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Pancreatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by Neda Rezaee
Based on 24 articles published since 2010
(Why 24 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, Neda Rezaee wrote the following 24 articles about Pancreatic Neoplasms.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Article Immunolabeling of Cleared Human Pancreata Provides Insights into Three-Dimensional Pancreatic Anatomy and Pathology. 2018

Noë, Michaël / Rezaee, Neda / Asrani, Kaushal / Skaro, Michael / Groot, Vincent P / Wu, Pei-Hsun / Olson, Matthew T / Hong, Seung-Mo / Kim, Sung Joo / Weiss, Matthew J / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Makary, Martin A / He, Jin / Cameron, John L / Wirtz, Denis / Roberts, Nicholas J / Offerhaus, G Johan A / Brosens, Lodewijk A A / Wood, Laura D / Hruban, Ralph H. ·Department of Pathology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Oncology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. · Department of Surgery, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. · Department of Pathology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. · Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. · Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Department of Pathology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. · Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands. · Department of Pathology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Oncology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address: ldwood@jhmi.edu. · Department of Pathology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Oncology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address: rhruban@jhmi.edu. ·Am J Pathol · Pubmed #29684363.

ABSTRACT: Visualizing pathologies in three dimensions can provide unique insights into the biology of human diseases. A rapid and easy-to-implement dibenzyl ether-based technique was used to clear thick sections of surgically resected human pancreatic parenchyma. Protocols were applicable to both fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. The penetration of antibodies into dense pancreatic parenchyma was optimized using both gradually increasing antibody concentrations and centrifugal flow. Immunolabeling with antibodies against cytokeratin 19 was visualized using both light sheet and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The technique was applied successfully to 26 sections of pancreas, providing three-dimensional (3D) images of normal pancreatic tissue, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, and infiltrating pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. 3D visualization highlighted processes that are hard to conceptualize in two dimensions, such as invasive carcinoma growing into what appeared to be pre-existing pancreatic ducts and within venules, and the tracking of long cords of neoplastic cells parallel to blood vessels. Expanding this technique to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue opens pathology archives to 3D visualization of unique biosamples and rare diseases. The application of immunolabeling and clearing to human pancreatic parenchyma provides detailed visualization of normal pancreatic anatomy, and can be used to characterize the 3D architecture of diseases including pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.

2 Article Postoperative complications after resection of borderline resectable and locally advanced pancreatic cancer: The impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with conventional radiation or stereotactic body radiation therapy. 2018

Blair, Alex B / Rosati, Lauren M / Rezaee, Neda / Gemenetzis, Georgios / Zheng, Lei / Hruban, Ralph H / Cameron, John L / Weiss, Matthew J / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Herman, Joseph M / He, Jin. ·Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; The Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA. · The Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA. · The Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA. · The Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. · Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; The Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address: jhe11@jhmi.edu. ·Surgery · Pubmed #29395234.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The impact of neoadjuvant stereotactic body radiation therapy on postoperative complications for patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains unclear. Limited studies have compared neoadjuvant stereotactic body radiation therapy versus conventional chemoradiation therapy. A retrospective study was performed to determine if perioperative complications were different among patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma receiving neoadjuvant stereotactic body radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy. METHODS: Patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy with stereotactic body radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy followed by pancreatectomy at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2008 and 2015 were included. Predictive factors for severe complications (Clavien grade ≥ III) were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: A total of 168 patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and RT followed by pancreatectomy. Sixty-one (36%) patients underwent stereotactic body radiation therapy and 107 (64%) patients received chemoradiation therapy. Compared with the chemoradiation therapy cohort, the neoadjuvant stereotactic body radiation therapy cohort was more likely to have locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (62% vs 43% P = .017) and require a vascular resection (54% vs 37%, P = .027). Multiagent chemotherapy was used more commonly in the stereotactic body radiation therapy cohort (97% vs 75%, P < .001). Postoperative complications (Clavien grade ≥ III 23% vs 28%, P = .471) were similar between stereotactic body radiation therapy and chemoradiation therapy cohort. No significant difference in postoperative bleeding or infection was noted in either group. CONCLUSION: Compared with chemoradiation therapy, neoadjuvant stereotactic body radiation therapy appears to offer equivalent rates of perioperative complications in patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma despite a greater percentage of locally advanced disease and more complex operative treatment.

3 Article Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas in Young Patients: Tumor Biology, Clinical Features, and Survival Outcomes. 2018

Morales-Oyarvide, Vicente / Mino-Kenudson, Mari / Ferrone, Cristina R / Warshaw, Andrew L / Lillemoe, Keith D / Sahani, Dushyant V / Pergolini, Ilaria / Attiyeh, Marc A / Al Efishat, Mohammad / Rezaee, Neda / Hruban, Ralph H / He, Jin / Weiss, Matthew J / Allen, Peter J / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Fernández-Del Castillo, Carlos. ·Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Wang Ambulatory Care Center 460, Boston, MA, 02114, USA. · Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Wang Ambulatory Care Center 460, Boston, MA, 02114, USA. cfernandez@partners.org. ·J Gastrointest Surg · Pubmed #29047068.

ABSTRACT: AIM: The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in young patients. METHODS: We evaluated 1693 patients from the Pancreatic Surgery Consortium who underwent resection for IPMN and classified them as younger or older than 50 years of age at the time of surgery. We assessed the relationship of age with clinical, radiological, pathological, and prognostic features. RESULTS: We identified 90 (5%) young patients. Age was not associated with differences in main pancreatic duct size (P = 0.323), presence of solid components (P = 0.805), or cyst size (P = 0.135). IPMNs from young patients were less likely to be of gastric type (37 vs. 57%, P = 0.005), and more likely to be of oncocytic (15 vs. 4%, P = 0.003) and intestinal types (44 vs. 26%, P = 0.004). Invasive carcinomas arising from IPMN were less common in young patients (17 vs. 27%, P = 0.044), and when present they were commonly of colloid type (47 vs. 31% in older patients, P = 0.261) and had better overall survival than older patients (5-year, 71 vs. 37%, log-rank P = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Resection for IPMN is infrequent in young patients, but when they are resected, IPMNs from young patients demonstrate different epithelial subtypes from those in older patients and more favorable prognosis.

