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Pancreatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by Beata Kos-Kudla
Based on 17 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, B. Kos-Kudla wrote the following 17 articles about Pancreatic Neoplasms.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Guideline Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours). 2017

Kos-Kudła, Beata / Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta / Strzelczyk, Janusz / Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata / Bednarczuk, Tomasz / Bolanowski, Marek / Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka / Borowska, Małgorzata / Cichocki, Andrzej / Ćwikła, Jarosław B / Falconi, Massimo / Foltyn, Wanda / Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria / Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja / Jarząb, Barbara / Junik, Roman / Kajdaniuk, Dariusz / Kamiński, Grzegorz / Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Agnieszka / Kowalska, Aldona / Król, Robert / Królicki, Leszek / Krzakowski, Maciej / Kunikowska, Jolanta / Kuśnierz, Katarzyna / Lampe, Paweł / Lange, Dariusz / Lewczuk-Myślicka, Anna / Lewiński, Andrzej / Lipiński, Michał / Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena / Marek, Bogdan / Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna / Nawrocki, Sergiusz / Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa / Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna / Rosiek, Violetta / Ruchała, Marek / Siemińska, Lucyna / Sowa-Staszczak, Anna / Starzyńska, Teresa / Steinhof-Radwańska, Katarzyna / Sworczak, Krzysztof / Syrenicz, Anhelli / Szawłowski, Andrzej / Szczepkowski, Marek / Wachuła, Ewa / Zajęcki, Wojciech / Zemczak, Anna / Zgliczyński, Wojciech / Zieniewicz, Krzysztof. ·Klinika Endokrynologii i Nowotworów Neuroendokrynnych, Katedra Patofizjologii i Endokrynologii, Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny. endoklin@sum.edu.pl. ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #28597909.

ABSTRACT: Progress in the diagnostics and therapy of gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN), the published results of new randomised clinical trials, and the new guidelines issued by the European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society (ENETS) have led the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours to update the 2013 guidelines regarding management of these neoplasms. We present the general recommendations for the management of NENs, developed by experts during the Third Round Table Conference - Diagnostics and therapy of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: Polish recommendations in view of current European recommenda-tions, which took place in December 2016 in Żelechów near Warsaw. Drawing from the extensive experience of centres dealing with this type of neoplasms, we hope that we have managed to develop the optimal management system, applying the most recent achievements in the field of medicine, for these patients, and that it can be implemented effectively in Poland. These management guidelines have been arranged in the following order: gastric and duodenal NENs (including gastrinoma); pancreatic NENs; NENs of the small intestine and appendix, and colorectal NENs.

2 Guideline Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms - management guidelines (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours). 2017

Kos-Kudła, Beata / Rosiek, Violetta / Borowska, Małgorzata / Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata / Bednarczuk, Tomasz / Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta / Bolanowski, Marek / Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka / Cichocki, Andrzej / Ćwikła, Jarosław B / Falconi, Massimo / Foltyn, Wanda / Handkiewicz-Junak, Foltyn / Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja / Jarząb, Barbara / Jarząb, Michał / Junik, Roman / Kajdaniuk, Dariusz / Kamiński, Grzegorz / Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Agnieszka / Kowalska, Aldona / Król, Robert / Królicki, Leszek / Kunikowska, Jolanta / Kuśnierz, Katarzyna / Lampe, Paweł / Lange, Dariusz / Lewczuk-Myślicka, Anna / Lewiński, Andrzej / Lipiński, Michał / Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena / Marek, Bogdan / Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna / Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa / Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna / Ruchała, Marek / Siemińska, Lucyna / Sowa-Staszczak, Anna / Starzyńska, Teresa / Steinhof-Radwańska, Katarzyna / Strzelczyk, Janusz / Sworczak, Krzysztof / Syrenicz, Anhelli / Szawłowski, Andrzej / Szczepkowski, Marek / Wachuła, Ewa / Zajęcki, Wojciech / Zemczak, Anna / Zgliczyński, Wojciech. ·vml@wp.pl. ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #28540973.

