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Pancreatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by Eunice L. Kwak
Based on 15 articles published since 2010
(Why 15 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, Eunice L. Kwak wrote the following 15 articles about Pancreatic Neoplasms.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Clinical Trial Total Neoadjuvant Therapy With FOLFIRINOX in Combination With Losartan Followed by Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Phase 2 Clinical Trial. 2019

Murphy, Janet E / Wo, Jennifer Y / Ryan, David P / Clark, Jeffrey W / Jiang, Wenqing / Yeap, Beow Y / Drapek, Lorraine C / Ly, Leilana / Baglini, Christian V / Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S / Ferrone, Cristina R / Parikh, Aparna R / Weekes, Colin D / Nipp, Ryan D / Kwak, Eunice L / Allen, Jill N / Corcoran, Ryan B / Ting, David T / Faris, Jason E / Zhu, Andrew X / Goyal, Lipika / Berger, David L / Qadan, Motaz / Lillemoe, Keith D / Talele, Nilesh / Jain, Rakesh K / DeLaney, Thomas F / Duda, Dan G / Boucher, Yves / Fernández-Del Castillo, Carlos / Hong, Theodore S. ·Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. ·JAMA Oncol · Pubmed #31145418.

ABSTRACT: Importance: Patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer have historically poor outcomes. Evaluation of a total neoadjuvant approach is warranted. Objective: To evaluate the margin-negative (R0) resection rate of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan) and losartan followed by chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-arm phase 2 clinical trial was conducted at a large academic hospital from August 22, 2013, to May 22, 2018, among 49 patients with previously untreated locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer as determined by multidisciplinary review. Patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1 and adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function. Median follow-up for the analysis was 17.1 months (range, 5.0-53.7) among 27 patients still alive at study completion. Interventions: Patients received FOLFIRINOX and losartan for 8 cycles. Patients with radiographically resectable tumor after chemotherapy received short-course chemoradiotherapy (5 GyE × 5 with protons) with capecitabine. Patients with persistent vascular involvement received long-course chemoradiotherapy (50.4 Gy with a vascular boost to 58.8 Gy) with fluorouracil or capecitabine. Main Outcomes and Measures: R0 resection rate. Results: Of the 49 patients (26 women and 23 men; median age 63 years [range, 42-78 years]), 39 completed 8 cycles of FOLFIRINOX and losartan; 10 patients had fewer than 8 cycles due to progression (5 patients), losartan intolerance (3 patients), and toxicity (2 patients). Seven patients (16%) had short-course chemoradiotherapy while 38 (84%) had long-course chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two (86%) patients underwent attempted surgery, with R0 resection achieved in 34 of 49 patients (69%; 95% CI, 55%-82%). Overall median progression-free survival was 17.5 months (95% CI: 13.9-22.7) and median overall survival was 31.4 months (95% CI, 18.1-38.5). Among patients who underwent resection, median progression-free survival was 21.3 months (95% CI, 16.6-28.2), and median overall survival was 33.0 months (95% CI, 31.4 to not reached). Conclusions and Relevance: Total neoadjuvant therapy with FOLFIRINOX, losartan, and chemoradiotherapy provides downstaging of locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and is associated with an R0 resection rate of 61%. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01821729.

2 Clinical Trial Total Neoadjuvant Therapy With FOLFIRINOX Followed by Individualized Chemoradiotherapy for Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Phase 2 Clinical Trial. 2018

Murphy, Janet E / Wo, Jennifer Y / Ryan, David P / Jiang, Wenqing / Yeap, Beow Y / Drapek, Lorraine C / Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S / Kwak, Eunice L / Allen, Jill N / Clark, Jeffrey W / Faris, Jason E / Zhu, Andrew X / Goyal, Lipika / Lillemoe, Keith D / DeLaney, Thomas F / Fernández-Del Castillo, Carlos / Ferrone, Cristina R / Hong, Theodore S. ·Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston. · Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston. ·JAMA Oncol · Pubmed #29800971.