4 Article Multi-institutional Validation Study of Pancreatic Cyst Fluid Protein Analysis for Prediction of High-risk Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas. 2018

Al Efishat, Mohammad A / Attiyeh, Marc A / Eaton, Anne A / Gönen, Mithat / Prosser, Denise / Lokshin, Anna E / Castillo, Carlos Fernández-Del / Lillemoe, Keith D / Ferrone, Cristina R / Pergolini, Ilaria / Mino-Kenudson, Mari / Rezaee, Neda / Dal Molin, Marco / Weiss, Matthew J / Cameron, John L / Hruban, Ralph H / D'Angelica, Michael I / Kingham, T Peter / DeMatteo, Ronald P / Jarnagin, William R / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Allen, Peter J. ·Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY. · Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA. · Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. · Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. · Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD. · Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. ·Ann Surg · Pubmed #28700444.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Preliminary work by our group suggested that proteins within the pancreatic cyst fluid (CF) may discriminate degree of IPMN dysplasia. We sought to externally validate these markers and determine whether their inclusion in a preoperative clinical nomogram could increase diagnostic accuracy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: IPMN is the most common radiographically identifiable precursor to pancreatic cancer; however, the timing and frequency of its malignant progression are unknown, and there are currently no reliable preoperative tests that can determine the grade of dysplasia in IPMN. METHODS: Clinical and radiographic data, as well as CF samples, were obtained from 149 patients who underwent resection for IPMN at 1 of 3 institutions. High-risk disease was defined as the presence of high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. Multianalyte bead array analysis (Luminex) of CF was performed for 4 protein markers that were previously associated with high-risk disease. Logistic regression models were fit on training data, with and without adjustment for a previously developed clinical nomogram and validated with an external testing set. The models incorporating clinical risk score were presented graphically as nomograms. RESULTS: Within the group of 149 resected patients, 89 (60%) had low-risk disease, and 60 (40%) had high-risk disease. All 4 CF markers (MMP9, CA72-4, sFASL, and IL-4) were overexpressed in patients with high-risk IPMN (P < 0.05). Two predictive models based on preselected combinations of CF markers had concordance indices of 0.76 (Model-1) and 0.80 (Model-2). Integration of each CF marker model into a previously described clinical nomogram leads to increased discrimination compared with either the CF models or nomogram alone (c-indices of 0.84 and 0.83, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This multi-institutional study validated 2 CF protein marker models for preoperative identification of high-risk IPMN. When combined with a clinical nomogram, the ability to predict high-grade dysplasia was even stronger.

5 Article Patterns, Timing, and Predictors of Recurrence Following Pancreatectomy for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. 2018

Groot, Vincent P / Rezaee, Neda / Wu, Wenchuan / Cameron, John L / Fishman, Elliot K / Hruban, Ralph H / Weiss, Matthew J / Zheng, Lei / Wolfgang, Christopher L / He, Jin. ·Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. · Department of Surgery, UMC Utrecht Cancer Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. · Department of Radiology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. · Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. · Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. ·Ann Surg · Pubmed #28338509.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe accurately the pattern, timing, and predictors of disease recurrence after a potentially curative resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: After surgery for PDAC, most patients will develop disease recurrence. Understanding the patterns and timing of disease failure can help guide improvements in therapy. METHODS: Patients who underwent pancreatectomy for PDAC at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2000 and 2010 were included. Exclusion criteria were incomplete follow-up records, follow-up <24 months, and neoadjuvant therapy. The first recurrence site was recorded and recurrence-free survival (RFS) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Predictive factors for specific recurrence patterns were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses using Cox-proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: From the identified cohort of 1103 patients, 692 patients had comprehensive and detailed follow-up data available. At a median follow-up of 25.3 months, 531 (76.7%) of the 692 had recurred after a median RFS of 11.7 months. Most patients recurred at isolated distant sites (n = 307, 57.8%), while isolated local recurrence was seen in 126 patients (23.7%). Liver-only recurrence (n = 134, 25.2%) tended to occur early (median 6.9 mo), while lung-only recurrence (n = 78, 14.7%) occurred later (median 18.6 mo). A positive lymph node ratio >0.2 was a strong predictor for all distant disease recurrence. Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy had fewer recurrences and a longer RFS of 18.0 and 17.2 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Specific recurrence locations have different predictive factors and possess distinct RFS curves, supporting the hypothesis that unique biological differences exist among tumors leading to distinct patterns of recurrence.

6 Article Development and Validation of a Multi-institutional Preoperative Nomogram for Predicting Grade of Dysplasia in Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms (IPMNs) of the Pancreas: A Report from The Pancreatic Surgery Consortium. 2018

Attiyeh, Marc A / Fernández-Del Castillo, Carlos / Al Efishat, Mohammad / Eaton, Anne A / Gönen, Mithat / Batts, Ruqayyah / Pergolini, Ilaria / Rezaee, Neda / Lillemoe, Keith D / Ferrone, Cristina R / Mino-Kenudson, Mari / Weiss, Matthew J / Cameron, John L / Hruban, Ralph H / D'Angelica, Michael I / DeMatteo, Ronald P / Kingham, T Peter / Jarnagin, William R / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Allen, Peter J. ·Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY. · Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY. · Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. · Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. · Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. ·Ann Surg · Pubmed #28079542.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Previous nomogram models for patients undergoing resection of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) have been relatively small single-institutional series. Our objective was to improve upon these studies by developing and independently validating a new model using a large multiinstitutional dataset. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: IPMNs represent the most common radiographically identifiable precursor lesions of pancreatic cancer. They are a heterogenous group of neoplasms in which more accurate markers of high-grade dysplasia or early invasive carcinoma could help avoid unnecessary surgery in 1 case and support potentially curative intervention (resection) in another. METHODS: Prospectively maintained databases from 3 institutions were queried for patients who had undergone resection of IPMNs between 2005 and 2015. Patients were separated into main duct [main and mixed-type (MD)] and branch duct (BD) types based on preoperative imaging. Logistic regression modeling was used on a training subset to develop 2 independent nomograms (MD and BD) to predict low-risk (low- or intermediate-grade dysplasia) or high-risk (high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma) disease. Model performance was then evaluated using an independent validation set. RESULTS: We identified 1028 patients who underwent resection for IPMNs [MD: n = 454 (44%), BD: n = 574 (56%)] during the 10-year study period. High-risk disease was present in 487 patients (47%). Patients with high-risk disease comprised 71% and 29% of MD and BD groups, respectively (P <0.0001). MD and BD nomograms were developed on the training set [70% of total (n = 720); MD: n = 318, BD: n = 402] and validated on the test set [30% (n = 308); MD: n = 136, BD: n = 172]. The presence of jaundice was almost exclusively associated with high-risk disease (57 of 58 patients, 98%). Cyst size >3.0 cm, solid component/mural nodule, pain symptoms, and weight loss were significantly associated with high-risk disease. C-indices were 0.82 and 0.81 on training and independent validation sets, respectively; Brier scores were 0.173 and 0.175, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with suspected IPMNs, we present an independently validated model for the prediction of high-risk disease.

