeneity has been described in many tumor types, where it can contribute to drug resistance and disease recurrence. We analyzed ductal and neuroendocrine markers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, revealing heterogeneous expression of the neuroendocrine marker Synaptophysin within ductal lesions. Higher percentages of Cytokeratin-Synaptophysin dual positive tumor cells correlate with shortened disease-free survival. We observe similar lineage marker heterogeneity in mouse models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, where lineage tracing indicates that Cytokeratin-Synaptophysin dual positive cells arise from the exocrine compartment. Mechanistically, MYC binding is enriched at neuroendocrine genes in mouse tumor cells and loss of MYC reduces ductal-neuroendocrine lineage heterogeneity, while deregulated MYC expression in KRAS mutant mice increases this phenotype. Neuroendocrine marker expression is associated with chemoresistance and reducing MYC levels decreases gemcitabine-induced neuroendocrine marker expression and increases chemosensitivity. Altogether, we demonstrate that MYC facilitates ductal-neuroendocrine lineage plasticity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, contributing to poor survival and chemoresistance.

8 Article A RhoA-FRET Biosensor Mouse for Intravital Imaging in Normal Tissue Homeostasis and Disease Contexts. 2017

Nobis, Max / Herrmann, David / Warren, Sean C / Kadir, Shereen / Leung, Wilfred / Killen, Monica / Magenau, Astrid / Stevenson, David / Lucas, Morghan C / Reischmann, Nadine / Vennin, Claire / Conway, James R W / Boulghourjian, Alice / Zaratzian, Anaiis / Law, Andrew M / Gallego-Ortega, David / Ormandy, Christopher J / Walters, Stacey N / Grey, Shane T / Bailey, Jacqueline / Chtanova, Tatyana / Quinn, Julian M W / Baldock, Paul A / Croucher, Peter I / Schwarz, Juliane P / Mrowinska, Agata / Zhang, Lei / Herzog, Herbert / Masedunskas, Andrius / Hardeman, Edna C / Gunning, Peter W / Del Monte-Nieto, Gonzalo / Harvey, Richard P / Samuel, Michael S / Pajic, Marina / McGhee, Ewan J / Johnsson, Anna-Karin E / Sansom, Owen J / Welch, Heidi C E / Morton, Jennifer P / Strathdee, Douglas / Anderson, Kurt I / Timpson, Paul. ·The Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St. Vincent's Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia. · Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Switchback Road, Bearsden, Glasgow G611BD, UK. · Neuromuscular and Regenerative Medicine Unit, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia; Oncology Research Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia. · Neuromuscular and Regenerative Medicine Unit, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia. · Oncology Research Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia. · Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Division, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia; St. Vincent's Clinical School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. · Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology and University of South Australia School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia. · Signalling Programme, Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB223AT, UK. · Francis Crick Institute, London NW11AT, UK. Electronic address: kurt.anderson@crick.ac.uk. · The Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St. Vincent's Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia. Electronic address: p.timpson@garvan.org.au. ·Cell Rep · Pubmed #28978480.

ABSTRACT: The small GTPase RhoA is involved in a variety of fundamental processes in normal tissue. Spatiotemporal control of RhoA is thought to govern mechanosensing, growth, and motility of cells, while its deregulation is associated with disease development. Here, we describe the generation of a RhoA-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor mouse and its utility for monitoring real-time activity of RhoA in a variety of native tissues in vivo. We assess changes in RhoA activity during mechanosensing of osteocytes within the bone and during neutrophil migration. We also demonstrate spatiotemporal order of RhoA activity within crypt cells of the small intestine and during different stages of mammary gestation. Subsequently, we reveal co-option of RhoA activity in both invasive breast and pancreatic cancers, and we assess drug targeting in these disease settings, illustrating the potential for utilizing this mouse to study RhoA activity in vivo in real time.

9 Article Gemcitabine-Induced TIMP1 Attenuates Therapy Response and Promotes Tumor Growth and Liver Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer. 2017

D'Costa, Zenobia / Jones, Keaton / Azad, Abul / van Stiphout, Ruud / Lim, Su Y / Gomes, Ana L / Kinchesh, Paul / Smart, Sean C / Gillies McKenna, W / Buffa, Francesca M / Sansom, Owen J / Muschel, Ruth J / O'Neill, Eric / Fokas, Emmanouil. ·Department of Oncology, CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. · CRUK Beatson Institute of Oncology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. · Department of Oncology, CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. emmanouil.fokas@oncology.ox.ac.uk eric.oneill@oncology.ox.ac.uk. ·Cancer Res · Pubmed #28765154.

ABSTRACT: Gemcitabine constitutes one of the backbones for chemotherapy treatment in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but patients often respond poorly to this agent. Molecular markers downstream of gemcitabine treatment in preclinical models may provide an insight into resistance mechanisms. Using cytokine arrays, we identified potential secretory biomarkers of gemcitabine resistance (response) in the transgenic KRasG12D; Trp53R172H; Pdx-1 Cre (KPC) mouse model of PDAC. We verified the oncogenic role of the cytokine tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) in primary pancreatic tumors and metastases using both

10 Article Modulating the therapeutic response of tumours to dietary serine and glycine starvation. 2017

Maddocks, Oliver D K / Athineos, Dimitris / Cheung, Eric C / Lee, Pearl / Zhang, Tong / van den Broek, Niels J F / Mackay, Gillian M / Labuschagne, Christiaan F / Gay, David / Kruiswijk, Flore / Blagih, Julianna / Vincent, David F / Campbell, Kirsteen J / Ceteci, Fatih / Sansom, Owen J / Blyth, Karen / Vousden, Karen H. ·Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Switchback Road, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK. · University of Glasgow Institute of Cancer Sciences, Switchback Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK. ·Nature · Pubmed #28425994.

