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Pancreatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by Juhani Sand
Based on 15 articles published since 2010
(Why 15 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, J. Sand wrote the following 15 articles about Pancreatic Neoplasms.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Clinical Trial Optimal duration and timing of adjuvant chemotherapy after definitive surgery for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: ongoing lessons from the ESPAC-3 study. 2014

Valle, Juan W / Palmer, Daniel / Jackson, Richard / Cox, Trevor / Neoptolemos, John P / Ghaneh, Paula / Rawcliffe, Charlotte L / Bassi, Claudio / Stocken, Deborah D / Cunningham, David / O'Reilly, Derek / Goldstein, David / Robinson, Bridget A / Karapetis, Christos / Scarfe, Andrew / Lacaine, Francois / Sand, Juhani / Izbicki, Jakob R / Mayerle, Julia / Dervenis, Christos / Oláh, Attila / Butturini, Giovanni / Lind, Pehr A / Middleton, Mark R / Anthoney, Alan / Sumpter, Kate / Carter, Ross / Büchler, Markus W. ·Juan W. Valle, Derek O'Reilly, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and University of Manchester, Manchester · Richard Jackson, Trevor Cox, John P. Neoptolemos, Paula Ghaneh, Charlotte L. Rawcliffe, Liverpool Cancer Research UK Centre and the National Institute for Health Research Pancreas Biomedical Research Unit, University of Liverpool, Liverpool · Daniel Palmer, the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust · Deborah D. Stocken, the Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit, University of Birmingham, Birmingham · David Cunningham, Royal Marsden Hospital Foundation Trust, Sutton · Mark R. Middleton, Churchill Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford · Alan Anthoney, The Leeds Teaching Hospital Trust, Leeds · Kate Sumpter, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne · Ross Carter, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom · Claudio Bassi, Giovanni Butturini, University of Verona, Verona, Italy · David Goldstein, Bridget A. Robinson, Christos Karapetis, the Australasian Gastro-Intestinal Trials Group, Camperdown, Australia · Andrew Scarfe, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada · Francois Lacaine, Hôpital TENON, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Universite Pierre Et Marie Curie, Paris, France · Juhani Sand, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland · Jakob R. Izbicki, University of Hamburg, Hamburg · Julia Mayerle, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, Greifswald · Markus W. Büchler, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany · Christos Dervenis, the Agia Olga Hospital, Athens, Greece · Attila Oláh, the Petz Aladar Hospital, Gyor, Hungary · Pehr A. Lind, Karolinska-Stockholm Söder Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #24419109.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Adjuvant chemotherapy improves patient survival rates after resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but the optimal duration and time to initiate chemotherapy is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma treated within the international, phase III, European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer-3 (version 2) study were included if they had been randomly assigned to chemotherapy. Overall survival analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis, retaining patients in their randomized groups, and adjusting the overall treatment effect by known prognostic variables as well as the start time of chemotherapy. RESULTS: There were 985 patients, of whom 486 (49%) received gemcitabine and 499 (51%) received fluorouracil; 675 patients (68%) completed all six cycles of chemotherapy (full course) and 293 patients (30%) completed one to five cycles. Lymph node involvement, resection margins status, tumor differentiation, and completion of therapy were all shown by multivariable Cox regression to be independent survival factors. Overall survival favored patients who completed the full six courses of treatment versus those who did not (hazard ratio [HR], 0.516; 95% CI, 0.443 to 0.601; P < .001). Time to starting chemotherapy did not influence overall survival rates for the full study population (HR, 0.985; 95% CI, 0.956 to 1.015). Chemotherapy start time was an important survival factor only for the subgroup of patients who did not complete therapy, in favor of later treatment (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Completion of all six cycles of planned adjuvant chemotherapy rather than early initiation was an independent prognostic factor after resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. There seems to be no difference in outcome if chemotherapy is delayed up to 12 weeks, thus allowing adequate time for postoperative recovery.