7 Article Neoadjuvant therapy prior to surgical resection for previously explored pancreatic cancer patients is associated with improved survival. 2017

Lu, Fengchun / Soares, Kevin C / He, Jin / Javed, Ammar A / Cameron, John L / Rezaee, Neda / Pawlik, Timothy M / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Weiss, Matthew J. ·Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Surgery, Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001, China. ·Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr · Pubmed #28652997.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently referred to tertiary centers after unsuccessful attempted resections at other institutions. The outcome of these patients who are ultimately resected is not well understood. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with PDAC who underwent re-exploration between 1995 and 2013 at a single high volume tertiary care institution. We aimed to evaluate the association of neoadjuvant therapy prior to re-exploration on pathologic findings and clinical outcome in previously explored patients with PDAC. RESULTS: Between 1995 and 2013, 50 of the 2,062 patients who were surgically explored underwent pancreatic resection following a previous exploration where they were deemed unresectable. The most common reason for unresectability at initial operation was vascular invasion (80%) and a presumed R2 resection. Thirty-seven (74%) patients received neoadjuvant therapy. Neoadjuvant therapy was associated with improved TNM stage (P=0.002), fewer positive lymph nodes (0 CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PDAC deemed unresectable may warrant re-exploration. Treatment with neoadjuvant therapy between operations is associated with improved pathological stage and survival. In this highly selected group of patients, successful resection is associated with improved survival compared to R2 resections.

8 Article Duodenal Involvement is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Patients with Surgically Resected Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. 2017

Dal Molin, Marco / Blackford, Amanda L / Siddiqui, Abdulrehman / Brant, Aaron / Cho, Christy / Rezaee, Neda / Yu, Jun / He, Jin / Weiss, Matthew / Hruban, Ralph H / Wolfgang, Christopher / Goggins, Michael. ·Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. mgoggins@jhmi.edu. · Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. mgoggins@jhmi.edu. · Department of Medicine, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. mgoggins@jhmi.edu. · Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1550 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA. mgoggins@jhmi.edu. ·Ann Surg Oncol · Pubmed #28439733.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The current staging system for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) includes information about size and local extension of the primary tumor (T stage). The value of incorporating any local tumor extension into pancreatic staging systems has been questioned because it often is difficult to evaluate tumor extension to the peri-pancreatic soft tissues and because most carcinomas of the head of the pancreas infiltrate the intra-pancreatic common bile duct. This study sought to evaluate the prognostic implications of having PDAC with local tumor extension. METHODS: A single-institution, prospectively collected database of 1128 patients who underwent surgical resection for PDAC was queried to examine the prognostic significance of extra-pancreatic tumor involvement ("no involvement," "duodenal involvement," and "extensive involvement"; e.g., gastric, colon or major vein involvement). RESULTS: The median overall survival for the patients without extra-pancreatic involvement was 26 months versus 19 months for the patients with duodenal involvement and 16 months for the patients with extensive involvement (p < 0.001). In the multivariable analysis, duodenal and extensive involvement independently predicted increased risk of death compared with no involvement (hazard ratio [HR] 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.57 and 1.78; 95% CI 1.25-2.55, respectively). A multivariable model combining duodenal and extensive extra-pancreatic involvement, tumor grade, lymph node ratio, and other prognostic features had the highest c-index (0.67). CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of duodenal involvement in the staging of PDAC adds independent prognostic information.

9 Article Genetic analyses of isolated high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PanIN) reveal paucity of alterations in TP53 and SMAD4. 2017

Hosoda, Waki / Chianchiano, Peter / Griffin, James F / Pittman, Meredith E / Brosens, Lodewijk Aa / Noë, Michaël / Yu, Jun / Shindo, Koji / Suenaga, Masaya / Rezaee, Neda / Yonescu, Raluca / Ning, Yi / Albores-Saavedra, Jorge / Yoshizawa, Naohiko / Harada, Kenichi / Yoshizawa, Akihiko / Hanada, Keiji / Yonehara, Shuji / Shimizu, Michio / Uehara, Takeshi / Samra, Jaswinder S / Gill, Anthony J / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Goggins, Michael G / Hruban, Ralph H / Wood, Laura D. ·Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. · Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. · Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA. · Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. · Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. · Department of Pathology, Medica Sur Clinic and Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico. · The First Department of Internal Medicine, Mie University School of Medicine, Tsu, Japan. · Department of Human Pathology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa, Japan. · Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan. · Center for Gastroendoscopy, Onomichi General Hospital, Onomichi, Japan. · Department of Pathology, Onomichi General Hospital, Onomich, Japan. · Diagnostic Pathology Center, Hakujikai Memorial Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. · Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan. · Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Royal North Shore Hospital and Discipline of Surgery, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. · Cancer Diagnosis and Pathology Group, Kolling Institute of Medical Research Royal North Shore Hospital and University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. · Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. · Department of Medicine, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. ·J Pathol · Pubmed #28188630.