ABSTRACT: Importance: Patients with borderline-resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma have historically poor outcomes with surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Evaluation of a total neoadjuvant approach with highly active therapy is warranted. Objective: To evaluate the margin-negative (R0) resection rate in borderline-resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma after neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) therapy and individualized chemoradiotherapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-arm, phase 2 clinical trial was conducted at a large academic hospital with expertise in pancreatic surgery from August 3, 2012, through August 31, 2016, among 48 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated, localized pancreatic cancer determined to be borderline resectable by multidisciplinary review, who had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1 and adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function. Median follow-up for the analysis was 18.0 months among the 30 patients still alive at study completion. Interventions: Patients received FOLFIRINOX for 8 cycles. Upon restaging, patients with resolution of vascular involvement received short-course chemoradiotherapy (5 Gy × 5 with protons) with capecitabine. Patients with persistent vascular involvement received long-course chemoradiotherapy with fluorouracil or capecitabine. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was R0 resection rate; secondary outcomes were median progression-free survival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS). Results: Of the 48 eligible patients, 27 were men and 21 were women, with a median age of 62 years (range, 46-74 years). Of the 43 patients who planned to receive 8 preoperative cycles of chemotherapy, 34 (79%) were able to complete all cycles. Twenty-seven patients (56%) had short-course chemoradiotherapy, while 17 patients (35%) had long-course chemoradiotherapy. R0 resection was achieved in 31 of the 48 eligible patients (65%; 95% CI, 49%-78%). Among the 32 patients who underwent resection, the R0 resection rate was 97% (n = 31). Median PFS among all eligible patients was 14.7 months (95% CI, 10.5 to not reached), with 2-year PFS of 43%; median OS was 37.7 months (95% CI, 19.4 to not reached), with 2-year OS of 56%. Among patients who underwent resection, median PFS was 48.6 months (95% CI, 14.4 to not reached) and median OS has not been reached, with a 2-year PFS of 55% and a 2-year OS of 72%. Conclusions and Relevance: Preoperative FOLFIRINOX followed by individualized chemoradiotherapy in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer results in high rates of R0 resection and prolonged median PFS and median OS, supporting ongoing phase 3 trials. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01591733.

3 Clinical Trial A phase 1/2 and biomarker study of preoperative short course chemoradiation with proton beam therapy and capecitabine followed by early surgery for resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. 2014

Hong, Theodore S / Ryan, David P / Borger, Darrell R / Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S / Yeap, Beow Y / Ancukiewicz, Marek / Deshpande, Vikram / Shinagare, Shweta / Wo, Jennifer Y / Boucher, Yves / Wadlow, Raymond C / Kwak, Eunice L / Allen, Jill N / Clark, Jeffrey W / Zhu, Andrew X / Ferrone, Cristina R / Mamon, Harvey J / Adams, Judith / Winrich, Barbara / Grillo, Tarin / Jain, Rakesh K / DeLaney, Thomas F / Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos / Duda, Dan G. ·Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address: tshong1@partners.org. · Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts. ·Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys · Pubmed #24867540.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and biomarkers of short-course proton beam radiation and capecitabine, followed by pancreaticoduodenectomy in a phase 1/2 study in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with radiographically resectable, biopsy-proven PDAC were treated with neoadjuvant short-course (2-week) proton-based radiation with capecitabine, followed by surgery and adjuvant gemcitabine. The primary objective was to demonstrate a rate of toxicity grade ≥ 3 of <20%. Exploratory biomarker studies were performed using surgical specimen tissues and peripheral blood. RESULTS: The phase 2 dose was established at 5 daily doses of 5 GyE. Fifty patients were enrolled, of whom 35 patients were treated in the phase 2 portion. There were no grade 4 or 5 toxicities, and only 2 of 35 patients (4.1%) experienced a grade 3 toxicity event (chest wall pain grade 1, colitis grade 1). Of 48 patients eligible for analysis, 37 underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. Thirty of 37 (81%) had positive nodes. Locoregional failure occurred in 6 of 37 resected patients (16.2%), and distant recurrence occurred in 35 of 48 patients (72.9%). With median follow-up of 38 months, the median progression-free survival for the entire group was 10 months, and overall survival was 17 months. Biomarker studies showed significant associations between worse survival outcomes and the KRAS point mutation change from glycine to aspartic acid at position 12, stromal CXCR7 expression, and circulating biomarkers CEA, CA19-9, and HGF (all, P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study met the primary endpoint by showing a rate of 4.1% grade 3 toxicity for neoadjuvant short-course proton-based chemoradiation. Treatment was associated with favorable local control. In exploratory analyses, KRAS(G12D) status and high CXCR7 expression and circulating CEA, CA19-9, and HGF levels were associated with poor survival.