ABSTRACT: This article presents updated diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for the management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNEN), proposed by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours. The guidelines contain new data received in the years 2013-2016, which confirm previous recommendations, and have led to modification of previous guidelines or have resulted in the formulation of new guidelines. Biochemical and imaging (anatomical and functional) tests are of great importance in diagnostics, as well as histopathological diagnosis to determine the management of PNEN patients, but they must be confirmed by an immunohistochemical examination. PNEN therapy requires collaboration among the members a multidisciplinary team of specialists experienced in the management of these neoplasms. Surgery is the basic form of treatment in many cases. Further therapy requires a multidirectional procedure; therefore, the rules of biotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, molecular targeted therapy, and chemotherapy are discussed.

3 Guideline Gastroduodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms, including gastrinoma - management guidelines (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours). 2017

Lipiński, Michał / Rydzewska, Grażyna / Foltyn, Wanda / Andrysiak-Mamos, Elżbieta / Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata / Bednarczuk, Tomasz / Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta / Bolanowski, Marek / Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka / Borowska, Małgorzata / Cichocki, Andrzej / Ćwikła, Jarosław B / Falconi, Massimo / Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria / Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja / Jarząb, Barbara / Junik, Roman / Kajdaniuk, Dariusz / Kamiński, Grzegorz / Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Agnieszka / Kowalska, Aldona / Król, Robert / Królicki, Leszek / Kunikowska, Jolanta / Kuśnierz, Katarzyna / Lampe, Paweł / Lange, Dariusz / Lewczuk-Myślicka, Anna / Lewiński, Andrzej / Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena / Marek, Bogdan / Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna / Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa / Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna / Poczkaj, Karolina / Rosiek, Violetta / Ruchała, Marek / Siemińska, Lucyna / Sowa-Staszczak, Anna / Starzyńska, Teresa / Steinhof-Radwańska, Katarzyna / Strzelczyk, Janusz / Sworczak, Krzysztof / Syrenicz, Anhelli / Szawłowski, Andrzej / Szczepkowski, Marek / Wachuła, Ewa / Zajęcki, Wojciech / Zemczak, Anna / Zgliczyński, Wojciech / Kos-Kudła, Beata. ·grazka3558@yahoo.pl. ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #28540972.

ABSTRACT: This paper presents the updated Polish Neuroendocrine Tumour Network expert panel recommendations on the management of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the stomach and duodenum, including gastrinoma. The recommendations discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation of these tumours as well as their diagnosis, including biochemical, histopathological, and localisation diagnoses. The principles of treatment are discussed, including endoscopic, surgical, pharmacological, and radionuclide treatments. Finally, there are also recommendations on patient monitoring.

4 Guideline ENETS Consensus Guidelines Update for the Management of Patients with Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors and Non-Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors. 2016

Falconi, M / Eriksson, B / Kaltsas, G / Bartsch, D K / Capdevila, J / Caplin, M / Kos-Kudla, B / Kwekkeboom, D / Rindi, G / Klöppel, G / Reed, N / Kianmanesh, R / Jensen, R T / Anonymous1590854. · ·Neuroendocrinology · Pubmed #26742109.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Guideline Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms - management guidelines (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours). 2013

Kos-Kudła, Beata / Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja / Kuśnierz, Katarzyna / Lampe, Paweł / Marek, Bogdan / Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna / Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa / Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna / Sowa-Staszczak, Anna / Rosiek, Violetta / Anonymous7490781 / Anonymous7500781. ·Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pathophysiology and Endocrinology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland. endoklin@sum.edu.pl. ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #24431118.

ABSTRACT: We present revised diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for the management of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs) proposed by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours.These guidelines refer to biochemical (determination of specific and nonspecific neuroendocrine markers) and imaging diagnostics (EUS, CT, MR, and radioisotope examination with a 68Ga or 99Tc labelled somatostatin analogue).A histopathological diagnostic, which determines the further management of patients with PNENs, must be necessarily confirmed by immunohistochemical tests. PNENs therapy requires collaboration between a multidisciplinary team of specialists experienced in the management of these neoplasms. Surgery is the basic form of treatment. Medical therapy requires a multidirectional procedure, and therefore the rules of biotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapy are discussed.