ABSTRACT: The non-essential amino acids serine and glycine are used in multiple anabolic processes that support cancer cell growth and proliferation (reviewed in ref. 1). While some cancer cells upregulate de novo serine synthesis, many others rely on exogenous serine for optimal growth. Restriction of dietary serine and glycine can reduce tumour growth in xenograft and allograft models. Here we show that this observation translates into more clinically relevant autochthonous tumours in genetically engineered mouse models of intestinal cancer (driven by Apc inactivation) or lymphoma (driven by Myc activation). The increased survival following dietary restriction of serine and glycine in these models was further improved by antagonizing the anti-oxidant response. Disruption of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (using biguanides) led to a complex response that could improve or impede the anti-tumour effect of serine and glycine starvation. Notably, Kras-driven mouse models of pancreatic and intestinal cancers were less responsive to depletion of serine and glycine, reflecting an ability of activated Kras to increase the expression of enzymes that are part of the serine synthesis pathway and thus promote de novo serine synthesis.

11 Article Transient tissue priming via ROCK inhibition uncouples pancreatic cancer progression, sensitivity to chemotherapy, and metastasis. 2017

Vennin, Claire / Chin, Venessa T / Warren, Sean C / Lucas, Morghan C / Herrmann, David / Magenau, Astrid / Melenec, Pauline / Walters, Stacey N / Del Monte-Nieto, Gonzalo / Conway, James R W / Nobis, Max / Allam, Amr H / McCloy, Rachael A / Currey, Nicola / Pinese, Mark / Boulghourjian, Alice / Zaratzian, Anaiis / Adam, Arne A S / Heu, Celine / Nagrial, Adnan M / Chou, Angela / Steinmann, Angela / Drury, Alison / Froio, Danielle / Giry-Laterriere, Marc / Harris, Nathanial L E / Phan, Tri / Jain, Rohit / Weninger, Wolfgang / McGhee, Ewan J / Whan, Renee / Johns, Amber L / Samra, Jaswinder S / Chantrill, Lorraine / Gill, Anthony J / Kohonen-Corish, Maija / Harvey, Richard P / Biankin, Andrew V / Anonymous7171303 / Evans, T R Jeffry / Anderson, Kurt I / Grey, Shane T / Ormandy, Christopher J / Gallego-Ortega, David / Wang, Yingxiao / Samuel, Michael S / Sansom, Owen J / Burgess, Andrew / Cox, Thomas R / Morton, Jennifer P / Pajic, Marina / Timpson, Paul. ·The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia. · St. Vincent's Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia. · Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Division, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia. · Biomedical Imaging Facility, Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia. · Department of Pathology, St. Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia. · Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia. · Immune Imaging Program, Centenary Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia. · University of Sydney Medical School, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia. · Department of Dermatology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales 2050, Australia. · Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Glasgow, Scotland G61 BD, U.K. · Cancer Diagnosis and Pathology Research Group, Kolling Institute of Medical Research and Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2065, Australia. · University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia. · Australian Pancreatic Cancer Genome Initiative. · Department of Surgery, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2065, Australia. · Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centre, Campbelltown Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2560, Australia. · School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Penrith, Sydney, New South Wales 2751, Australia. · School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia. · Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland G61 BD, U.K. · West of Scotland Pancreatic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Scotland G61 BD, U.K. · Department of Bioengineering, Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92121, USA. · Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology and University of South Australia School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia. · The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia. m.pajic@garvan.org.au p.timpson@garvan.org.au. ·Sci Transl Med · Pubmed #28381539.

ABSTRACT: The emerging standard of care for patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer is a combination of cytotoxic drugs gemcitabine and Abraxane, but patient response remains moderate. Pancreatic cancer development and metastasis occur in complex settings, with reciprocal feedback from microenvironmental cues influencing both disease progression and drug response. Little is known about how sequential dual targeting of tumor tissue tension and vasculature before chemotherapy can affect tumor response. We used intravital imaging to assess how transient manipulation of the tumor tissue, or "priming," using the pharmaceutical Rho kinase inhibitor Fasudil affects response to chemotherapy. Intravital Förster resonance energy transfer imaging of a cyclin-dependent kinase 1 biosensor to monitor the efficacy of cytotoxic drugs revealed that priming improves pancreatic cancer response to gemcitabine/Abraxane at both primary and secondary sites. Transient priming also sensitized cells to shear stress and impaired colonization efficiency and fibrotic niche remodeling within the liver, three important features of cancer spread. Last, we demonstrate a graded response to priming in stratified patient-derived tumors, indicating that fine-tuned tissue manipulation before chemotherapy may offer opportunities in both primary and metastatic targeting of pancreatic cancer.

12 Article Phosphorylation of Rab-coupling protein by LMTK3 controls Rab14-dependent EphA2 trafficking to promote cell:cell repulsion. 2017

Gundry, Christine / Marco, Sergi / Rainero, Elena / Miller, Bryan / Dornier, Emmanuel / Mitchell, Louise / Caswell, Patrick T / Campbell, Andrew D / Hogeweg, Anna / Sansom, Owen J / Morton, Jennifer P / Norman, Jim C. ·CRUK Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Garscube Estate, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK. · Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK. · Cell-Matrix Research, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK. ·Nat Commun · Pubmed #28294115.

ABSTRACT: The Rab GTPase effector, Rab-coupling protein (RCP) is known to promote invasive behaviour in vitro by controlling integrin and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) trafficking, but how RCP influences metastasis in vivo is unclear. Here we identify an RTK of the Eph family, EphA2, to be a cargo of an RCP-regulated endocytic pathway which controls cell:cell repulsion and metastasis in vivo. Phosphorylation of RCP at Ser

13 Article PD-L1 blockade enhances response of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma to radiotherapy. 2017

Azad, Abul / Yin Lim, Su / D'Costa, Zenobia / Jones, Keaton / Diana, Angela / Sansom, Owen J / Kruger, Philipp / Liu, Stanley / McKenna, W Gillies / Dushek, Omer / Muschel, Ruth J / Fokas, Emmanouil. ·Department of Oncology, CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. · CRUK Beatson Cancer Institute, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. · Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. · Department of Oncology, CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK emmanouil.fokas@oncology.ox.ac.uk. ·EMBO Mol Med · Pubmed #27932443.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is considered a non-immunogenic tumor, and immune checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy lacks efficacy in this disease. Radiotherapy (RT) can stimulate the immune system. Here, we show that treatment of KPC and Pan02 murine PDAC cells with RT and gemcitabine upregulated PD-L1 expression in a JAK/Stat1-dependent manner. In vitro, PD-L1 inhibition did not alter radio- and chemosensitivity. In vivo, addition of anti-PD-L1 to high (12, 5 × 3, 20 Gy) but not low (6, 5 × 2 Gy) RT doses significantly improved tumor response in KPC and Pan02 allografts. Radiosensitization after PD-L1 blockade was associated with reduced CD11b