4 Clinical Trial Phase I study of neoadjuvant accelerated short course radiation therapy with photons and capecitabine for resectable pancreatic cancer. 2014

Wo, Jennifer Y / Mamon, Harvey J / Ferrone, Cristina R / Ryan, David P / Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S / Kwak, Eunice L / Tseng, Yolanda D / Napolitano, Brian N / Ancukiewicz, Marek / Swanson, Richard S / Lillemoe, Keith D / Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos / Hong, Theodore S. ·Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States. Electronic address: jwo@partners.org. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States. · Department of General Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States. · Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States. · Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, United States. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States. · Department of General Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States. ·Radiother Oncol · Pubmed #24231241.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: In this phase I study, we sought to determine the feasibility and tolerability of neoadjuvant short course radiotherapy (SC-CRT) delivered with photon RT with concurrent capecitabine for resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with localized, resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma were enrolled from December 2009 to August 2011. In dose level I, patients received 3 Gy × 10. In dose level 2, patients received 5 Gy × 5 (every other day). In dose level 3, patients received 5 Gy × 5 (consecutive days). Capecitabine was given during weeks 1 and 2. Surgery was performed 1-3 weeks after completion of chemotherapy. RESULTS: With an intended accrual of 12 patients, the study was closed early due to unexpected intraoperative complications. Compared to the companion phase I proton study, patients treated with photons had increased intraoperative RT fibrosis reported by surgeons (27% vs. 63%). Among those undergoing a Whipple resection, increased RT fibrosis translated to an increased mean OR time of 69 min. Dosimetric comparison revealed significantly increased low dose exposure to organs at risk for patients treated with photon RT. CONCLUSIONS: This phase I experience evaluating the tolerability of neoadjuvant SC-CRT with photon RT closed early due to unexpected intraoperative complications.

5 Clinical Trial A phase 2 study of oral MKC-1, an inhibitor of importin-β, tubulin, and the mTOR pathway in patients with unresectable or metastatic pancreatic cancer. 2012

Faris, Jason E / Arnott, Jamie / Zheng, Hui / Ryan, David P / Abrams, Thomas A / Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S / Clark, Jeffrey W / Enzinger, Peter C / Hezel, Aram F / Ng, Kimmie / Wolpin, Brian M / Kwak, Eunice L. ·Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, POB 221, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ·Invest New Drugs · Pubmed #21800081.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: MKC-1 is an orally available cell cycle inhibitor with downstream targets that include tubulin and the importin-β family. We conducted an open-label Phase II study with MKC-1 in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Eligibility criteria included unresectable or metastatic pancreatic cancer, performance status of 1 or better, and failure of at least one prior regimen of chemotherapy. MKC-1 was administered orally, twice daily, initially at 100 mg/m(2) dosing for 14 consecutive days of a 28-day cycle. This schedule was modified during the trial to fixed and continuous dosing of 150 mg per day. RESULTS: 20 of an original target of 33 patients were accrued, with a median age of 61 (range 44-81). No objective responses were observed, with one patient demonstrating stable disease. Overall survival was 101 days from the start of MKC-1 administration, and median time to progression was 42 days. The most common adverse events listed as related or possibly related to MKC-1 administration were hematologic toxicities and fatigue. One patient developed grade 5 (fatal) pancytopenia. Grade 3 and 4 events included cytopenias (lymphopenia, anemia), hyperbilirubinemia, pneumonia, mucositis, fatigue, infusion reaction, anorexia, and hypoalbuminemia. CONCLUSIONS: MKC-1 administration was associated with substantial toxicity and did not demonstrate sufficient activity in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer to justify further exploration in this patient population.