6 Review Cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours - a gastroenterologist's point of view. 2018

Dąbkowski, Krzysztof / Kos-Kudła, Beata / Andrysiak-Mamos, Elżbieta / Syrenicz, Anhelli / Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna / Starzyńska, Teresa. ·Department of Gastroenterology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland, Poland. dabkowskikrzysztof@wp.pl. ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #29952422.

ABSTRACT: Cystic pancreatic tumors are detected with increasing frequency and remain a clinical problem. Since they have different potential of malignancy the management and decision making process is a hard task. Guidelines, concerning pancreatic cystic tumors indicate the management with mucinous, serous cystic pancreatic neoplasms and solid pseudopappilary tumor, while the management with pancreatic cystic neuroendocrine tumors is not included into these standards. This review tries to answer the question are the cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors different entity from solid tumors of neuroendocrine origin.The management and differential diagnosis of these neoplasms with special focus on features on imaging studies allowing preoperative diagnosis are discussed.

7 Review A Comprehensive Assessment of the Role of miRNAs as Biomarkers in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors. 2018

Malczewska, Anna / Kidd, Mark / Matar, Somer / Kos-Kudla, Beata / Modlin, Irvin M. ·Department of Endocrinology and Neuroendocrine Tumors, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland. · Wren Laboratories, Branford, Connecticut, USA. · Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. ·Neuroendocrinology · Pubmed #29566385.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/AIMS: A key issue in neuroendocrine neoplasia management is the identification of blood signatures that specifically define the activity of a cancer or local tumor microenvironment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may represent such a candidate. To evaluate their clinical utility as biomarkers in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), we assessed their expression in tissue and blood. METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed was undertaken to identify studies investigating miRNAs in GEP-NETs and their utility as blood or tissue biomarkers. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies using a range of methodologies with different normalization protocols were identified: tumor - gastric NET type 1 (n = 1 study: MiR-222, regulates p27KIP1), pancreatic (n = 6: MiR-21 [inflammatory marker, oncogene] and MiR-144 [PI3K/AKT signaling], both up- and downregulated depending on the method), small intestinal (n = 7: no consistent signature), and colorectal (n = 3: no consistent signature); blood - gastric NET type 1 (n = 1: MiR-222), pancreatic (n = 3: MiR-21), and small intestinal (n = 3: no consistent signature). The studies all included heterogeneous cohorts, were insufficiently powered, and utilized different methodologies, and age- and gender-matched controls were not used. Different miRNA isolation methods and detection protocols resulted in inconsistent expression comparing tumor and blood. A scientific discrepancy was the downregulated expression of some circulating candidates compared to tissue levels, suggesting methodological issues or physiological responses to the tumor. Both are of concern in defining the biometrics of a marker. CONCLUSIONS: A potential biomarker for GEP-NETs included MiR-21 (small bowel and pancreas), but this epithelial tumor marker requires prospective validation. Overall, significant scientific investigation remains to identify and demonstrate neuroendocrine specificity and to validate candidate miRNA biomarkers.

8 Review Successful EUS-guided ethanol ablation of insulinoma, four-year follow-up. Case report and literature review. 2017