14 Article Hypermutation In Pancreatic Cancer. 2017

Humphris, Jeremy L / Patch, Ann-Marie / Nones, Katia / Bailey, Peter J / Johns, Amber L / McKay, Skye / Chang, David K / Miller, David K / Pajic, Marina / Kassahn, Karin S / Quinn, Michael C J / Bruxner, Timothy J C / Christ, Angelika N / Harliwong, Ivon / Idrisoglu, Senel / Manning, Suzanne / Nourse, Craig / Nourbakhsh, Ehsan / Stone, Andrew / Wilson, Peter J / Anderson, Matthew / Fink, J Lynn / Holmes, Oliver / Kazakoff, Stephen / Leonard, Conrad / Newell, Felicity / Waddell, Nick / Wood, Scott / Mead, Ronald S / Xu, Qinying / Wu, Jianmin / Pinese, Mark / Cowley, Mark J / Jones, Marc D / Nagrial, Adnan M / Chin, Venessa T / Chantrill, Lorraine A / Mawson, Amanda / Chou, Angela / Scarlett, Christopher J / Pinho, Andreia V / Rooman, Ilse / Giry-Laterriere, Marc / Samra, Jaswinder S / Kench, James G / Merrett, Neil D / Toon, Christopher W / Epari, Krishna / Nguyen, Nam Q / Barbour, Andrew / Zeps, Nikolajs / Jamieson, Nigel B / McKay, Colin J / Carter, C Ross / Dickson, Euan J / Graham, Janet S / Duthie, Fraser / Oien, Karin / Hair, Jane / Morton, Jennifer P / Sansom, Owen J / Grützmann, Robert / Hruban, Ralph H / Maitra, Anirban / Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A / Schulick, Richard D / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Morgan, Richard A / Lawlor, Rita T / Rusev, Borislav / Corbo, Vincenzo / Salvia, Roberto / Cataldo, Ivana / Tortora, Giampaolo / Tempero, Margaret A / Anonymous5740887 / Hofmann, Oliver / Eshleman, James R / Pilarsky, Christian / Scarpa, Aldo / Musgrove, Elizabeth A / Gill, Anthony J / Pearson, John V / Grimmond, Sean M / Waddell, Nicola / Biankin, Andrew V. ·The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, and the Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom. · Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom; Department of Surgery, Bankstown Hospital, Bankstown, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; South Western Sydney Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales Australia, Liverpool, New South Wales, Australia; West of Scotland Pancreatic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom. · The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, and the Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, and the Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; St Vincent's Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales Australia, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia. · Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Genetic and Molecular Pathology, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. · Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; St Vincent's Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales Australia, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia. · The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, and the Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; South Eastern Area Laboratory Services Pathology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia; Sonic Genetics, Douglass Hanly Moir Pathology, New South Wales, Australia. · The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, and the Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom. · The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, and the Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centre, Campbelltown Hospital, New South Wales, Australia. · The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, and the Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Department of Anatomical Pathology, SydPath, St Vincent's Hospital, New South Wales, Australia. · The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, and the Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, New South Wales, Australia. · Department of Surgery, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, and the Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia. · Department of Surgery, Bankstown Hospital, Bankstown, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia. · Department of Surgery, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Murdoch, Washington. · Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. · Department of Surgery, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woollongabba, Queensland, Australia. · School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Australia and St John of God Pathology, Subiaco, Washington. · Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom; West of Scotland Pancreatic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom; Academic Unit of Surgery, School of Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom. · West of Scotland Pancreatic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom. · Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom; Department of Medical Oncology, Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow, United Kingdom. · Department of Pathology, Southern General Hospital, Greater Glasgow & Clyde National Health Service, Glasgow, United Kingdom. · Greater Glasgow and Clyde Bio-repository, Pathology Department, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow, United Kingdom. · Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Glasgow, United Kingdom; Institute for Cancer Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. · Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany. · Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. · Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. · ARC-NET Center for Applied Research on Cancer, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy; Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. · Department of Medicine, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy. · Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California. · Australian Pancreatic Cancer Genome Initiative. · Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom. · Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Department of Surgery, University of Erlangen-Nueremberg, Germany. · The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, and the Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom; St Vincent's Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales Australia, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia. · The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, and the Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; University of Melbourne Centre for Cancer Research, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address: nic.waddell@qimrberghofer.edu.au. · Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom; Department of Surgery, Bankstown Hospital, Bankstown, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; South Western Sydney Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales Australia, Liverpool, New South Wales, Australia; West of Scotland Pancreatic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Electronic address: andrew.biankin@glasgow.ac.uk. ·Gastroenterology · Pubmed #27856273.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is molecularly diverse, with few effective therapies. Increased mutation burden and defective DNA repair are associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in several other cancer types. We interrogated 385 pancreatic cancer genomes to define hypermutation and its causes. Mutational signatures inferring defects in DNA repair were enriched in those with the highest mutation burdens. Mismatch repair deficiency was identified in 1% of tumors harboring different mechanisms of somatic inactivation of MLH1 and MSH2. Defining mutation load in individual pancreatic cancers and the optimal assay for patient selection may inform clinical trial design for immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer.

15 Article mTORC2 Signaling Drives the Development and Progression of Pancreatic Cancer. 2016

Driscoll, David R / Karim, Saadia A / Sano, Makoto / Gay, David M / Jacob, Wright / Yu, Jun / Mizukami, Yusuke / Gopinathan, Aarthi / Jodrell, Duncan I / Evans, T R Jeffry / Bardeesy, Nabeel / Hall, Michael N / Quattrochi, Brian J / Klimstra, David S / Barry, Simon T / Sansom, Owen J / Lewis, Brian C / Morton, Jennifer P. ·Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts. · CRUK Beatson Institute, Glasgow, United Kingdom. · Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. · Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. · Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. · CRUK Cambridge Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom. · Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. · Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. · AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, United Kingdom. · CRUK Beatson Institute, Glasgow, United Kingdom. o.sansom@beatson.gla.ac.uk Brian.Lewis@umassmed.edu. · Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts. o.sansom@beatson.gla.ac.uk Brian.Lewis@umassmed.edu. · Cancer Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts. ·Cancer Res · Pubmed #27758884.