6 Clinical Trial Phase I study of preoperative short-course chemoradiation with proton beam therapy and capecitabine for resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma of the head. 2011

Hong, Theodore S / Ryan, David P / Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S / Mamon, Harvey J / Kwak, Eunice L / Mino-Kenudson, Mari / Adams, Judith / Yeap, Beow / Winrich, Barbara / DeLaney, Thomas F / Fernandez-Del Castillo, Carlos. ·Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. tshong1@partners.org ·Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys · Pubmed #20421151.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety of 1 week of chemoradiation with proton beam therapy and capecitabine followed by early surgery. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifteen patients with localized resectable, pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the head were enrolled from May 2006 to September 2008. Patients received radiation with proton beam. In dose level 1, patients received 3 GyE × 10 (Week 1, Monday-Friday; Week 2, Monday-Friday). Patients in Dose Levels 2 to 4 received 5 GyE × 5 in progressively shortened schedules: level 2 (Week 1, Monday, Wednesday, and Friday; Week 2, Tuesday and Thursday), Level 3 (Week 1, Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday; Week 2, Monday), Level 4 (Week 1, Monday through Friday). Capecitabine was given as 825 mg/m(2) b.i.d. Weeks 1 and 2 Monday through Friday for a total of 10 days in all dose levels. Surgery was performed 4 to 6 weeks after completion of chemotherapy for Dose Levels 1 to 3 and then after 1 to 3 weeks for Dose Level 4. RESULTS: Three patients were treated at Dose Levels 1 to 3 and 6 patients at Dose Level 4, which was selected as the MTD. No dose limiting toxicities were observed. Grade 3 toxicity was noted in 4 patients (pain in 1; stent obstruction or infection in 3). Eleven patients underwent resection. Reasons for no resection were metastatic disease (3 patients) and unresectable tumor (1 patient). Mean postsurgical length of stay was 6 days (range, 5-10 days). No unexpected 30-day postoperative complications, including leak or obstruction, were found. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative chemoradiation with 1 week of proton beam therapy and capecitabine followed by early surgery is feasible. A Phase II study is underway.

7 Article Tolerability and Long-term Outcomes of Dose-Painted Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation to Regions of Vessel Involvement in Borderline or Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer. 2018

Wo, Jennifer Y / Niemierko, Andrzej / Ryan, David P / Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S / Clark, Jeffrey W / Kwak, Eunice L / Lillemoe, Keith D / Drapek, Lorraine N / Zhu, Andrew X / Allen, Jill N / Faris, Jason E / Murphy, Janet E / Nipp, Ryan / Fernandez-Del Castillo, Carlos / Ferrone, Cristina R / Hong, Theodore S. ·Departments of Radiation Oncology. · Medical Oncology. · General Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. ·Am J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #28134673.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We reviewed our experience involving patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced pancreatic cancer, treated with the dose-painted (DP) boost technique to regions of vessel involvement which preclude upfront surgical resection. We evaluated patient outcomes with respect to tolerability and treatment outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 99 patients with borderline resectable (n=25) or locally advanced pancreatic cancer (n=74) treated with DP-neoadjuvant chemoradiation from 2010 to 2015. Tumor and regional lymph nodes were prescribed 50.4 Gy and the region around the involved blood vessel was boosted to 58.8 Gy in 28 fractions. The primary outcome was acute toxicity and late duodenal toxicity. Secondary outcomes included conversion to surgical resectability, local failure, disease-free survival, and overall survival (OS). Cox proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate for predictors of survival. RESULTS: All but 1 patient completed chemoradiation. The rates of grade 2+ and 3+ nausea were 40% and 12%, respectively. With regards to late toxicity, 5 patients developed potential RT-related grade 3+ duodenal complications including duodenal ulceration/bleeding (n=3) and duodenal stricture (n=2). With a median follow-up of 15 months, the median OS was 18.1 months. Among 99 patients in our study, 37 patients underwent surgical resection. For patients who underwent surgical resection (n=37), the median OS was 30.9 months. On multivariate analysis, only normalization of CA 19-9 post-RT was associated with improved OS. CONCLUSIONS: We found that DP-neoadjuvant chemoradiation to regions of vessel involvement is both feasible and well tolerated. In addition, we demonstrated that over one third of patients with initially deemed unresectable disease were able to undergo surgical resection after receiving neoadjuvant therapy including DP-chemoradiation.