ABSTRACT: High-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PanIN) is the major precursor of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and is an ideal target for early detection. To characterize pure HG-PanIN, we analysed 23 isolated HG-PanIN lesions occurring in the absence of PDAC. Whole-exome sequencing of five of these HG-PanIN lesions revealed a median of 33 somatic mutations per lesion, with a total of 318 mutated genes. Targeted next-generation sequencing of 17 HG-PanIN lesions identified KRAS mutations in 94% of the lesions. CDKN2A alterations occurred in six HG-PanIN lesions, and RNF43 alterations in five. Mutations in TP53, GNAS, ARID1A, PIK3CA, and TGFBR2 were limited to one or two HG-PanINs. No non-synonymous mutations in SMAD4 were detected. Immunohistochemistry for p53 and SMAD4 proteins in 18 HG-PanINs confirmed the paucity of alterations in these genes, with aberrant p53 labelling noted only in three lesions, two of which were found to be wild type in sequencing analyses. Sixteen adjacent LG-PanIN lesions from ten patients were also sequenced using targeted sequencing. LG-PanIN harboured KRAS mutations in 94% of the lesions; mutations in CDKN2A, TP53, and SMAD4 were not identified. These results suggest that inactivation of TP53 and SMAD4 are late genetic alterations, predominantly occurring in invasive PDAC. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

10 Article Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio is a Predictive Marker for Invasive Malignancy in Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas. 2017

Gemenetzis, Georgios / Bagante, Fabio / Griffin, James F / Rezaee, Neda / Javed, Ammar A / Manos, Lindsey L / Lennon, Anne M / Wood, Laura D / Hruban, Ralph H / Zheng, Lei / Zaheer, Atif / Fishman, Elliot K / Ahuja, Nita / Cameron, John L / Weiss, Matthew J / He, Jin / Wolfgang, Christopher L. ·*Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD †Department of Gastroenterology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD ‡Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD §Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD ¶Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD. ·Ann Surg · Pubmed #27631774.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) values, and the presence of invasive carcinoma in patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). BACKGROUND: NLR and (PLR) are inflammatory markers that have been associated with overall survival in patients with invasive malignancies, including pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 272 patients who underwent surgical resection for histologically confirmed IPMN from January 1997 to July 2015. NLR and PLR were calculated and coevaluated with additional demographic, clinical, and imaging data for possible correlation with IPMN-associated carcinoma in the form of a predictive nomogram. RESULTS: NLR and PLR were significantly elevated in patients with IPMN-associated invasive carcinoma (P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, NLR value higher than 4 (P < 0.001), IPMN cyst of size more than 3 cm (P < 0.001), presence of enhanced solid component (P = 0.014), main pancreatic duct dilatation of more than 5 mm (P < 0.001), and jaundice (P < 0.001) were statistically significant variables. The developed statistical model has a c-index of 0.895. Implementation of the statistically significant variables in a predictive nomogram provided a reliable point system for estimating the presence of IPMN-associated invasive carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: NLR is an independent predictive marker for the presence of IPMN-associated invasive carcinoma. Further prospective studies are needed to assess the predictive ability of NLR and how it can be applied in the clinical setting.

11 Article Targeted DNA Sequencing Reveals Patterns of Local Progression in the Pancreatic Remnant Following Resection of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (IPMN) of the Pancreas. 2017

Pea, Antonio / Yu, Jun / Rezaee, Neda / Luchini, Claudio / He, Jin / Dal Molin, Marco / Griffin, James F / Fedor, Helen / Fesharakizadeh, Shahriar / Salvia, Roberto / Weiss, Matthew J / Bassi, Claudio / Cameron, John L / Zheng, Lei / Scarpa, Aldo / Hruban, Ralph H / Lennon, Anne Marie / Goggins, Michael / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Wood, Laura D. ·*Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland †Department of Surgery, The Pancreas Institute, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy ‡Departments of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland §Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy ¶Departments of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland ||Departments of Medicine, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland **ARC-Net applied research on cancer center, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy. ·Ann Surg · Pubmed #27433916.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize patterns of local progression following resection for pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) using targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). BACKGROUND: Progression of neoplastic disease in the remnant pancreas following resection of IPMN may include development of a new IPMN or ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, it is not clear whether this progression represents recurrence of the same neoplasm or an independent second neoplasm. METHODS: Targeted-NGS on genes commonly mutated in IPMN and PDAC was performed on tumors from (1) 13 patients who developed disease progression in the remnant pancreas following resection of IPMN; and (2) 10 patients who underwent a resection for PDAC and had a concomitant IPMN. Mutations in the tumors were compared in order to determine the relationship between neoplasms. In parallel, clinical and pathological characteristics of 260 patients who underwent resection of noninvasive IPMN were reviewed to identify risk factors associated with local progression. RESULTS: We identified 3 mechanisms underlying local progression in the remnant pancreas: (1) residual microscopic disease at the resection margin, (2) intraparenchymal spread of neoplastic cells, leading to an anatomically separate but genetically related recurrence, and (3) multifocal disease with genetically distinct lesions. Analysis of the 260 patients with noninvasive IPMNs showed that family history of pancreatic cancer (P = 0.027) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD) (P = 0.003) were independent risk factors for the development of an IPMN with HGD or an invasive carcinoma in the remnant pancreas. CONCLUSIONS: Using NGS, we identify distinct mechanisms for development of metachronous or synchronous neoplasms in patients with IPMN. Patients with a primary IPMN with HGD or with positive family history are at an increased risk to develop subsequent high-risk neoplasms in the remnant pancreas.

12 Article A novel approach for selecting combination clinical markers of pathology applied to a large retrospective cohort of surgically resected pancreatic cysts. 2017

Masica, David L / Dal Molin, Marco / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Tomita, Tyler / Ostovaneh, Mohammad R / Blackford, Amanda / Moran, Robert A / Law, Joanna K / Barkley, Thomas / Goggins, Michael / Irene Canto, Marcia / Pittman, Meredith / Eshleman, James R / Ali, Syed Z / Fishman, Elliot K / Kamel, Ihab R / Raman, Siva P / Zaheer, Atif / Ahuja, Nita / Makary, Martin A / Weiss, Matthew J / Hirose, Kenzo / Cameron, John L / Rezaee, Neda / He, Jin / Joon Ahn, Young / Wu, Wenchuan / Wang, Yuxuan / Springer, Simeon / Diaz, Luis L / Papadopoulos, Nickolas / Hruban, Ralph H / Kinzler, Kenneth W / Vogelstein, Bert / Karchin, Rachel / Lennon, Anne Marie. ·*Drs Masica and Dal Molin contributed equally as first authors. · Department of Biomedical Engineering and the Institute for Computational Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. · Departments of the Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center. · Departments of Pathology. · Departments of Surgery. · Departments of Oncology. · Departments of Medicine. · Departments of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics. · Departments of the Ludwig Center and Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland. · Departments of Radiology. · †Drs Lennon and Karchin contributed equally as senior authors amlennon@jhmi.edu karchin@jhu.edu. ·J Am Med Inform Assoc · Pubmed #27330075.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to develop an approach for selecting combinatorial markers of pathology from diverse clinical data types. We demonstrate this approach on the problem of pancreatic cyst classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 1026 patients with surgically resected pancreatic cysts, comprising 584 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, 332 serous cystadenomas, 78 mucinous cystic neoplasms, and 42 solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms. To derive optimal markers for cyst classification from the preoperative clinical and radiological data, we developed a statistical approach for combining any number of categorical, dichotomous, or continuous-valued clinical parameters into individual predictors of pathology. The approach is unbiased and statistically rigorous. Millions of feature combinations were tested using 10-fold cross-validation, and the most informative features were validated in an independent cohort of 130 patients with surgically resected pancreatic cysts. RESULTS: We identified combinatorial clinical markers that classified serous cystadenomas with 95% sensitivity and 83% specificity; solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms with 89% sensitivity and 86% specificity; mucinous cystic neoplasms with 91% sensitivity and 83% specificity; and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms with 94% sensitivity and 90% specificity. No individual features were as accurate as the combination markers. We further validated these combinatorial markers on an independent cohort of 130 pancreatic cysts, and achieved high and well-balanced accuracies. Overall sensitivity and specificity for identifying patients requiring surgical resection was 84% and 81%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach identified combinatorial markers for pancreatic cyst classification that had improved performance relative to the individual features they comprise. In principle, this approach can be applied to any clinical dataset comprising dichotomous, categorical, and continuous-valued parameters.