ABSTRACT: mTOR signaling controls several critical cellular functions and is deregulated in many cancers, including pancreatic cancer. To date, most efforts have focused on inhibiting the mTORC1 complex. However, clinical trials of mTORC1 inhibitors in pancreatic cancer have failed, raising questions about this therapeutic approach. We employed a genetic approach to delete the obligate mTORC2 subunit Rictor and identified the critical times during which tumorigenesis requires mTORC2 signaling. Rictor deletion resulted in profoundly delayed tumorigenesis. Whereas previous studies showed most pancreatic tumors were insensitive to rapamycin, treatment with a dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor strongly suppressed tumorigenesis. In late-stage tumor-bearing mice, combined mTORC1/2 and PI3K inhibition significantly increased survival. Thus, targeting mTOR may be a potential therapeutic strategy in pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res; 76(23); 6911-23. ©2016 AACR.

16 Article RelA regulates CXCL1/CXCR2-dependent oncogene-induced senescence in murine Kras-driven pancreatic carcinogenesis. 2016

Lesina, Marina / Wörmann, Sonja Maria / Morton, Jennifer / Diakopoulos, Kalliope Nina / Korneeva, Olga / Wimmer, Margit / Einwächter, Henrik / Sperveslage, Jan / Demir, Ihsan Ekin / Kehl, Timo / Saur, Dieter / Sipos, Bence / Heikenwälder, Mathias / Steiner, Jörg Manfred / Wang, Timothy Cragin / Sansom, Owen J / Schmid, Roland Michael / Algül, Hana. · ·J Clin Invest · Pubmed #27454298.

ABSTRACT: Tumor suppression that is mediated by oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is considered to function as a safeguard during development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the mechanisms that regulate OIS in PDAC are poorly understood. Here, we have determined that nuclear RelA reinforces OIS to inhibit carcinogenesis in the Kras mouse model of PDAC. Inactivation of RelA accelerated pancreatic lesion formation in Kras mice by abrogating the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) gene transcription signature. Using genetic and pharmacological tools, we determined that RelA activation promotes OIS via elevation of the SASP factor CXCL1 (also known as KC), which activates CXCR2, during pancreatic carcinogenesis. In Kras mice, pancreas-specific inactivation of CXCR2 prevented OIS and was correlated with increased tumor proliferation and decreased survival. Moreover, reductions in CXCR2 levels were associated with advanced neoplastic lesions in tissue from human pancreatic specimens. Genetically disabling OIS in Kras mice caused RelA to promote tumor proliferation, suggesting a dual role for RelA signaling in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Taken together, our data suggest a pivotal role for RelA in regulating OIS in preneoplastic lesions and implicate the RelA/CXCL1/CXCR2 axis as an essential mechanism of tumor surveillance in PDAC.

17 Article CXCR2 Inhibition Profoundly Suppresses Metastases and Augments Immunotherapy in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. 2016

Steele, Colin W / Karim, Saadia A / Leach, Joshua D G / Bailey, Peter / Upstill-Goddard, Rosanna / Rishi, Loveena / Foth, Mona / Bryson, Sheila / McDaid, Karen / Wilson, Zena / Eberlein, Catherine / Candido, Juliana B / Clarke, Mairi / Nixon, Colin / Connelly, John / Jamieson, Nigel / Carter, C Ross / Balkwill, Frances / Chang, David K / Evans, T R Jeffry / Strathdee, Douglas / Biankin, Andrew V / Nibbs, Robert J B / Barry, Simon T / Sansom, Owen J / Morton, Jennifer P. ·Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK. · Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK. · Oncology iMED, AstraZeneca, Alderley Park, Macclesfield SK10 4TG, UK. · Centre for Cancer and Inflammation, Barts Cancer Institute, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. · Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ UK. · Department of Surgery, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow G4 0SF, UK. · Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK; Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK. · Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK; Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK. Electronic address: o.sansom@beatson.gla.ac.uk. ·Cancer Cell · Pubmed #27265504.

ABSTRACT: CXCR2 has been suggested to have both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressive properties. Here we show that CXCR2 signaling is upregulated in human pancreatic cancer, predominantly in neutrophil/myeloid-derived suppressor cells, but rarely in tumor cells. Genetic ablation or inhibition of CXCR2 abrogated metastasis, but only inhibition slowed tumorigenesis. Depletion of neutrophils/myeloid-derived suppressor cells also suppressed metastasis suggesting a key role for CXCR2 in establishing and maintaining the metastatic niche. Importantly, loss or inhibition of CXCR2 improved T cell entry, and combined inhibition of CXCR2 and PD1 in mice with established disease significantly extended survival. We show that CXCR2 signaling in the myeloid compartment can promote pancreatic tumorigenesis and is required for pancreatic cancer metastasis, making it an excellent therapeutic target.

18 Article Loss of P53 Function Activates JAK2-STAT3 Signaling to Promote Pancreatic Tumor Growth, Stroma Modification, and Gemcitabine Resistance in Mice and Is Associated With Patient Survival. 2016