8 Article Intraoperative Radiotherapy in the Era of Intensive Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Chemoradiotherapy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma. 2018

Keane, Florence K / Wo, Jennifer Y / Ferrone, Cristina R / Clark, Jeffrey W / Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S / Allen, Jill N / Kwak, Eunice L / Ryan, David P / Lillemoe, Keith D / Fernandez-Del Castillo, Carlos / Hong, Theodore S. ·Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School. · Departments of Radiation Oncology. · Surgery. · Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. ·Am J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #27740973.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Improved outcomes with FOLFIRINOX or gemcitabine with nab-paclitaxel in the treatment of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have prompted incorporation of these regimens into neoadjuvant treatment of locally advanced unresectable PDAC. Whereas some patients remain unresectable on surgical exploration, others are able to undergo resection after intensive neoadjuvant treatment. We evaluated outcomes and toxicity associated with use of intensive neoadjuvant treatment followed by intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in combination with resection or exploratory laparotomy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with locally advanced unresectable or borderline-resectable PDAC who received intensive neoadjuvant treatment with induction chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy followed by exploratory laparotomy in an IORT-equipped operating suite between 2010 and 2015. Surgical outcomes and overall survival (OS) were compared. RESULTS: Of 68 patients, 41 (60.3%) underwent resection, 18 (26.5%) had unresectable disease, and 9 (13.2%) had distant metastases. Of 41 resectable patients, 22 received IORT for close/positive resection margins on intraoperative frozen section. There was no significant difference in operative times or morbidity with addition of IORT to resection. Median OS was 26.6 months for all patients who underwent resection, 35.1 months for patients who underwent resection and IORT, and 24.5 months for patients who underwent resection alone (P=NS). Of 18 patients with unresectable disease, all but 1 received IORT, with median OS of 24.8 months. IORT was associated with increased hospital stay (4 vs. 3.5 d), but no significant difference in operative times or morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: IORT in addition to intensive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy was not associated with increased toxicity when used with resection or exploratory laparotomy, and was associated with encouraging survival rates in patients with close/positive margins and patients with unresectable disease.

9 Article Radiological and surgical implications of neoadjuvant treatment with FOLFIRINOX for locally advanced and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. 2015

Ferrone, Cristina R / Marchegiani, Giovanni / Hong, Theodore S / Ryan, David P / Deshpande, Vikram / McDonnell, Erin I / Sabbatino, Francesco / Santos, Daniela Dias / Allen, Jill N / Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S / Clark, Jeffrey W / Faris, Jason E / Goyal, Lipika / Kwak, Eunice L / Murphy, Janet E / Ting, David T / Wo, Jennifer Y / Zhu, Andrew X / Warshaw, Andrew L / Lillemoe, Keith D / Fernández-del Castillo, Carlos. ·*Department of Surgery †Department of Radiation Oncology; and ‡Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. ·Ann Surg · Pubmed #25599322.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: On the basis of the ACCORD trial, FOLFIRINOX is effective in metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC), making it a rational choice for locally advanced PDAC (LA). Aims of this study are to evaluate the accuracy of imaging in determining the resectability of PDAC and to determine the surgical and clinicopathologic outcomes of pancreatic resections after neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinicopathologic data were retrospectively collected for surgical PDAC patients receiving neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX or no neoadjuvant therapy between April 2011 and February 2014. Americas Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association/Society of Surgical Oncology/Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract consensus guidelines defined LA and borderline. Imaging was reviewed by a blinded senior pancreatic surgeon. RESULTS: Of 188 patients undergoing resection for PDAC, 40 LA/borderline received FOLFIRINOX and 87 received no neoadjuvant therapy. FOLFIRINOX resulted in a significant decrease in tumor size, yet 19 patients were still classified as LA and 9 as borderline. Despite post-FOLFIRINOX imaging suggesting continued unresectability, 92% had an R0 resection. When compared with no neoadjuvant therapy, FOLFIRINOX resulted in significantly longer operative times (393 vs 300 minutes) and blood loss (600 vs 400 mL), but significantly lower operative morbidity (36% vs 63%) and no postoperative pancreatic fistulas. Length of stay (6 vs 7 days), readmissions (20% vs 30%), and mortality were equivalent (1% vs 0%). On final pathology, the FOLFIRINOX group had a significant decrease in lymph node positivity (35% vs 79%) and perineural invasion (72% vs 95%). Median follow-up was 11 months with a significant increase in overall survival with FOLFIRINOX. CONCLUSIONS: After neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX imaging no longer predicts unresectability. Traditional pathologic predictors of survival are improved, and morbidity is decreased in comparison to patients with clearly resectable cancers at the time of presentation.