13 Article Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Pathological Characteristics of Resected Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. 2016

Dal Molin, Marco / Brant, Aaron / Blackford, Amanda L / Griffin, James F / Shindo, Koji / Barkley, Thomas / Rezaee, Neda / Hruban, Ralph H / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Goggins, Michael. ·Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. · Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. · Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. · Department of Medicine, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #27732623.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prospective studies have identified obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as a risk factor for increased overall cancer incidence and mortality. The potential role of OSA in the risk or progression of specific cancers is not well known. We hypothesized that pathological differences in pancreatic cancers from OSA cases compared to non-OSA cases would implicate OSA in pancreatic cancer progression. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 1031 patients who underwent surgical resection without neoadjuvant therapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) at Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2003 and 2014 and compared the TNM classification of their cancer and their overall survival by patient OSA status. RESULTS: OSA cases were significantly more likely than non-OSA cases to have lymph node-negative tumors (37.7% vs. 21.8%, p = 0.004). Differences in the prevalence of nodal involvement of OSA vs. non-OSA cases were not associated with differences in other pathological characteristics such as tumor size, tumor location, resection margin status, vascular or perineural invasion, or other comorbidities more common to OSA cases (BMI, smoking, diabetes). A logistic regression model found that a diagnosis of OSA was an independent predictor of lymph node status (hazard ratio, 0.051, p = 0.038). Patients with OSA had similar overall survival compared to those without OSA (HR, 0.89, (0.65-1.24), p = 0.41). CONCLUSION: The observed pathological differences between OSA-associated and non-OSA-associated pancreatic cancers supports the hypothesis that OSA can influence the pathologic features of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

14 Article Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) with high-grade dysplasia is a risk factor for the subsequent development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. 2016

Rezaee, Neda / Barbon, Carlotta / Zaki, Ahmed / He, Jin / Salman, Bulent / Hruban, Ralph H / Cameron, John L / Herman, Joseph M / Ahuja, Nita / Lennon, Anne Marie / Weiss, Matthew J / Wood, Laura D / Wolfgang, Christopher L. ·Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Gastroenterology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address: ldelong1@jhmi.edu. · Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address: cwolfga2@jhmi.edu. ·HPB (Oxford) · Pubmed #27017163.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Non-invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) with high-grade dysplasia and IPMN-associated invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently included under the term "malignancy". The goal of this study is to clarify the difference between these two entities. METHODS: From 1996 to 2013, data of 616 patients who underwent pancreatic resection for an IPMN were reviewed. RESULTS: The median overall survival for patients with IPMN with high-grade dysplasia (92 months) was similar to survival for patients with IPMN with low/intermediate-grade dysplasia (118 months, p = 0.081), and superior to that of patients with IPMN-associated PDAC (29 months, p < 0.001). IPMN-associated PDAC had lymph node metastasis in 53%, perineural invasion in 58%, and vascular invasion in 33%. In contrast, no lymph node metastasis, perineural or vascular invasion was observed with high-grade dysplasia. None of the patients with IPMN with high-grade dysplasia developed recurrence outside the remnant pancreas. In stark contrast 58% of patients with IPMN-associated PDAC recurred outside the remnant pancreas. The rate of progression within the remnant pancreas was significant in patients with IPMN with high-grade (24%) and with low/intermediate dysplasia (22%, p = 0.816). CONCLUSION: Non-invasive IPMN with high-grade dysplasia should not be considered a malignant entity. Compared to patients with IPMN with low/intermediate-grade dysplasia, those with high-grade dysplasia have an increased risk of subsequent development of PDAC in the remnant pancreas.

15 Article Impact Total Psoas Volume on Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Curative Resection for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: a New Tool to Assess Sarcopenia. 2015

Amini, Neda / Spolverato, Gaya / Gupta, Rohan / Margonis, Georgios A / Kim, Yuhree / Wagner, Doris / Rezaee, Neda / Weiss, Matthew J / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Makary, Martin M / Kamel, Ihab R / Pawlik, Timothy M. ·Department of Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Blalock 688, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA. ·J Gastrointest Surg · Pubmed #25925237.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: While sarcopenia is typically defined using total psoas area (TPA), characterizing sarcopenia using only a single axial cross-sectional image may be inadequate. We sought to evaluate total psoas volume (TPV) as a new tool to define sarcopenia and compare patient outcomes relative to TPA and TPV. METHOD: Sarcopenia was assessed in 763 patients who underwent pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma between 1996 and 2014. It was defined as the TPA and TPV in the lowest sex-specific quartile. The impact of sarcopenia defined by TPA and TPV on overall morbidity and mortality was assessed using multivariable analysis. RESULT: Median TPA and TPV were both lower in women versus men (both P < 0.001). TPA identified 192 (25.1%) patients as sarcopenic, while TPV identified 152 patients (19.9%). Three hundred sixty-nine (48.4%) patients experienced a postoperative complication. While TPA-sarcopenia was not associated with higher risk of postoperative complications (OR 1.06; P = 0.72), sarcopenia defined by TPV was associated with morbidity (OR 1.79; P = 0.002). On multivariable analysis, TPV-sarcopenia remained independently associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications (OR 1.69; P = 0.006), as well as long-term survival (HR 1.46; P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: The use of TPV to define sarcopenia was associated with both short- and long-term outcomes following resection of pancreatic cancer. Assessment of the entire volume of the psoas muscle (TPV) may be a better means to define sarcopenia rather than a single axial image.