Dąbkowski, Krzysztof / Gajewska, Paula / Walter, Kamila / Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena / Białek, Andrzej / Andrysiak-Mammos, Elżbieta / Kos-Kudła, Beata / Starzyńska, Teresa. ·Department of Gastroenterology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland, Poland. dabkowskikrzysztof@wp.pl. ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #28819950.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: EUS-guided ethanol ablation of insulinoma is a new method of treatment of this neuroendocrine tumour. Ablation is recommended in patients who are poor surgical candidates or refuse surgery. We present a case of an 81-year-old female with symptomatic insulinoma, treated successfully with EUS-guided alcoholic ablation, along with a literature review including 28 other previously described cases. The effectiveness, safety of the therapy, and technical procedure-related issues are summarised. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first described case of successful insulinoma EUS-guided ablation in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched the PubMed/Medline database to identify cases of EUS-guided alcoholic ablation. Our analysis included 14 articles (case reports or case series), with a total of 27 patients and 31 tumours described, published before February 2017. RESULTS: The described tumours were relatively small (mean 13 mm), and the most common location was pancreatic head. The mean ethanol volume injected to the tumour was 1.8 ml and the concentration of infused alcohol varied from 95% to 98%.Side effects were observed in six cases; apart from one, they were mild and self-limiting. There was only one severe adverse event, treated conservatively with success. The median follow-up was 14.4 months (2-55 months). In all described cases ablation led to improvement of the symptoms and normalisation of glycaemia. CONCLUSIONS: The EUS-guided alcoholic ablation of insulinoma is a safe and effective method of treatment in patients who are poor surgical candidates and/or refuse surgery. The adverse effects are rare and mild and were observed when the volume of injected ethanol was equal to or above 3.0 ml. However, the data is limited, the follow-up is relatively short, and prospective studies are needed to confirm the long-term effects of treatment. The study shows also that there are important procedural differences (concentration and volume of alcohol, needle gauge, number of sessions) between the endoscopists, which should be specified.

9 Review From targets to treatments: a review of molecular targets in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. 2011

Wiedenmann, Bertram / Pavel, Marianne / Kos-Kudla, Beata. ·Department of Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Charité Medical School, Berlin, Germany. bertram.wiedenmann@charite.de ·Neuroendocrinology · Pubmed #21893937.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pancreatic NET) are relatively rare, slowly growing tumors, although their incidence is increasing, and patients may survive for several years with metastatic disease. Apart from symptomatic relief, there have been few treatment options for these tumors in the past. More recently, investigators have explored the potential of molecularly targeted agents in treating pancreatic NET, with some success. In this review, we consider the data supporting exploitation of different targets in pancreatic NET, including peptide receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases (involved in tumor angiogenesis and more directly supporting tumor growth), and intracellular targets, such as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which has a central role in regulating cell growth, metabolism, and apoptosis. Probably due to the paucity of pancreatic NET, many clinical trials to date have included heterogeneous NET populations, and there are few randomized studies of this specific patient population. Very recently, promising results have been achieved in placebo-controlled, phase III trials with the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, and the mTOR inhibitor, everolimus. These agents have been approved or are currently being reviewed by authorities for use in patients with pancreatic NET. Here we review potential molecular targets in pancreatic NET and summarize the available data for targeted agents from phase II and III trials open to patients with this tumor.

10 Article Assessment of the safety and efficiency of sunitinib malate in metastatic neuroendocrine tumours of the pancreas (NEN G1/G2) depending on the number and type of earlier therapeutic lines - initial report. 2014

Wachuła, Ewa / Ćwikła, Jarosław B / Rogowski, Wojciech / Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka / Szabłowska-Siwik, Sylwia / Piątek, Michał / Zemczak, Anna / Michalik, Barbara / Jarząb, Barbara / Nawrocki, Sergiusz / Kos-Kudła, Beata. ·Division of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Department of Clinical Oncology, Silesian Medical University, Katowice, Poland. e.wachula@wp.pl. ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #25554616.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The objective of this paper was to assess the safety and efficacy of sunitinib malate in patients with well-differentiated metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs) who relapsed on standard therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overall, eight patients with well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours/neoplasm (NET/NEN G1/G2, Ki-67 < 20%), who had relapsed on a standard therapy approach, were treated. All had non-resectable, progressive disease. All received therapy using a standard dose of sunitinib malate. Adverse events were evaluated using NCI-CTC AE v. 3.0. RESULTS: Of the eight patients, seven had non-secretor and single secretor tumour (gastrinoma). Partial remission (PR) was noted in three patients (one after a single therapeutic line, two after two lines), five patients had stabilisation (SD) - including three individuals after three lines, one patient after two lines and another after a single line. Haematological adverse events: leukopenia (25%) - occurred in one patient after three lines and in one patient after two lines; anaemia (25%) - in one patient after three lines and in one patient after one therapeutic line. Mucocutaneous lesions were noted in 37.5% of patients after 2-3 lines of treatment. All of them experienced fatigue syndrome irrespective of the number of therapies. The majority of the patients simultaneously received somatostatin analogues, which did not exacerbate the toxicity profile. The median progression-free survival time (PFS) was 11 months. CONCLUSIONS: Sunitinib may be considered as a fairly well-tolerated and effective therapeutic option in progressive non-resectable PNEN patients in the second and subsequent lines of treatment, irrespective of the types of treatment previously applied.