10 Article Delaying chemoradiation until after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer may not impact local control. 2014

Wo, Jennifer Y / Childs, Stephanie K / Szymonifka, Jackie / Mamon, Harvey J / Ryan, David P / Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S / Kwak, Eunice L / Ferrone, Cristina R / Allen, Jill N / Zhu, Andrew X / Wolpin, Brian M / Chan, Jennifer A / Abrams, Thomas A / McCleary, Nadine J / Fernandez-Del Castillo, Carlos / Hong, Theodore S. ·Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address: jwo@partners.org. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. · Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of General Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. ·Pract Radiat Oncol · Pubmed #24890357.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Timing of administration of adjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) for pancreatic cancer has varied across studies. To date, the impact of timing of adjuvant CRT on long-term outcomes has not been evaluated. This study evaluates the effect of timing of adjuvant CRT on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed a review of 159 patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma who received adjuvant CRT between 1998 and 2010. Median dose of CRT was 50.4 Gy. The primary study variable was timing of CRT, dichotomized as immediate CRT versus delayed CRT. Consistent with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9704, immediate chemoradiation was defined as after ≤1 cycle of chemotherapy, whereas delayed CRT was defined as after >1 cycle. Cox multivariate analysis (MVA) was performed. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 55 months. Seventy-four percent of patients received immediate CRT, and 26% patients received delayed CRT. Patients treated with delayed CRT were more likely to receive adjuvant gemcitabine (100% vs 53%; P < .001). Timing of adjuvant CRT was not associated with LRC or OS on univariate or MVA. Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen ≥1.3 ng/mL (hazard ratio, 3.18; P = .017) and positive margins (hazard ratio, 5.35; P < .001) were associated with lower rates LRC on MVA. Higher lymph node positivity ratio and not receiving adjuvant gemcitabine were independently associated with worse OS. CONCLUSIONS: Timing of adjuvant CRT for resectable pancreatic cancer may not significantly affect LRC or OS. These findings support the ongoing RTOG 0848 trial design, and provide reassurance that delaying CRT until completion of chemotherapy should not significantly impact LRC.

11 Article Updated long-term outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated with intraoperative radiotherapy at the Massachusetts General Hospital, 1978 to 2010. 2013

Cai, Sophie / Hong, Theodore S / Goldberg, Saveli I / Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos / Thayer, Sarah P / Ferrone, Cristina R / Ryan, David P / Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S / Kwak, Eunice L / Willett, Christopher G / Lillemoe, Keith D / Warshaw, Andrew L / Wo, Jennifer Y. ·Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. ·Cancer · Pubmed #24006012.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In the current study, the authors evaluated long-term outcomes, intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT)-related toxicity, and prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) among patients with unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) who received IORT as part of their treatment at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for 194 consecutive patients with unresectable LAPC who were treated with IORT at MGH between 1978 and 2010. OS was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were evaluated at the univariate level by the log-rank test and at the multivariate level by the Cox proportional hazards model. Rates of disease progression and treatment toxicity were calculated. RESULTS: The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year survival rates were 49%, 16%, and 6%, respectively. Six patients (3%) survived for > 5 years. The median OS was 12.0 months. Among 183 patients with known post-IORT disease status, the 2-year local progression-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 41% and 28%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an IORT applicator diameter ≤ 8 cm (hazards ratio [HR], 0.51; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.30-0.84 [P = .009]), a Charlson age-comorbidity index ≤ 3 (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.31-0.73 [P = .001]), and receipt of chemotherapy (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.33-0.66 [P < .001]) predicted improved OS. The median OS for patients with all 3 positive prognostic factors was 21.2 months. CONCLUSIONS: Well-selected patients with LAPC with small tumors and low Charlson age-comorbidity indices can achieve good long-term survival outcomes with a treatment regimen that incorporates chemotherapy and IORT.