16 Article Very Long-term Survival Following Resection for Pancreatic Cancer Is Not Explained by Commonly Mutated Genes: Results of Whole-Exome Sequencing Analysis. 2015

Dal Molin, Marco / Zhang, Ming / de Wilde, Roeland F / Ottenhof, Niki A / Rezaee, Neda / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Blackford, Amanda / Vogelstein, Bert / Kinzler, Kenneth W / Papadopoulos, Nickolas / Hruban, Ralph H / Maitra, Anirban / Wood, Laura D. ·Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. · Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. · Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. · Departments of Pathology and Translational Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. ldwood@jhmi.edu. ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #25623214.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The median survival following surgical resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is currently <20 months. However, survival ≥10 years is achieved by a small subset of patients who are defined as very long-term survivors (VLTS). The goal of this study was to determine whether specific genetic alterations in resected PDACs determined very long-term survival. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We sequenced the exomes of eight PDACs from patients who survived ≥10 years. On the basis of the results of the exomic analysis, targeted sequencing of selected genes was performed in a series of 27 additional PDACs from VLTSs. RESULTS: KRAS mutations were identified in 33 of 35 cancers (94%) from VLTSs and represented the most prevalent alteration in our cohort. TP53, SMAD4, and CDKN2A mutations occurred in 69%, 26%, and 17%, respectively. Mutations in RNF43, which have been previously associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, were identified in four of the 35 cancers (11%). Taken together, our data show no difference in somatic mutations in carcinomas from VLTSs compared with available data from PDACs unselected for survival. Comparison of clinicopathologic features between VLTSs and a matching control group demonstrated that younger age, earlier stage, well/moderate grade of differentiation, and negative resection margins were associated with VLTS. However, more advanced stage, poor grade, or nodal disease did not preclude long-term survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that in most patients, somatic mutations in commonly mutated genes are unlikely to be the primary determinant of very long-term survival following surgical resection of PDAC.

17 Article What is the Significance of Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules in Patients Undergoing Resection for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma? 2015

Poruk, Katherine E / Kim, Yuhree / Cameron, John L / He, Jin / Eckhauser, Frederic E / Rezaee, Neda / Herman, Joseph / Laheru, Daniel / Zheng, Lei / Fishman, Elliot K / Hruban, Ralph H / Pawlik, Timothy M / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Weiss, Matthew J. ·Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Halsted 608, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA. ·J Gastrointest Surg · Pubmed #25595307.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The significance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPNs) in patients undergoing resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is unknown. We sought to define the prevalence and impact of IPN in such patients. METHODS: We studied all patients who underwent surgical resection of PDAC between 1980 and 2013. IPN was defined as ≥1 well-defined lung nodule(s) less than 3 cm in diameter. Survival was assessed using univariate and multivariate Cox models. RESULTS: Of the 2306 resected patients, 374 (16.2 %) had a preoperative chest computed tomography (CT) scan. Of these patients, 183 (49 %) had ≥1 IPN. Demographic and clinicopathological characteristics were similar among patients with or without IPN (all P>0.05). Median survival was comparable among patients who did (15.6 months) or did not (18.0 months) have IPN (P=0.66). Of the 183 patients with IPN, 29 (16 %) progressed to clinically recognizable metastatic lung disease compared to 13 % without IPN (P=0.38). The presence of >1 IPN was associated with the development of lung metastasis (relative risk 1.58, 95 % CI 1.03-2.4; P=0.05). However, lung metastasis was not associated with survival (P=0.24). CONCLUSIONS: An IPN proved to be a lung metastasis in only one of six patients with PDAC undergoing surgical resection in this study. Survival was not impacted, even among patients who developed lung metastasis. Patients with PDAC who have IPN should not be precluded from surgical consideration.

18 Article Smoking is not associated with severe dysplasia or invasive carcinoma in resected intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. 2015

Rezaee, Neda / Khalifian, Saami / Cameron, John L / Pawlik, Timothy M / Hruban, Ralph H / Fishman, Elliot K / Makary, Martin A / Lennon, Anne Marie / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Weiss, Matthew J. ·Departments of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe St, Halsted 608, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA. ·J Gastrointest Surg · Pubmed #25477314.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are precursor lesions that progress to invasive cancer through progressively worsening dysplasia. Although smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, potential associations with IPMN grade of dysplasia remain unclear. METHODS: Pancreatic resections for IPMN from 1995 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 446 patients in which the smoking status was documented were identified. RESULTS: Smoking history was positive in 47% of patients. Of smokers, 50% had branch-duct, 14% had main-duct, and 36% had mixed-type IPMN. Patients with main-duct IPMN were more commonly smokers (65%), compared to smoking history in 46% with mixed and 44% with branch-duct IPMN (p = 0.03). High-grade dysplasia occurred in 25% of smokers and 21% of nonsmokers (p = 0.32), and invasive carcinoma in 25% of smokers and 25% nonsmokers (p = 0.95). On multivariate analysis, duct size was independently associated with high-grade dysplasia (OR = 3.17, 95% CI = 1.79-5.64, p < 0.001). Presence of mural nodules (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 1.82-6.12, p < 0.001), duct size (OR = 3.87, 95% CI = 2.21-6.75, p < 0.001), and symptoms (OR = 7.10, 95% CI = 3.80-13.08, p < 0.001), but not smoking history (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.64-1.88, p = 0.73), were independent predictors of invasive carcinoma. Median overall survival was 70 months for smokers and 88 months for nonsmokers (p = 0.68). CONCLUSION: Positive smoking history correlated with duct type classification but does not appear to be a risk factor for harboring high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma in IPMNs.

19 Article Liver transplant patients have a risk of progression similar to that of sporadic patients with branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. 2014

Lennon, Anne Marie / Victor, David / Zaheer, Atif / Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza / Jeh, Jessica / Law, Joanna K / Rezaee, Neda / Molin, Marco Dal / Ahn, Young Joon / Wu, Wenchuan / Khashab, Mouen A / Girotra, Mohit / Ahuja, Nita / Makary, Martin A / Weiss, Matthew J / Hirose, Kenzo / Goggins, Michael / Hruban, Ralph H / Cameron, Andrew / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Singh, Vikesh K / Gurakar, Ahmet. ·Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD; Division of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD. ·Liver Transpl · Pubmed #25155689.