2 Article Centralization of Pancreatic Surgery Improves Results: Review. 2020

Ahola, R / Sand, J / Laukkarinen, J. ·Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. · Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. · Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland. ·Scand J Surg · Pubmed #31969066.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effect of operation volume on the outcomes of pancreatic surgery has been a subject of research since the 1990s. In several countries around the world, this has led to the centralization of pancreatic surgery. However, controversy persists as to the benefits of centralization and what the optimal operation volume for pancreatic surgery actually is. This review summarizes the data on the effect of centralization on mortality, complications, hospital facilities used, and costs regarding pancreatic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic librarian-assisted search was performed in PubMed covering the years from August 1999 to August 2019. All studies comparing results of open pancreatic resections from high- and low-volume centers were included. In total 44, published articles were analyzed. RESULTS: Studies used a variety of different criteria for high-volume and low-volume centers, which hampers the evaluating of the effect of operation volume. However, mortality in high-volume centers is consistently reported to be lower than in low-volume centers. In addition, failure to rescue critically ill patients is more common in low-volume centers. Cost-effectiveness has also been evaluated in the literature. Length of hospital stay in particular has been reported to be shorter in high-volume centers than in low-volume centers. CONCLUSION: The effect of centralization on the outcomes of pancreatic surgery has been under active research and the beneficial effect of it is associated especially with better short-term prognosis after surgery.

3 Article Pancreatic resections are not only safest but also most cost-effective when performed in a high-volume centre: A Finnish register study. 2019

Ahola, R / Sand, J / Laukkarinen, J. ·Dept. of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Finland. · Dept. of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Finland; Päijät-Häme Central Hospital, Medical School, University of Tampere, Finland. · Dept. of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Finland; Medical School, University of Tampere, Finland. Electronic address: johanna.laukkarinen@fimnet.fi. ·Pancreatology · Pubmed #31239104.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is not known whether the treatment costs of pancreatic surgery can be reduced by centralisation. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of hospital volume on the short-term prognosis and costs in a nationwide study. METHODS: The National registry was searched for patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) in Finland between 2012 and 2014. Patient data was recorded up to ninety days postoperatively and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) calculated. Complications were classified according to Clavien-Dindo. A CCI was calculated for each patient. The hospitals were categorized by yearly resection rate: high (≥20, HVC), medium (6-19, MVC) and low (≤5, LVC). Costs were calculated according to the 2012 billing list. RESULTS: The study population comprised 466 patients. Demographics were similar in the HVC, MVC and LVC groups. Mortality was lower in the HVCs than in MVCs and LVCs at 30 days (0.8% vs. 8.8-12.9%; p < 0.01) and at 90 days (1.9% vs. 10.5-16.1%; p < 0.01). Hospital volume and CCI were significant factors for mortality in multivariate analysis. Median costs among all patients were lower in the HVC group than in the MVC/LVC groups (p = 0.019), among Clavien-Dindo class III (0.020), among patients over 75 years (p < 0.001) and among patients who survived over five days (p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Thirty- and 90-day mortality is 10 times lower when the patient is operated on in an HVC. The study shows that the median overall costs of surgical treatment are 82-88% of the median costs in lower volume centres.

4 Article Characteristics and long-term survival of resected pancreatic cystic neoplasms in Finland. The first nationwide retrospective cohort analysis. 2019

Vaalavuo, Yrjö / Antila, Anne / Ahola, Reea / Siiki, Antti / Vornanen, Martine / Ukkonen, Mika / Sand, Juhani / Laukkarinen, Johanna. ·Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. · Dept. of Pathology, Fimlab Laboratories, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. · Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; Päijäthäme Central Hospital, Lahti, Finland. · Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Finland. Electronic address: johanna.laukkarinen@fimnet.fi. ·Pancreatology · Pubmed #30808537.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCN) are being found increasingly in imaging studies. Even though the characteristics of PCN lesions have been studied extensively in single and multicentre settings, nationwide data is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the nationwide epidemiologic characteristics and long-term survival of all resected PCNs. METHODS: For this retrospective cohort analysis, all PCNs operated on in Finland during the period 2000-2008 were identified. Data was collected from all patients: on demographics, comorbidities, symptoms, radiological findings, surgical procedures, complications, histopathological diagnoses and survival. Incomplete pathology reports and any uncertain diagnoses were re-assessed. Survival data was collected after a five-year follow-up period. RESULTS: The final database included 225 patients with operated PCN. After reviewing the incomplete pathology reports, in 44 cases the original diagnosis was changed, mostly from MCN to IPMN. The most common histopathological diagnoses were IPMN (94/225; 50/225 MD-IPMN, 30/225 MX-IPMN and 14/225 BD-IPMN), SCN (41/225) and MCN (40/225). Overall, 53/225 (23.6%) of the tumours were malignant. Malignancy was detected in MD-IPMN 29/50 (58%), MX-IPMN 10/30 (33.3%), MCN 12/40 (30%), BD-IPMN 2/14 (14.3%) patients. Median 5-year survival for all patients was 77%: 87% in patients without malignancy, 77% with HGD and 27% in patients with a malignant resected PCN. CONCLUSION: One fourth of the PCNs operated on nationwide were malignant, with a five-year survival of 27%, compared to overall survival of 87% in patients with non-malignant disease and 77% in those with HGD. Detecting - and operating on - a PCN before the malignant transfer remains a great challenge.