12 Article FOLFIRINOX in locally advanced pancreatic cancer: the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center experience. 2013

Faris, Jason E / Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S / McDermott, Shaunagh / Guimaraes, Alexander R / Szymonifka, Jackie / Huynh, Mai Anh / Ferrone, Cristina R / Wargo, Jennifer A / Allen, Jill N / Dias, Lauren E / Kwak, Eunice L / Lillemoe, Keith D / Thayer, Sarah P / Murphy, Janet E / Zhu, Andrew X / Sahani, Dushyant V / Wo, Jennifer Y / Clark, Jeffrey W / Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos / Ryan, David P / Hong, Theodore S. ·Department of Hematology/Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. jfaris@partners.org ·Oncologist · Pubmed #23657686.

ABSTRACT: The objective of our retrospective institutional experience is to report the overall response rate, R0 resection rate, progression-free survival, and safety/toxicity of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and leucovorin) and chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Patients with LAPC treated with FOLFIRINOX were identified via the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center pharmacy database. Demographic information, clinical characteristics, and safety/tolerability data were compiled. Formal radiographic review was performed to determine overall response rates (ORRs). Twenty-two patients with LAPC began treatment with FOLFIRINOX between July 2010 and February 2012. The ORR was 27.3%, and the median progression-free survival was 11.7 months. Five of 22 patients were able to undergo R0 resections following neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX and chemoradiation. Three of the five patients have experienced distant recurrence within 5 months. Thirty-two percent of patients required at least one emergency department visit or hospitalization while being treated with FOLFIRINOX. FOLFIRINOX possesses substantial activity in patients with LAPC. The use of FOLFIRINOX was associated with conversion to resectability in >20% of patients. However, the recurrences following R0 resection in three of five patients and the toxicities observed with the use of this regimen raise important questions about how to best treat patients with LAPC.

13 Article Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: is there a survival difference for R1 resections versus locally advanced unresectable tumors? What is a "true" R0 resection? 2013

Konstantinidis, Ioannis T / Warshaw, Andrew L / Allen, Jill N / Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S / Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-Del / Deshpande, Vikram / Hong, Theodore S / Kwak, Eunice L / Lauwers, Gregory Y / Ryan, David P / Wargo, Jennifer A / Lillemoe, Keith D / Ferrone, Cristina R. ·Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ·Ann Surg · Pubmed #22968073.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Patients who undergo an R0 resection of their pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have an improved survival compared with patients who undergo an R1 resection. It is unclear whether an R1 resection confers a survival benefit over locally advanced (LA) unresectable tumors. Our aim was to compare the survival of patients undergoing an R1 resection with those having LA tumors and to explore the prognostic significance of a 1-mm surgical margin. METHODS: Clinicopathologic data from a pancreatic cancer database between January 1993 and July 2008 were reviewed. Locally advanced tumors had no evidence of metastatic disease at exploration. RESULTS: A total of 1705 patients were evaluated for PDAC in the Department of Surgery. Of the 1084 (64%) patients who were surgically explored, 530 (49%) were considered unresectable (286 locally unresectable, 244 with distant metastasis). One hundred fifty-seven (28%) of the resected PDACs had an R1 resection. Patients undergoing an R1 resection had a slightly longer survival compared with those who had locally advanced unresectable cancers (14 vs 11 months; P < 0.001). Patients with R0 resections had a favorable survival compared with those with R1 resections (23 vs 14 months; P < 0.001), but survival after resections with 1-mm margin or less (R0-close) were similar to R1 resections: both groups had a significantly shorter median survival than patients with a margin of greater than 1 mm (R0-wide) (16 vs 14 vs 35 months, respectively; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing an R1 resection still have an improved survival compared with patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. R0 resections have an improved survival compared with R1 resections, but this survival benefit is lost when the tumor is within 1 mm of the resection margin.