ABSTRACT: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) have malignant potential and can progress from low- to high-grade dysplasia to invasive adenocarcinoma. The management of patients with IPMNs is dependent on their risk of malignant progression, with surgical resection recommended for patients with branch-duct IPMN (BD-IPMN) who develop high-risk features. There is increasing evidence that liver transplant (LT) patients are at increased risk of extrahepatic malignancy. However, there are few data regarding the risk of progression of BD-IPMNs in LT recipients. The aim of this study was to determine whether LT recipients with BD-IPMNs are at higher risk of developing high-risk features than patients with BD-IPMNs who did not receive a transplant. Consecutive patients who underwent an LT with BD-IPMNs were included. Patients with BD-IPMNs with no history of immunosuppression were used as controls. Progression of the BD-IPMNs was defined as development of a high-risk feature (jaundice, dilated main pancreatic duct, mural nodule, cytology suspicious or diagnostic for malignancy, cyst diameter ≥3 cm). Twenty-three LT patients with BD-IPMN were compared with 274 control patients. The median length of follow-up was 53.7 and 24.0 months in LT and control groups, respectively. Four (17.4%) LT patients and 45 (16.4%) controls developed high-risk features (P = 0.99). In multivariate analysis, progression of BD-IPMNs was associated with age at diagnosis but not with LT. There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of developing high-risk features between the LT and the control groups.

20 Article The impact of postoperative complications on the administration of adjuvant therapy following pancreaticoduodenectomy for adenocarcinoma. 2014

Wu, Wenchuan / He, Jin / Cameron, John L / Makary, Martin / Soares, Kevin / Ahuja, Nita / Rezaee, Neda / Herman, Joseph / Zheng, Lei / Laheru, Daniel / Choti, Michael A / Hruban, Ralph H / Pawlik, Timothy M / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Weiss, Matthew J. ·Department of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. ·Ann Surg Oncol · Pubmed #24770680.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The impact of postoperative complications on the administration of adjuvant therapy following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for adenocarcinoma is still unclear. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients undergoing PD at our institution between 1995 and 2011 was performed. Clinicopathological data, including Clavien-Dindo complication grade, time to adjuvant therapy (TTA), and survival, were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1,144 patients underwent PD for adenocarcinoma between 1995 and 2011. The overall complication rate was 49.1 % and clinically severe complications (≥IIIb) occurred in 4.2 %. Overall, 621 patients (54.3 %) were known to have received adjuvant therapy. The median TTA was 60 days. Although the presence of a complication was associated with a delay in TTA (p = 0.002), the grade of complication was not (p = 0.112). On multivariate analysis, only age > 68 years (p < 0.001) and length of stay >9 days (p = 0.002) correlated with no adjuvant therapy. Patients with postoperative complications were more likely to receive single adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy (31.4 %) than were patients without complications (17.1 %; p < 0.001). Patients without a complication had a longer median survival compared with patients who experienced complications (19.5 vs. 16.1 months; p = 0.001). Patients without complications who received adjuvant therapy had longer median survival than patients with complications who received no adjuvant therapy (22.5 vs. 10.7 months; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that complications [hazard ratio (HR) 1.16; p = 0.023] and adjuvant therapy (HR 0.67; p < 0.001) were related to survival. CONCLUSION: Complications and no adjuvant therapy are common following PD for adenocarcinoma. Postoperative complications delay TTA and reduce the likelihood of multimodality adjuvant therapy. Identifying patients at increased risk for complications and those unlikely to receive adjuvant therapy warrants further investigation as they may benefit from a neoadjuvant approach.

21 Article Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the pancreas: a clinicopathologic analysis of 44 cases. 2014

Basturk, Olca / Tang, Laura / Hruban, Ralph H / Adsay, Volkan / Yang, Zhaohai / Krasinskas, Alyssa M / Vakiani, Efsevia / La Rosa, Stefano / Jang, Kee-Taek / Frankel, Wendy L / Liu, Xiuli / Zhang, Lizhi / Giordano, Thomas J / Bellizzi, Andrew M / Chen, Jey-Hsin / Shi, Chanjuan / Allen, Peter / Reidy, Diane L / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Saka, Burcu / Rezaee, Neda / Deshpande, Vikram / Klimstra, David S. ·Departments of *Pathology ***Surgery †††Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY †Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center ‡‡‡Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD ‡Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA §Department of Pathology, Penn State Hershey MC, Hershey ∥Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA **Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, Columbus ††Department of Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH ‡‡Department of Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN §§Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI ∥∥Department of Pathology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA ¶¶Department of Pathology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN ##Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN §§§Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA ¶Department of Pathology, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese, Italy #Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. ·Am J Surg Pathol · Pubmed #24503751.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In the pancreas, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas include small cell carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and are rare; data regarding their pathologic and clinical features are very limited. DESIGN: A total of 107 pancreatic resections originally diagnosed as poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas were reassessed using the classification and grading (mitotic rate/Ki67 index) criteria put forth by the World Health Organization in 2010 for the gastroenteropancreatic system. Immunohistochemical labeling for neuroendocrine and acinar differentiation markers was performed. Sixty-three cases were reclassified, mostly as well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) or acinar cell carcinoma, and eliminated. The clinicopathologic features and survival of the remaining 44 poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas were further assessed. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 59 years (range, 21 to 82 y), and the male/female ratio was 1.4. Twenty-seven tumors were located in the head of the pancreas, 3 in the body, and 11 in the tail. The median tumor size was 4 cm (range, 2 to 18 cm). Twenty-seven tumors were large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, and 17 were small cell carcinomas (mean mitotic rate, 37/10 and 51/10 HPF; mean Ki67 index, 66% and 75%, respectively). Eight tumors had combined components, mostly adenocarcinomas. In addition, 2 tumors had components of well-differentiated NET. Eighty-eight percent of the patients had nodal or distant metastatic disease at presentation, and an additional 7% developed metastases subsequently. Follow-up information was available for 43 patients; 33 died of disease, with a median survival of 11 months (range, 0 to 104 mo); 8 were alive with disease, with a median follow-up of 19.5 months (range, 0 to 71 mo). The 2- and 5-year survival rates were 22.5% and 16.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas is a highly aggressive neoplasm, with frequent metastases and poor survival. Most patients die within less than a year. Most (61%) are large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. Well-differentiated NET and acinar cell carcinoma are often misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma, emphasizing that diagnostic criteria need to be clearly followed to ensure accurate diagnosis.