5 Article Access to radical resections of pancreatic cancer is region-dependent despite the public healthcare system in Finland. 2018

Ahola, Reea / Hölsä, Heini / Kiskola, Samuli / Ojala, Pirkka / Pirttilä, Aino / Sand, Juhani / Laukkarinen, Johanna. ·Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. · Medicine, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. ·J Epidemiol Community Health · Pubmed #29720389.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Surgical resection is the best treatment option to improve the prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC). Our aim was to analyse whether PC treatment strategies show regional variation in Finland, a country with a nationwide public healthcare system. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with PC in 2003 and 2008 were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. The data regarding tumour, treatment, demographics and timespans to treatment were recorded from the patient archives. Patients were included in the healthcare district where the diagnosis was made. The healthcare districts were classified according to experience in pancreatic surgery into three groups (high level of experience region (HLER), n=2; medium level of experience region (MLER), n=6, and low level of experience region (LLER), n=13). RESULTS: Patients included numbered 1546 (median age 72 years (range 34-97), 45% men). Demographics and the ratio of stage IV disease (53%) were similar between the regional groups. Despite this, the proportion of radical surgery was greater in HLERs than in the MLERs and LLERs (18% vs 8%-11%; p<0.01). Logistic regression analysis including age, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, stage and level of experience showed that more radical resections were performed in the HLERs. Preoperative bile drainage showed no regional differences (p=0.137). Palliative chemotherapy only was used more frequently in MLER and LLER than in HLERs (24% vs 33%-30%; p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Access to PC curative treatment was more likely for patients in healthcare districts including a hospital with high level of experience in pancreatic surgery. This highlights the importance of centralized treatment guidance.

6 Article Patients with resected, histologically re-confirmed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) can achieve long-term survival despite T3 tumour or nodal involvement. The Finnish Register Study 2000-2013. 2017

Ahola, Reea / Siiki, Antti / Vasama, Kaija / Vornanen, Martine / Sand, Juhani / Laukkarinen, Johanna. ·Dept. of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Finland, PL 2000, 33521 Tampere, Finland. · Dept. of Pathology, Fimlab Laboratories, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland, PL 66, 33101 Tampere, Finland. · Dept. of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Finland, PL 2000, 33521 Tampere, Finland. Electronic address: johanna.laukkarinen@fimnet.fi. ·Pancreatology · Pubmed #28789903.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Long-term survival of patients with operated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been associated with resection status, disease stage and centralisation. However, no previous reports are available about long-term survivors of PDAC with confirmed histology covering an entire nation. Our aim was to analyze retrospectively confirmed long-term survivors of PDAC operated on in Finland 2000-2008. METHOD: PDAC patients operated between 2000 and 2008 were selected from Finnish patient registers and archives. Histological slides of patients with over four-year survival were re-evaluated by an expert pancreatic pathologist. From the confirmed PDAC patients, demographic, oncologic and operative parameters were recorded. The cut-point of survival was 31.12.2013. RESULTS: Out of the 598 patients operated on and originally diagnosed with PDAC, 52 of the long-term survivors (LTS) were confirmed as having had true PDAC. The four-year survival rate in high volume centres (HVC) was 13.0% and 6.7% elsewhere (p = 0.017). Five-year survival rate was 7.2%. After multivariate analysis only the size of the tumour persisted as prognostic factor for over four-year survival. Among LTSs, 50% of patients had stage IIB tumour and 40% had a R1 resection without difference with patients with shorter survival. The use of adjuvant therapy did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: This is the largest single-nationwide cohort of long-term survivors with confirmed PDAC. Comprehensive pathological evaluation is mandatory for an adequate PDAC diagnosis and true survival analysis. Long-term survival can be achieved even in T3 patients with nodal involvement and may be explained by favorable tumour biology.