11 Article An atypical course of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour manifesting as cardiac metastasis - a clinical case. 2014

Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka / Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta / Wachuła, Ewa / Kunikowska, Jolanta / Kos-Kudła, Beata. ·Division of Clinical Oncology, Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Silesian Medical University, Katowice, Poland. aboratyn-nowicka@szpitalceglana.pl. ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #24971925.

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a ten-year course of the disease in a patient with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour NEN G1, and with confirmed single, asymptomatic metastasis to the left cardiac ventricle. Initially, the cardiac metastasis was visible only on a positron emission tomography (PET) scan using gallium-68-labelled somatostatin analogue; the sensitivity of an echocardiography scan was lower. Despite the advanced stage of the disease, surgical excision of the cardiac metastasis was performed. The patient underwent a total of eight operations, and received chemotherapy, radiotherapy and somatostatin analogues. Currently, he is on a targeted therapy with everolimus. As a result of the treatment, the patient remains in a good general condition. This is the second described case of cardiac metastasis of PNEN. Using different methods of treatment in the case of generalised pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour with low proliferative potential, patients are offered the chance to prolong their survival and maintain a good quality of life.

12 Article Is determination of matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors serum concentrations useful in patients with gastroenteropancreatic and bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms? 2012

Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta / Kos-Kudła, Beata / Foltyn, Wanda / Kajdaniuk, Dariusz / Marek, Bogdan / Zemczak, Anna / Strzelczyk, Janusz. ·Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pathophysiology and Endocrinology, Silesian Medical University in Katowice, 40–952 Katowice, Poland. jblicharz@poczta.fm ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #23339005.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) and bronchopulmonary (BP) neurendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are rare and slowly growing tumours. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade extracellular matrix and are responsible for invasion and metastasis. Tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) affect the invasiveness of tumour cells and the formation of distant metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate selected MMPs (MMP2 and MMP9) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP1 and TIMP2) depending on the pTNM classification, grading, and the occurrence of metastases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 86 patients with GEP NENs. The control group consisted of 31 healthy volunteers. Serum levels of TIMP1, TIMP2, MMP2 and MMP9 were determined by ELISA (R&D Systems) in all the study subjects. The statistical calculations were performed using MedCalc. RESULTS: We observed significant differences in MMP2 and TIMP1 levels between the study group with NENs and the control group. TIMP1 levels were significantly higher in patients with high-grade NEN (NEC, neuroendocrine carcinoma) compared to patients with low-grade tumour (NET G1, neuroendocrine tumours G1) (p 〈 0.017). We also observed a significant correlation between TIMP1 levels and the presence of metastases in the group of patients with GEP NENs, and also higher TIMP1 levels than those in the patients without metastases (p 〈 0.05). We also found a higher likelihood of metastases in patients with GEP NENs with TIMP1 levels exceeding 206.4 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with NENs secreted larger quantities of MMP2 and TIMP1. TIMP1 may be considered a marker of metastases in patients with GEP NENs.