Wörmann, Sonja M / Song, Liang / Ai, Jiaoyu / Diakopoulos, Kalliope N / Kurkowski, Magdalena U / Görgülü, Kivanc / Ruess, Dietrich / Campbell, Andrew / Doglioni, Claudio / Jodrell, Duncan / Neesse, Albrecht / Demir, Ihsan E / Karpathaki, Angelica-Phaedra / Barenboim, Maxim / Hagemann, Thorsten / Rose-John, Stefan / Sansom, Owen / Schmid, Roland M / Protti, Maria P / Lesina, Marina / Algül, Hana. ·II Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. · Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. · Pathology Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. · Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Li Ka Shing Centre, Cambridge, United Kingdom. · Department of Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Philipps-University, Marburg, Germany. · Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. · II Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; German Cancer Consortium, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany. · Centre for Cancer and Inflammation, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, John Vane Science Centre, London, United Kingdom. · Institute of Biochemistry, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany. · Tumor Immunology Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. · II Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. Electronic address: hana.alguel@mri.tum.de. ·Gastroenterology · Pubmed #27003603.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: One treatment strategy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is to modify, rather than deplete, the tumor stroma. Constitutive activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is associated with progression of pancreatic and other solid tumors. We investigated whether loss of P53 function contributes to persistent activation of STAT3 and modification of the pancreatic tumor stroma in patients and mice. METHODS: Stat3, Il6st (encodes gp130), or Trp53 were disrupted, or a mutant form of P53 (P53R172H) or transgenic sgp130 were expressed, in mice that developed pancreatic tumors resulting from expression of activated KRAS (KrasG12D, KC mice). Pancreata were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), or immunoblot assays; fluorescence-activated cell sorting was performed to identify immune cells. We obtained frozen pancreatic tumor specimens from patients and measured levels of phosphorylated STAT3 and P53 by immunohistochemistry; protein levels were associated with survival using Kaplan-Meier analyses. We measured levels of STAT3, P53, ligands for gp130, interleukin 6, cytokines, sonic hedgehog signaling, STAT3 phosphorylation (activation), and accumulation of reactive oxygen species in primary pancreatic cells from mice. Mice with pancreatic tumors were given gemcitabine and a Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitor; tumor growth was monitored by 3-dimensional ultrasound. RESULTS: STAT3 was phosphorylated constitutively in pancreatic tumor cells from KC mice with loss or mutation of P53. Tumor cells of these mice accumulated reactive oxygen species and had lower activity of the phosphatase SHP2 and prolonged phosphorylation of JAK2 compared with tumors from KC mice with functional P53. These processes did not require the gp130 receptor. Genetic disruption of Stat3 in mice, or pharmacologic inhibitors of JAK2 or STAT3 activation, reduced fibrosis and the numbers of pancreatic stellate cells in the tumor stroma and altered the types of immune cells that infiltrated tumors. Mice given a combination of gemcitabine and a JAK2 inhibitor formed smaller tumors and survived longer than mice given control agents; the tumor stroma had fewer activated pancreatic stellate cells, lower levels of periostin, and alterations in collagen production and organization. Phosphorylation of STAT3 correlated with P53 mutation and features of infiltrating immune cells in human pancreatic tumors. Patients whose tumors had lower levels of phosphorylated STAT3 and functional P53 had significantly longer survival times than patients with high levels of phosphorylated STAT3 and P53 mutation. CONCLUSIONS: In pancreatic tumors of mice, loss of P53 function activates JAK2-STAT3 signaling, which promotes modification of the tumor stroma and tumor growth and resistance to gemcitabine. In human pancreatic tumors, STAT3 phosphorylation correlated with P53 mutation and patient survival time. Inhibitors of this pathway slow tumor growth and stroma formation, alter immune cell infiltration, and prolong survival of mice. Transcript profiling: ArrayExpress accession number: E-MTAB-3278.

19 Article Genomic analyses identify molecular subtypes of pancreatic cancer. 2016

Bailey, Peter / Chang, David K / Nones, Katia / Johns, Amber L / Patch, Ann-Marie / Gingras, Marie-Claude / Miller, David K / Christ, Angelika N / Bruxner, Tim J C / Quinn, Michael C / Nourse, Craig / Murtaugh, L Charles / Harliwong, Ivon / Idrisoglu, Senel / Manning, Suzanne / Nourbakhsh, Ehsan / Wani, Shivangi / Fink, Lynn / Holmes, Oliver / Chin, Venessa / Anderson, Matthew J / Kazakoff, Stephen / Leonard, Conrad / Newell, Felicity / Waddell, Nick / Wood, Scott / Xu, Qinying / Wilson, Peter J / Cloonan, Nicole / Kassahn, Karin S / Taylor, Darrin / Quek, Kelly / Robertson, Alan / Pantano, Lorena / Mincarelli, Laura / Sanchez, Luis N / Evers, Lisa / Wu, Jianmin / Pinese, Mark / Cowley, Mark J / Jones, Marc D / Colvin, Emily K / Nagrial, Adnan M / Humphrey, Emily S / Chantrill, Lorraine A / Mawson, Amanda / Humphris, Jeremy / Chou, Angela / Pajic, Marina / Scarlett, Christopher J / Pinho, Andreia V / Giry-Laterriere, Marc / Rooman, Ilse / Samra, Jaswinder S / Kench, James G / Lovell, Jessica A / Merrett, Neil D / Toon, Christopher W / Epari, Krishna / Nguyen, Nam Q / Barbour, Andrew / Zeps, Nikolajs / Moran-Jones, Kim / Jamieson, Nigel B / Graham, Janet S / Duthie, Fraser / Oien, Karin / Hair, Jane / Grützmann, Robert / Maitra, Anirban / Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Morgan, Richard A / Lawlor, Rita T / Corbo, Vincenzo / Bassi, Claudio / Rusev, Borislav / Capelli, Paola / Salvia, Roberto / Tortora, Giampaolo / Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata / Petersen, Gloria M / Anonymous91128 / Munzy, Donna M / Fisher, William E / Karim, Saadia A / Eshleman, James R / Hruban, Ralph H / Pilarsky, Christian / Morton, Jennifer P / Sansom, Owen J / Scarpa, Aldo / Musgrove, Elizabeth A / Bailey, Ulla-Maja Hagbo / Hofmann, Oliver / Sutherland, Robert L / Wheeler, David A / Gill, Anthony J / Gibbs, Richard A / Pearson, John V / Waddell, Nicola / Biankin, Andrew V / Grimmond, Sean M. ·Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. · Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK. · The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, 370 Victoria St, Darlinghurst, and the Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria St, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia. · Department of Surgery, Bankstown Hospital, Eldridge Road, Bankstown, Sydney, New South Wales 2200, Australia. · South Western Sydney Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Liverpool, New South Wales 2170, Australia. · QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland 4006, Australia. · Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. · Michael DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. · Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. · Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA. · Genetic and Molecular Pathology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia. · School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia. · Harvard Chan Bioinformatics Core, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. · Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centre, Campbelltown Hospital, New South Wales 2560, Australia. · Department of Pathology. SydPath, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia. · St Vincent's Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 2052, Australia. · School of Environmental &Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, New South Wales 2258, Australia. · Department of Surgery, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Sydney, New South Wales 2065, Australia. · University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia. · Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown New South Wales 2050, Australia. · School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Penrith, New South Wales 2175, Australia. · Fiona Stanley Hospital, Robin Warren Drive, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150, Australia. · Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia. · Department of Surgery, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Rd, Woollongabba, Queensland 4102, Australia. · School of Surgery M507, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Nedlands 6009, Australia and St John of God Pathology, 12 Salvado Rd, Subiaco, Western Australia 6008, Australia. · Academic Unit of Surgery, School of Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow G4 OSF, UK. · West of Scotland Pancreatic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow G31 2ER, UK. · Department of Medical Oncology, Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, 1053 Great Western Road, Glasgow G12 0YN, UK. · Department of Pathology, Southern General Hospital, Greater Glasgow &Clyde NHS, Glasgow G51 4TF, UK. · GGC Bio-repository, Pathology Department, Southern General Hospital, 1345 Govan Road, Glasgow G51 4TY, UK. · Department of Surgery, TU Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany. · Departments of Pathology and Translational Molecular Pathology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston Texas 77030, USA. · The David M. Rubenstein Pancreatic Cancer Research Center and Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. · Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA. · Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA. · ARC-Net Applied Research on Cancer Centre, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona 37134, Italy. · Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University of Verona, Verona 37134, Italy. · Department of Surgery, Pancreas Institute, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona 37134, Italy. · Department of Medical Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Centre, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona 37134, Italy. · Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. · Elkins Pancreas Center, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, MS226, Houston, Texas 77030-3411, USA. · Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK. · Institute for Cancer Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. · University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. ·Nature · Pubmed #26909576.