7 Article Effect of centralization on long-term survival after resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. 2017

Ahola, R / Siiki, A / Vasama, K / Vornanen, M / Sand, J / Laukkarinen, J. ·Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. · Department of Pathology, Fimlab Laboratories, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. ·Br J Surg · Pubmed #28517236.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Centralization of pancreatic surgery has resulted in improved short-term outcomes in a number of healthcare systems. The aim of this study was to see whether hospital volume influenced long-term prognosis, use of adjuvant therapy or histopathological evaluation of patients undergoing surgical resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: Patients undergoing surgical resection of PDAC in Finland between 2002 and 2008 were identified from national registers. Demographic, histopathological, operative and oncological data were recorded, and the histopathological slides of patients who survived for more than 4 years were reviewed. Operative volume was defined according to the annual rate of pancreatoduodenectomy as: high-volume centres (HVCs; 20 or more resections per year), medium-volume centres (MVCs; 6-19 resection annually) and low-volume centres (LVCs; 5 or fewer resections annually). RESULTS: Some 467 patients who had undergone resectional surgery for PDAC at 22 centres were included. Patient demographics and resection types did not differ between centres. Thirty- and 90-day mortality rates were significantly lower in HVCs compared with LVCs: 0 versus 5·5 per cent (P = 0·001) and 2·5 versus 11·0 per cent (P = 0·003) respectively. Tumours in HVCs were generally at a more advanced stage than those in LVCs (stage IIB: 65·7 versus 40·6 per cent respectively; P < 0·001), but with no greater use of adjuvant therapy. Significantly more patients survived for 2 years (43·3 versus 29·7 per cent; P = 0·034) and 3 years (25·4 versus 14·1 per cent; P = 0·045) after surgery in HVCs than in LVCs. More information was missing in the histopathological reports from LVCs and MVCs than in those from HVCs (P ≤ 0·002). CONCLUSION: Both short- and long-term survival was significantly better for patients operated on in HVCs. Histopathological analysis appears to be more comprehensive in HVCs.

8 Article Quality of life in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. 2017

Laitinen, Ismo / Sand, Juhani / Peromaa, Pipsa / Nordback, Isto / Laukkarinen, Johanna. ·Dept of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. · Dept of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. Electronic address: johanna.laukkarinen@fimnet.fi. ·Pancreatology · Pubmed #28274687.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Survival for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is relatively short even after complete resection. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) carries a high risk for postoperative morbidity, and the effect on quality of life (QoL) is unclear. We aimed to study QoL in PDAC patients undergoing PD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty patients with suspected PDAC and planned PD were asked to complete EORTC QoL questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PAN26 preoperatively and at 3-6-12-18-24 months postoperatively. RESULTS: 47 PDAC patients who underwent PD (66 (21-84) years, 53% men) were included. Follow-up was completed by 81% (6 months) and 45% (24 months) post-PD. Compared to preoperative level, QoL tended to improve or remained the same in 63% during the follow-up. At three months after PD patients had less hepatic symptoms (decreased by 100%; p < 0.001), pancreatic pain and sexuality symptoms tended to decrease by 33% and global and functional QoL tended to slightly improve. These parameters remained at the achieved level during the longer follow-up. A temporary rising tendency was seen in digestive symptoms at three months but this later reverted to the preoperative level. More altered bowel movements and sexuality symptoms tended to arise during the longer follow-up. A negative correlation was found between reported financial difficulties and length of survival. CONCLUSIONS: PD does not worsen the QoL in most of the patients with PDAC. The potentially beneficial effect on QoL is apparent already at three months after surgery. This information may be helpful for the clinician and patient, when deciding on the treatment for PDAC.