22 Article Clinicopathological correlates of activating GNAS mutations in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. 2013

Molin, Marco Dal / Matthaei, Hanno / Wu, Jian / Blackford, Amanda / Debeljak, Marija / Rezaee, Neda / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Butturini, Giovanni / Salvia, Roberto / Bassi, Claudio / Goggins, Michael G / Kinzler, Kenneth W / Vogelstein, Bert / Eshleman, James R / Hruban, Ralph H / Maitra, Anirban. ·Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. · Unit of General Surgery B, Pancreas Institute, Department of Surgery, "G.B. Rossi" Hospital, University of Verona Hospital Trust, Verona, Italy. · Department of General, Visceral, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. · Ludwig Center for Cancer Genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. · Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. · Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. · Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. ·Ann Surg Oncol · Pubmed #23846778.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are the most common cystic precursor lesions of invasive pancreatic cancer. The recent identification of activating GNAS mutations at codon 201 in IPMNs is a promising target for early detection and therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore clinicopathological correlates of GNAS mutational status in resected IPMNs. METHODS: Clinical and pathologic characteristics were retrieved on 54 patients in whom GNAS codon 201 mutational status was previously reported ("historical group", Wu et al. Sci Transl Med 3:92ra66, 2011). In addition, a separate cohort of 32 patients (validation group) was included. After microdissection and DNA extraction, GNAS status was determined in the validation group by pyrosequencing. RESULTS: GNAS activating mutations were found in 64% of the 32 IPMNs included in the validation group, compared with a previously reported prevalence of 57% in the historical group. Overall, 52 of 86 (61%) of IPMNs demonstrated GNAS mutations in the two studies combined. Analysis of both groups confirmed that demographic characteristics, tumor location, ductal system involvement, focality, size, grade of dysplasia, presence of an associated cancer, and overall survival were not correlated with GNAS mutational status. Stratified by histological subtype, 100% of intestinal type IPMNs demonstrated GNAS mutations compared to 51% of gastric IPMN, 71% of pancreatobiliary IPMNs, and 0% of oncocytic IPMNs. CONCLUSIONS: GNAS activating mutations can be reliably detected in IPMNs by pyrosequencing. In terms of clinicopathological parameters, only histological subtype was correlated with mutational frequency, with the intestinal phenotype always associated with GNAS mutations.

23 Article Histopathologic findings of multifocal pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms on CT. 2013

Raman, Siva P / Kawamoto, Satomi / Blackford, Amanda / Hruban, Ralph H / Lennon, Ann Marie / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Rezaee, Neda / Edil, Barish / Fishman, Elliot K. ·Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, 601 N Caroline St, JHOC 3251, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. srsraman3@gmail.com ·AJR Am J Roentgenol · Pubmed #23436845.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The criteria for resection of solitary pancreatic side-branch intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) have been well described by the Sendai consensus statement. However, the management of multiple pancreatic cystic lesions is less certain, with no clear guidelines in the literature to date. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histopathologic findings in pancreatic IPMNs in patients with multiple (≥ 4) pancreatic cysts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CT scans of all patients with a pathologically proven IPMN at our institution were reviewed, and a total of 52 patients with four or more pancreatic cysts were found. Each case was reviewed for the number of cysts and the presence of signs of invasive malignancy including a coexistent solid pancreatic mass, pancreatic ductal dilatation, and mural nodularity. RESULTS: A total of 52 patients (19 men, 33 women; mean age, 71.8 years) were found to have multifocal IPMNs, defined as four or more cysts, on CT. Of these 52 patients, nine also had evidence of a solid pancreatic mass on CT. Retrospective review of the pathologic results for the remaining 43 patients (17 men, 26 women; mean age, 71.76 years) showed 18 cases of an IPMN with either high-grade dysplasia or a coexistent invasive carcinoma. Most important, 37% (7/19 patients) had no CT findings of an invasive malignancy according to the Sendai criteria (i.e., cysts ≥ 3 cm in the axial plane, main pancreatic ductal dilatation ≥ 6 mm, or mural nodularity within a cyst) but were found to have an IPMN with either high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. When the pancreas contained 10 or more cysts, high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma tended to be more likely than low- or intermediate-grade dysplasia (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 0.87-16.8; p = 0.075). CONCLUSION: The presence of multiple pancreatic cysts should be looked on with suspicion, particularly when there are a large number of cysts, even when none of the cysts individually meet the imaging criteria for resection according to the Sendai consensus recommendations. At the very least, these patients need to be followed very closely.

24 Article Surgical resection of malignant melanoma metastatic to the pancreas: case series and review of literature. 2012

Goyal, Jatinder / Lipson, Evan J / Rezaee, Neda / Edil, Barish H / Schulick, Rich / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Hruban, Ralph H / Antonarakis, Emmanuel S. ·Brady Urological Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-2101, USA. jatinaiims@gmail.com ·J Gastrointest Cancer · Pubmed #21912850.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma only rarely metastasizes to the pancreas. As such, there is limited medical literature on the clinical course and outcomes for patients who have undergone surgical management of these tumors. The aim of our study was to review our experience with the surgical resection of melanoma metastatic to the pancreas. METHODS: The records of five patients (four females, one male) with surgically resected melanoma metastatic to the pancreas were retrospectively reviewed. Tumor characteristics, patient presentation, operative details, and follow-up data were evaluated. RESULTS: The primary site of melanoma was known in three cases and unknown in two cases. Four patients were symptomatic at presentation, including abdominal pain (n = 3), jaundice (n = 2), abdominal distension (n = 1), bleeding metastases (n = 1), and fatigue (n = 1). In one patient, the metastasis was an incidental discovery. Surgical resection was accomplished by pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy in four patients and distal pancreatectomy in one patient. Single-site resection was done in two patients while the other three underwent synchronous multiple-site resections. Complications developed post-operatively in three patients. Two patients had progression of disease in the form of new metastatic lesions and received subsequent chemotherapy. The median survival was 11.4 months (range, 3-26 months). CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive surgical management of pancreatic metastases provides palliative relief of symptoms and may be considered in appropriately selected candidates.