ABSTRACT: Integrated genomic analysis of 456 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas identified 32 recurrently mutated genes that aggregate into 10 pathways: KRAS, TGF-β, WNT, NOTCH, ROBO/SLIT signalling, G1/S transition, SWI-SNF, chromatin modification, DNA repair and RNA processing. Expression analysis defined 4 subtypes: (1) squamous; (2) pancreatic progenitor; (3) immunogenic; and (4) aberrantly differentiated endocrine exocrine (ADEX) that correlate with histopathological characteristics. Squamous tumours are enriched for TP53 and KDM6A mutations, upregulation of the TP63∆N transcriptional network, hypermethylation of pancreatic endodermal cell-fate determining genes and have a poor prognosis. Pancreatic progenitor tumours preferentially express genes involved in early pancreatic development (FOXA2/3, PDX1 and MNX1). ADEX tumours displayed upregulation of genes that regulate networks involved in KRAS activation, exocrine (NR5A2 and RBPJL), and endocrine differentiation (NEUROD1 and NKX2-2). Immunogenic tumours contained upregulated immune networks including pathways involved in acquired immune suppression. These data infer differences in the molecular evolution of pancreatic cancer subtypes and identify opportunities for therapeutic development.

20 Article Inhibition of Tumor Growth and Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer Models by Interference With CD44v6 Signaling. 2016

Matzke-Ogi, Alexandra / Jannasch, Katharina / Shatirishvili, Marine / Fuchs, Beatrix / Chiblak, Sara / Morton, Jennifer / Tawk, Bouchra / Lindner, Thomas / Sansom, Owen / Alves, Frauke / Warth, Arne / Schwager, Christian / Mier, Walter / Kleeff, Jörg / Ponta, Helmut / Abdollahi, Amir / Orian-Rousseau, Véronique. ·Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany; Amcure GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany. · Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Medicine Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany. · Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany. · Molecular and Translational Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg Medical School and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany; The German Cancer Consortium, Heidelberg, Germany. · Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Glasgow, United Kingdom. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. · Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Surgery, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. · Amcure GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany. · Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany. Electronic address: veronique.orian-rousseau@kit.edu. ·Gastroenterology · Pubmed #26597578.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cancer cells with high metastatic potential and stem cell-like characteristics express the cell surface marker CD44. CD44 isoforms that include the v6 exon are co-receptors for the receptor tyrosine kinases MET and Vascular Endothelial Growth factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). We studied CD44v6 signaling in several pancreatic cancer cell lines, and its role in tumor growth and metastasis in several models of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We analyzed the effects of v6 peptides that interfere with the co-receptor functions of CD44v6 for MET and VEGFR-2 in tumors and metastases grown from cells that express different CD44 isoforms, including CD44v6. The peptides were injected into rats with syngeneic tumors and mice with orthotopic or xenograft tumors. We also tested the effects of the peptides in mice with xenograft tumors grown from patient tumor samples and mice that express an oncogenic form of RAS and develop spontaneous pancreatic cancer (KPC mice). We measured levels of CD44v6 messenger RNA (mRNA) in pancreatic cancer tissues from 136 patients. RESULTS: Xenograft tumors grown from human cancer cells injected with v6 peptides were smaller and formed fewer metastases in mice. The v6 peptide was more efficient than the MET inhibitor crizotinib and/or the VEGFR-2 inhibitor pazopanib in reducing xenograft tumor growth and metastasis. Injection of KPC mice with the v6 peptide increased their survival time. Injection of mice and rats bearing metastases with the v6 peptide induced regression of metastases. Higher levels of CD44v6 mRNA in human pancreatic tumor tissues were associated with increased expression of MET, tumor metastasis, and shorter patient survival times. CONCLUSIONS: Peptide inhibitors of CD44v6 isoforms block tumor growth and metastasis in several independent models of pancreatic cancer. The v6 peptides induced regression of metastases. Levels of CD44v6 mRNA are increased, along with those of MET mRNA, in patients with metastatic pancreatic tumors, compared with nonmetastatic tumors; the increased levels correlated with shorter patient survival time.