9 Article [Insulinomas in Tampere University Hospital Special Responsibility Area in 1980-2010]. 2015

Uitto, Elina / Hannula, Päivi / Metso, Saara / Vornanen, Martine / Sand, Juhani / Jaatinen, Pia. · ·Duodecim · Pubmed #26548107.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Insulin-producing neuroendocrine tumours (iNETs) are rare, but their incidence is increasing. We studied the incidence, clinical picture, diagnostics, and treatment of insulinomas diagnosed in 1980 to 2010. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of insulinomas diagnosed in Tampere University Hospital. RESULTS: We found 23 iNET cases corresponding to an incidence of 0.7/million/year. All had neuroglycopenic symptoms and 83% had autonomic ones. The median diagnostic delay (from first symptoms up to diagnosis) was 25 months. Preoperative imaging found the tumor in 87%. Twenty-one out of 22 patients who underwent surgery recovered completely. CONCLUSIONS: Despite improved imaging the diagnostic delay of iNETs remained unchanged. Hypoglycemia and insulinoma should be considered as a cause of unspecific, symptomatic attacks.

10 Article Tumor-like Chronic Pancreatitis Is Often Autoimmune Pancreatitis. 2015

Ráty, Sari / Sand, Juhani / Nordback, Isto / Rinta-Kiikka, Irina / Vasama, Kaija / Hagström, Jaana / Nordling, Stig / Sirén, Jukka / Kiviluoto, Tuula / Haglund, Caj. ·Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. · Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland juhani.sand@pshp.fi. · Department of Clinical Radiology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. · Laboratory Center, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. · Department of Pathology, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. · Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. · Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. ·Anticancer Res · Pubmed #26504044.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis (CP) is often difficult. Certain (5-6%) CP cases are autoimmune in nature, and these patients respond to corticosteroid treatment, making surgery avoidable. Our aim was to evaluate the incidence of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) among patients operated on for a pancreatic mass with a final histology of CP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 33 patients were operated on at the Tampere or Helsinki University Hospital for suspicion of cancer, but with final histopathological diagnosis of CP. The median age was 58 (31-81) years; 26 patients (79%) were male. There were 28 pancreaticoduodenectomes and five left pancreatic resections. Surgical specimens were re-evaluated by experienced pathologists, with representative samples chosen for immunohistochemistry Each sample was scored as positive or negative for immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) independently by two pathologists. Honolulu consensus criteria served for AIP sub-typing. RESULTS: Out of the 33 specimens, 10 (30%) were positive for IgG4. Histopathological re-evaluation of these revealed all to be type 1 AIP. CONCLUSION: The proportion of AIP, according to IgG4-positive immunohistochemistry and histological re-evaluation, was much higher than expected. This suggests that by focusing on diagnosis of AIP preoperatively, certain patients might be treated with corticosteroids and possibly avoid unnecessary surgery.

11 Article Liver stiffness measured by transient elastography in patients with acute pancreatitis. 2014

Hietanen, Daniela / Räty, Sari / Sand, Juhani / Mäkelä, Tuula / Laukkarinen, Johanna / Collin, Pekka. ·Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, P.O. Box 2000, FI 33521 Tampere, Finland. · Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, P.O. Box 2000, FI 33521 Tampere, Finland. Electronic address: pekka.collin@uta.fi. ·Pancreatology · Pubmed #24650960.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse constitutes a risk factor for acute pancreatitis and liver cirrhosis, and cirrhosis in turn may delay the recovery from pancreatitis. We evaluated the occurrence and significance of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis in patients with acute pancreatitis by applying transient elastography (TE). METHODS: TE was carried out in 78 patients with acute pancreatitis. Comparisons were made to the severity and recurrence of pancreatitis, to biological markers for fibrosis (APRI test), alcohol intake (AST/ALT ratio, AUDIT), and prothrombin time (TT-SPA). A cut-off value of ≥7.5 kilopascals (kPa) was set for increased liver stiffness, and ≥10 kPa for significant fibrosis. RESULTS: The aetiology of pancreatitis was alcohol intake in 62 patients, gallstones in 11, idiopathic in 3, tumour in 1 and medication in 1. TE was successful in 64 out of 78 patients. The median TE value was 6.5 kPa (range 2.5-61.1); 22 (35%) had values ≥7.5 kPa and 7 (11%) ≥10 kPa. Values ≥7.5 were associated with older age, higher APRI ratio, and lower TT-SPA. It did not predict the length of hospitalization or the recurrence of pancreatitis. Increased AST/ALT ratio was associated with high TE values, whereas AUDIT values were not. Values ≥10 kPa seemed to indicate manifest cirrhosis, hepatitis or subsequent development of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: TE values ≥7.5 kPa did not predict the length of hospital stay or recurrence of pancreatitis but there were some findings of impaired liver function. Values ≥10 kPa may indicate subsequent development of diabetes and a more severe course of acute pancreatitis.