14 Article Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with involved surgical margins: prognostic factors and the role of adjuvant radiotherapy. 2012

Arvold, Nils D / Willett, Christopher G / Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos / Ryan, David P / Ferrone, Cristina R / Clark, Jeffrey W / Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S / Deshpande, Vikram / Niemierko, Andrzej / Allen, Jill N / Kwak, Eunice L / Wadlow, Raymond C / Zhu, Andrew X / Warshaw, Andrew L / Hong, Theodore S. ·Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ·Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys · Pubmed #22414286.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) are rare neoplasms associated with poor outcomes without resection, and involved surgical margins are associated with a worse prognosis. The role of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in these patients has not been characterized. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively evaluated 46 consecutive patients with positive or close (<1 mm) margins after pNET resection, treated from 1983 to 2010, 16 of whom received adjuvant RT. Median RT dose was 50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions; half the patients received concurrent chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine. No patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Cox multivariate analysis (MVA) was used to analyze factors associated with overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 56 years, and 52% of patients were female. Median tumor size was 38 mm, 57% of patients were node-positive, and 11% had a resected solitary liver metastasis. Patients who received RT were more likely to have larger tumors (median, 54 mm vs. 30 mm, respectively, p = 0.002) and node positivity (81% vs. 33%, respectively, p = 0.002) than those not receiving RT. Median follow-up was 39 months. Actuarial 5-year OS was 62% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41%-77%). In the group that did not receive RT, 3 patients (10%) experienced local recurrence (LR) and 5 patients (18%) developed new distant metastases, while in the RT group, 1 patient (6%) experienced LR and 5 patients (38%) developed distant metastases. Of all recurrences, 29% were LR. On MVA, male gender (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 3.81; 95% CI, 1.21-11.92; p = 0.02) and increasing tumor size (AHR = 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; p = 0.007) were associated with decreased OS. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival is common among patients with involved-margin pNET. Despite significantly worse pathologic features among patients receiving adjuvant RT, rates of LR between groups were similar, suggesting that RT might aid local control, and merits further evaluation.

15 Article Long-term outcomes of neoadjuvant chemotherapy before chemoradiation for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. 2012

Arvold, Nils D / Ryan, David P / Niemierko, Andrzej / Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S / Kwak, Eunice L / Wo, Jennifer Y / Allen, Jill N / Clark, Jeffrey W / Wadlow, Raymond C / Zhu, Andrew X / Fernandez-Del Castillo, Carlos / Hong, Theodore S. ·Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. ·Cancer · Pubmed #22020923.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy (CRT) may improve outcomes for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer, but optimal management remains controversial, and prior reports have limited follow-up. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients with unresectable (n = 46) or borderline resectable (n = 24) locally advanced pancreatic cancer were treated with CRT from 2005 to 2009. Patients typically received 50.4 grays in 28 fractions (91%) with concurrent 5-fluorouracil (84%) or capecitabine (14%). Forty patients received CRT alone, and 30 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy before CRT for a median of 4 months, typically gemcitabine (93%). All patients without progression after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were offered CRT. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 14.2 months (range, 3-57 months). Fifty-three percent of patients in the CRT group versus 83% in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy before CRT group had unresectable tumors at diagnosis; after completion of CRT, 20% of patients in both groups underwent resection. Compared with CRT alone, the neoadjuvant chemotherapy before CRT group demonstrated improved median overall survival (OS; 18.7 vs 12.4 months; P = .02) and progression-free survival (11.4 vs 6.7 months; P = .02). On multivariate analysis, receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28-0.87; P = .02) and surgical resection (adjusted HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17-0.85; P = .02) were associated with increased OS. CONCLUSIONS: Gemcitabine-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy confers a significant OS advantage by allowing the selection of patients who will derive greatest benefit from CRT. Median survival with this approach was similar to that seen with surgical resection.