21 Article Targeting the LOX/hypoxia axis reverses many of the features that make pancreatic cancer deadly: inhibition of LOX abrogates metastasis and enhances drug efficacy. 2015

Miller, Bryan W / Morton, Jennifer P / Pinese, Mark / Saturno, Grazia / Jamieson, Nigel B / McGhee, Ewan / Timpson, Paul / Leach, Joshua / McGarry, Lynn / Shanks, Emma / Bailey, Peter / Chang, David / Oien, Karin / Karim, Saadia / Au, Amy / Steele, Colin / Carter, Christopher Ross / McKay, Colin / Anderson, Kurt / Evans, Thomas R Jeffry / Marais, Richard / Springer, Caroline / Biankin, Andrew / Erler, Janine T / Sansom, Owen J. ·Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute Garscube Estate, Glasgow, UK. · The Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia. · Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, Withington Manchester, UK. · West of Scotland Pancreatic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK. · Institute of Cancer Sciences University of Glasgow Garscube Estate, Glasgow, UK. · Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute Garscube Estate, Glasgow, UK Institute of Cancer Sciences University of Glasgow Garscube Estate, Glasgow, UK. · Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK. · Biotech Research & Innovation Centre (BRIC), University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (UCPH), Denmark janine.erler@bric.ku.dk o.sansom@beatson.gla.ac.uk. · Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute Garscube Estate, Glasgow, UK janine.erler@bric.ku.dk o.sansom@beatson.gla.ac.uk. ·EMBO Mol Med · Pubmed #26077591.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. Despite significant advances made in the treatment of other cancers, current chemotherapies offer little survival benefit in this disease. Pancreaticoduodenectomy offers patients the possibility of a cure, but most will die of recurrent or metastatic disease. Hence, preventing metastatic disease in these patients would be of significant benefit. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we identified a LOX/hypoxia signature associated with poor patient survival in resectable patients. We found that LOX expression is upregulated in metastatic tumors from Pdx1-Cre Kras(G12D/+) Trp53(R172H/+) (KPC) mice and that inhibition of LOX in these mice suppressed metastasis. Mechanistically, LOX inhibition suppressed both migration and invasion of KPC cells. LOX inhibition also synergized with gemcitabine to kill tumors and significantly prolonged tumor-free survival in KPC mice with early-stage tumors. This was associated with stromal alterations, including increased vasculature and decreased fibrillar collagen, and increased infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils into tumors. Therefore, LOX inhibition is able to reverse many of the features that make PDAC inherently refractory to conventional therapies and targeting LOX could improve outcome in surgically resectable disease.

22 Article Cancer cell-autonomous TRAIL-R signaling promotes KRAS-driven cancer progression, invasion, and metastasis. 2015

von Karstedt, Silvia / Conti, Annalisa / Nobis, Max / Montinaro, Antonella / Hartwig, Torsten / Lemke, Johannes / Legler, Karen / Annewanter, Franka / Campbell, Andrew D / Taraborrelli, Lucia / Grosse-Wilde, Anne / Coy, Johannes F / El-Bahrawy, Mona A / Bergmann, Frank / Koschny, Ronald / Werner, Jens / Ganten, Tom M / Schweiger, Thomas / Hoetzenecker, Konrad / Kenessey, Istvan / Hegedüs, Balazs / Bergmann, Michael / Hauser, Charlotte / Egberts, Jan-Hendrik / Becker, Thomas / Röcken, Christoph / Kalthoff, Holger / Trauzold, Anna / Anderson, Kurt I / Sansom, Owen J / Walczak, Henning. ·Centre for Cell Death, Cancer and Inflammation, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, 72 Huntley Street, London WC1E 6DD, UK. · Centre for Cell Death, Cancer and Inflammation, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, 72 Huntley Street, London WC1E 6DD, UK; Department of Experimental Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, 20133 Milan, Italy. · Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Switchback Road, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK. · Division of Molecular Oncology, Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, University of Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany. · German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Institute for Systems Biology, 401 Terry Avenue N, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. · German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; TAVARLIN AG, Biotechpark Pfungstadt, Reißstraße 1a, 64319 Pfungstadt, Germany. · Department of Histopathology, Imperial College London, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK. · Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 224, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Surgery, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Thoracic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria; Christian Doppler Laboratory for Cardiac and Thoracic Diagnosis and Regeneration, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. · Christian Doppler Laboratory for Cardiac and Thoracic Diagnosis and Regeneration, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. · 2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University Budapest, Ulloi ut 93, 1091 Budapest, Hungary. · Department of Thoracic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria; Molecular Oncology Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences-Semmelweis University, 1091 Budapest, Hungary. · Department of Thoracic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. · Department of General Surgery, Visceral, Thoracic, Transplantation and Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, 24105 Kiel, Germany. · Department of Pathology, Christian-Albrechts-University, 24105 Kiel, Germany. · Division of Molecular Oncology, Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, University of Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany; Department of General Surgery, Visceral, Thoracic, Transplantation and Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, 24105 Kiel, Germany. · Centre for Cell Death, Cancer and Inflammation, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, 72 Huntley Street, London WC1E 6DD, UK. Electronic address: h.walczak@ucl.ac.uk. ·Cancer Cell · Pubmed #25843002.

ABSTRACT: Many cancers harbor oncogenic mutations of KRAS. Effectors mediating cancer progression, invasion, and metastasis in KRAS-mutated cancers are only incompletely understood. Here we identify cancer cell-expressed murine TRAIL-R, whose main function ascribed so far has been the induction of apoptosis as a crucial mediator of KRAS-driven cancer progression, invasion, and metastasis and in vivo Rac-1 activation. Cancer cell-restricted genetic ablation of murine TRAIL-R in autochthonous KRAS-driven models of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) reduces tumor growth, blunts metastasis, and prolongs survival by inhibiting cancer cell-autonomous migration, proliferation, and invasion. Consistent with this, high TRAIL-R2 expression correlates with invasion of human PDAC into lymph vessels and with shortened metastasis-free survival of KRAS-mutated colorectal cancer patients.