12 Article Autophagy is needed for the growth of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and has a cytoprotective effect against anticancer drugs. 2014

Hashimoto, Daisuke / Bläuer, Merja / Hirota, Masahiko / Ikonen, Niina H / Sand, Juhani / Laukkarinen, Johanna. ·Tampere Pancreas Laboratory, Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Teiskontie 35, P.O. Box 2000, 33521 Tampere, Finland; Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan. · Tampere Pancreas Laboratory, Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Teiskontie 35, P.O. Box 2000, 33521 Tampere, Finland. · Department of Surgery, Kumamoto Regional Medical Center, 5-16-10 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811, Japan. · Tampere Pancreas Laboratory, Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Teiskontie 35, P.O. Box 2000, 33521 Tampere, Finland. Electronic address: johanna.laukkarinen@fimnet.fi. ·Eur J Cancer · Pubmed #24503026.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIM: Autophagy is a regulated process of degradation and recycling of cellular constituents. The role of autophagy in pancreatic cancer is still not clear. Some studies indicate that in pancreatic cancer autophagy exerts cytoprotective effects, whereas others suggest that autophagy positively contributes to cell death by enhancing cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of autophagy in pancreatic cancer, and to provide insights into new strategies for treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and BxPC-3 were treated with anticancer drugs (5-fluorouracil or gemcitabine) alone and in combination with autophagy inhibitors (chloroquine or wortmannin). Biopsy samples were retrieved from patients from pancreatic normal tissue and adenocarcinoma. Western blot of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II was performed to investigate the degree of autophagy and cell proliferation was assessed by a crystal violet assay. RESULTS: Autophagy was active in PANC-1 cells under basal conditions. Autophagy was significantly induced in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma compared to healthy pancreatic tissue in patients. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine suppressed the growth of PANC-1 and BxPC-3. Autophagy was markedly increased after treatment with 5-fluorouracil or gemcitabine. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine potentiated the inhibition of cell proliferation of PANC-1 and BxPC-3 by 5-fluorouracil and gemcitabine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results with pancreatic cancer cell lines and human pancreatic adenocarcinoma suggest that autophagy contributes to pancreatic cancer cell growth. Autophagy has a cytoprotective effect against 5-fluorouracil and gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cells. Combination therapy of these anticancer drugs and chloroquine should be investigated.

13 Article Validation of intraluminal and intraperitoneal microdialysis in ischemic small intestine. 2013

Pynnönen, Lauri / Minkkinen, Minna / Perner, Anders / Räty, Sari / Nordback, Isto / Sand, Juhani / Tenhunen, Jyrki. ·Critical Care Medicine Research Group, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. jyrki.tenhunen@surgsci.uu.se. ·BMC Gastroenterol · Pubmed #24325174.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We sought to define the sensitivity and specificity of intraperitoneal (IP) and intraluminal (IL) microdialysate metabolites in depicting ex vivo small intestinal total ischemia during GI-tract surgery. We hypothesized that IL as opposed to IP microdialysis detects small intestinal ischemia with higher sensitivity and specificity. METHODS: IL and IP microdialysate lactate, pyruvate, glucose and glycerol were analysed from small intestine of pancreaticoduodenectomy patients before and after occluding the mesenteric vasculature and routine resection of a segment of small intestine. Ex vivo time sequences of microdialysate metabolites were described and ROC analyses after 0-30, 31-60, 61-90 and 91-120 minutes after the onset ischemia were calculated. RESULTS: IL lactate to pyruvate ratio (L/P ratio) indicated ischemia after 31-60 minutes with 0.954 ROC AUC (threshold: 109) in contrast to IP L/P (ROC AUC of 0.938 after 61-90 minutes, threshold: 18). At 31-60 minutes IL glycerol concentration indicated ischemia with 0.903 ROC AUCs (thresholds: 69 μmol/l). IP glycerol was only moderately indicative for ischemia after 91-120 minutes with 0,791 ROC AUCs (threshold 122 μmol/l). After 31-60 minutes IL and IP lactate to glucose ratios (L/G ratio) indicated ischemia with 0.956 and 0,942 ROC AUCs (thresholds: 48,9 and 0.95), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the hypothesis that intraluminal application of microdialysis and metabolic parameters from the small intestinal lumen indicate onset of ischemia earlier than intraperioneal microdialysis with higher sensitivity and specificity.

14 Article Cyst fluid SPINK1 may help to differentiate benign and potentially malignant cystic pancreatic lesions. 2013

Räty, Sari / Sand, Juhani / Laukkarinen, Johanna / Vasama, Kaija / Bassi, Claudio / Salvia, Roberto / Nordback, Isto. ·Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Finland; ARC-NET Research Center, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Italy. Electronic address: sari.raty@pshp.fi. ·Pancreatology · Pubmed #24075519.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Differential diagnosis between benign and potentially malignant cystic pancreatic lesions may be difficult. Previously we have compared cyst fluid serine protease inhibitor Kazal type I (SPINK1) with some traditionally used tumour markers (amylase, CEA, Ca19-9) and found that it may be a new promising maker in the differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesions. In the present study, we focused on cyst fluid SPINK1 levels in benign and potentially malignant cystic pancreatic lesions. DESIGN: Sixty-one patients operated on for cystic pancreatic lesion in Tampere University Hospital, Finland and in Verona University Hospital, Italy, were included. Cyst fluid was aspirated during surgery, stored at -70 °C, and analysed with immunofluorometric assay for SPINK1. The final diagnosis was acute pancreatitis with fluid collection (Acute FC) in 4 patients, chronic pseudocyst (PS) in 17 patients, serous cystadenoma (SCA) in 7 patients, mucinous cystadenoma (MCA) in 21 patients and intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) in 12 patients (9 main/mixed duct type and 3 branch duct type). RESULTS: The acute FC patients had high SPINK1 levels. Among chronic cysts, SPINK1 levels were significantly higher in patients with potentially malignant cysts (main/mixed duct IPMN and MCA) than with benign cysts (side branch IPMN and SCA), (median and range, [480 (13-3602) vs. 18 (0.1-278) μg/L]; p < 0.0001). In the subcohort of 24 patients with <3 cm chronic cyst, cyst fluid SPINK 1 levels were significantly lower in SCA or side branch IPMN (3 [2-116] μg/L) than in main duct IPMN or MCA (638 [66-3602] μg/L; p = 0.018). The best sensitivity and specificity to differentiate any size MCA or main/mixed type IPMN from SCA or side branch IPMN were 85% and 84% (AUC 0.94; cut-off value 118 μg/L). The best sensitivity and specificity to differentiate <3 cm MCA or main duct IPMN from SCA or side branch IPMN were 93% and 89% (AUC 0.98; cut-off value 146 μg/L). CONCLUSIONS: Cyst fluid SPINK1 may be a possible marker in the differential diagnosis of benign and potentially malignant cystic pancreatic lesions.

15 Article Distal pancreatectomy using a no-touch isolation technique. 2012

Hirota, M / Hashimoto, D / Ishiko, T / Satoh, N / Takamori, H / Chikamoto, A / Tanaka, H / Sugita, H / Sand, J / Nordback, I / Baba, H. ·Department of Surgery, Kumamoto Regional Medical Center, Kumamoto-city, Kumamoto, Japan. mhirota@krmc.or.jp ·Scand J Surg · Pubmed #22968237.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Distal pancreatectomy is the only effective treatment for cancers of the pancreatic body and tail. The recurrence rate after DP has remained high. In an effort to over-come this problem, we developed a no-touch surgical technique for DP. This is a pilot study to see if distal pancreatectomy can be technically done using a no-touch surgical technique with-out deteriorating the post-operative prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From November 2000 through May 2011, 16 pancreatic ductal adeno-carcinoma patients have been operated on using a no-touch technique by a single operator. We described the surgical technique, and we reported our preliminary experience. During the procedure, the pancreatic body and tail is neither grasped nor squeezed by the surgeon. And all drainage vessels from the pancreatic body and tail are ligated and divided during the early phase of the operation. Furthermore, for improved dissection of the retroperitoneal tissue (rightward and posterior margins), we use a hanging and clamping maneuver and dissection behind Gerota's fascia. RESULTS: In the current series, the posterior and rightward resection margins were free in all patients, although seven were positive for anterior serosal invasion. The post-operative prognosis was not deteriorated with this technique. CONCLUSION: No-touch distal pancreatectomy technique may have some theoretical advantages, which merit future investigation in randomized controlled trials.