23 Article IP-10/CXCL10 induction in human pancreatic cancer stroma influences lymphocytes recruitment and correlates with poor survival. 2014

Lunardi, Serena / Jamieson, Nigel B / Lim, Su Yin / Griffiths, Kristin L / Carvalho-Gaspar, Manuela / Al-Assar, Osama / Yameen, Sabira / Carter, Ross C / McKay, Colin J / Spoletini, Gabriele / D'Ugo, Stefano / Silva, Michael A / Sansom, Owen J / Janssen, Klaus-Peter / Muschel, Ruth J / Brunner, Thomas B. ·Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, United Kingdom. · West of Scotland Pancreatic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, G31 2ER, United Kingdom. · Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus, OX2 7BN, Oxford, United Kingdom. · Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom. · Beatson Institute of Cancer Research, Garscube Estate, Glasgow, G61 1BD, United Kingdom. · Department of Surgery, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Muenchen, Germany. · Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, United Kingdom. Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany. ·Oncotarget · Pubmed #25415223.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by an abundant desmoplastic reaction driven by pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) that contributes to tumor progression. Here we sought to characterize the interactions between pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) and PSCs that affect the inflammatory and immune response in pancreatic tumors. Conditioned media from mono- and cocultures of PSCs and PCCs were assayed for expression of cytokines and growth factors. IP-10/CXCL10 was the most highly induced chemokine in coculture of PSCs and PCCs. Its expression was induced in the PSCs by PCCs. IP-10 was elevated in human PDAC specimens, and positively correlated with high stroma content. Furthermore, gene expression of IP-10 and its receptor CXCR3 were significantly associated with the intratumoral presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs). In an independent cohort of 48 patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, high IP-10 expression levels correlated with decreased median overall survival. Finally, IP-10 stimulated the ex vivo recruitment of CXCR3+ effector T cells as well as CXCR3+ Tregs derived from patients with PDAC. Our findings suggest that, in pancreatic cancer, CXCR3+ Tregs can be recruited by IP-10 expressed by PSCs in the tumor stroma, leading to immunosuppressive and tumor-promoting effects.

24 Article AKT regulates NPM dependent ARF localization and p53mut stability in tumors. 2014

Hamilton, Garth / Abraham, Aswin G / Morton, Jennifer / Sampson, Oliver / Pefani, Dafni E / Khoronenkova, Svetlana / Grawenda, Anna / Papaspyropoulos, Angelos / Jamieson, Nigel / McKay, Colin / Sansom, Owen / Dianov, Grigory L / O'Neill, Eric. ·Cancer Research UK/MRC Oxford Institute, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus, Roosevelt Drive, UK; These authors contributed equally to this work. · Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Glasgow, UK. · Cancer Research UK/MRC Oxford Institute, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus, Roosevelt Drive, UK. · West of Scotland Pancreatic Unit and University Department of Surgery, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Alexandra Parade. Glasgow. ·Oncotarget · Pubmed #25071014.

ABSTRACT: Nucleophosmin (NPM) is known to regulate ARF subcellular localization and MDM2 activity in response to oncogenic stress, though the precise mechanism has remained elusive. Here we describe how NPM and ARF associate in the nucleoplasm to form a MDM2 inhibitory complex. We find that oligomerization of NPM drives nucleolar accumulation of ARF. Moreover, the formation of NPM and ARF oligomers antagonizes MDM2 association with the inhibitory complex, leading to activation of MDM2 E3-ligase activity and targeting of p53. We find that AKT phosphorylation of NPM-Ser48 prevents oligomerization that results in nucleoplasmic localization of ARF, constitutive MDM2 inhibition and stabilization of p53. We also show that ARF promotes p53 mutant stability in tumors and suppresses p73 mediated p21 expression and senescence. We demonstrate that AKT and PI3K inhibitors may be effective in treatment of therapeutically resistant tumors with elevated AKT and carrying gain of function mutations in p53. Our results show that the clinical candidate AKT inhibitor MK-2206 promotes ARF nucleolar localization, reduced p53(mut) stability and increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation in a xenograft model of pancreatic cancer. Analysis of human tumors indicates that phospho-S48-NPM may be a useful biomarker for monitoring AKT activity and in vivo efficacy of AKT inhibitor treatment. Critically, we propose that combination therapy involving PI3K-AKT inhibitors would benefit from a patient stratification rationale based on ARF and p53(mut) status.

25 Article Targeting mTOR dependency in pancreatic cancer. 2014

Morran, Douglas C / Wu, Jianmin / Jamieson, Nigel B / Mrowinska, Agata / Kalna, Gabriela / Karim, Saadia A / Au, Amy Y M / Scarlett, Christopher J / Chang, David K / Pajak, Malgorzata Z / Anonymous6250790 / Oien, Karin A / McKay, Colin J / Carter, C Ross / Gillen, Gerry / Champion, Sue / Pimlott, Sally L / Anderson, Kurt I / Evans, T R Jeffry / Grimmond, Sean M / Biankin, Andrew V / Sansom, Owen J / Morton, Jennifer P. ·CRUK Beatson Institute, Glasgow, UK. · The Kinghorn Cancer Centre and the Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · West of Scotland Pancreatic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK. · School of Environmental & Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, New South Wales, Australia. · The Kinghorn Cancer Centre and the Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia West of Scotland Pancreatic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK Department of Surgery, Bankstown Hospital, Bankstown, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Faculty of Medicine, South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of NSW, Liverpool, New South Wales, Australia The Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. · CRUK Beatson Institute, Glasgow, UK Institute of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. · West of Scotland PET Centre, Gartnavel General Hospital, Glasgow, UK. · West of Scotland Radionuclide Dispensary, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Glasgow, UK. · The Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. ·Gut · Pubmed #24717934.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. Current chemotherapy regimens have modest survival benefit. Thus, novel, effective therapies are required for treatment of this disease. DESIGN: Activating KRAS mutation almost always drives pancreatic tumour initiation, however, deregulation of other potentially druggable pathways promotes tumour progression. PTEN loss leads to acceleration of Kras(G12D)-driven pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in mice and these tumours have high levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling. To test whether these KRAS PTEN pancreatic tumours show mTOR dependence, we compared response to mTOR inhibition in this model, to the response in another established model of pancreatic cancer, KRAS P53. We also assessed whether there was a subset of pancreatic cancer patients who may respond to mTOR inhibition. RESULTS: We found that tumours in KRAS PTEN mice exhibit a remarkable dependence on mTOR signalling. In these tumours, mTOR inhibition leads to proliferative arrest and even tumour regression. Further, we could measure response using clinically applicable positron emission tomography imaging. Importantly, pancreatic tumours driven by activated KRAS and mutant p53 did not respond to treatment. In human tumours, approximately 20% of cases demonstrated low PTEN expression and a gene expression signature that overlaps with murine KRAS PTEN tumours. CONCLUSIONS: KRAS PTEN tumours are uniquely responsive to mTOR inhibition. Targeted anti-mTOR therapies may offer clinical benefit in subsets of human PDAC selected based on genotype, that are dependent on mTOR signalling. Thus, the genetic signatures of human tumours could be used to direct pancreatic cancer treatment in the future.

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