13 Article The value of the Ki-67 proliferation marker as a prognostic factor in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. 2012

Foltyn, Wanda / Zajęcki, Wojciech / Marek, Bogdan / Kajdaniuk, Dariusz / Siemińska, Lucyna / Zemczak, Anna / Kos-Kudła, Beata. ·Department of Endocrinology, Division of Pathophysiology and Endocrinology, Silesian Medical University, Katowice, Poland. wandafoltyn@poczta.onet.pl ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #23115069.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NETs) are a heterogenous group of tumours of various clinical presentations. Proliferative activity of tumour cells is an essential parameter determining the course of the disease and affecting the prognosis. The Ki-67 antigen is an important marker of cell proliferation, which shows activity in all the phases of the cell cycle, excluding the G0 phase. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the expression of Ki-67 in GEP NETs and to examine the association of Ki-67 with the stage of the tumour (tumour size, presence of metastases) and the hormonal function of the tumour. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 61 patients with GEP NETs (25 males and 36 females aged between 20 and 82 years [mean age: 56 years]). The proliferative activity was examined in paraffin blocks containing surgically removed tumour samples and in core-needle biopsies of primary and metastatic tumours. The presence of the Ki-67 antigen was assessed by immunohistochemistry using MIB‑1 monoclonal antibodies. Based on the Ki-67 proliferative index we determined the tumour grade. In addition, we determined the tumour stage according to the TNM classification. In all the subjects we determined the levels of the non-specific NET marker (chromogranin A) and of specific NET markers (serotonin, insulin and gastrin in the blood and 5‑hydroxyindoleacetic acid [5‑HIAA] in 24-hour urine). RESULTS: The diagnoses of low-grade (Ki‑67 ≤ 2%), intermediate-grade (Ki-67 3-20%) and high-grade (Ki‑67 > 20%) NET were established in 38, 12 and 11 patients, respectively. Metastatic disease was diagnosed in 36/61 patients. A significantly higher expression of K-67 was observed in patients with metastatic disease (p = 0.01). A positive correlation was demonstrated between Ki-67 and the stage of the disease (p = 0.01) and between the histologic grade of the tumour and the stage of the disease (p = 0.01). No association between Ki-67 and the levels of chromogranin A, serotonin, insulin, gastrin and 5-HIAA was shown. There was also no difference in Ki-67 expression relative to the location of the primary tumour and the tumour size. CONCLUSIONS: The Ki-67 proliferative index is an essential parameter predicting the course of GEP-NETs.

14 Article A non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour: a case report. 2012

Rosiek, Violetta / Kunikowska, Jolanta / Kos-Kudła, Beata. ·Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pathophysiology and Endocrinology, Silesian Medical University, ul. Ceglana 35, Katowice, Poland. vml@wp.pl ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #22378100.

ABSTRACT: We present the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties encountered in a patient with a clinically advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour. The report concerns a 60-year-old female patient with the diagnosis of non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (NET G1) with liver, peripancreatic lymph node and mediastinal metastases. Due to the presence of advanced disease (inoperable pancreatic tumour, presence of multiple metastases) the patient was considered ineligible for surgical treatment on two occasions. Tissue samples for histopathology were collected during an exploratory laparotomy, which made it possible to establish the diagnosis. As somatostatin receptor scintigraphy was positive, the patient was started on somatostatin analogues and radionuclide therapy was initiated, resulting in satisfactory response in the form of complete remission of liver metastases and the decreased size of the primary tumour in the pancreas. The use of somatostatin analogues in the case of an inoperable neuroendocrine tumour which was assessed as clinically advanced, yet possessing a low proliferative potential, is a promising therapeutic option.

15 Article [Pancreatic endocrine tumors - management guidelines (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors)]. 2008

Kos-Kudła, Beata / Bolanowski, Marek / Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja / Krzakowski, Maciej / Marek, Bogdan / Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna / Lampe, Paweł / Sworczak, Krzysztof / Anonymous3320594. ·Klinka Endokrynologii Katedra Patofizjologii i Endokrynologii, Slaski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Zabrze, Poland. endoklin@slam.katowice.pl ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #18335402.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) are rare neoplasms of this organ. The majority of PETs are tumors without hormonal activity. In this publication, we present the diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for the management of these tumors proposed by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors. These guidelines refer to biochemical and location diagnostics, including scintygraphy of somatostatin receptors, endoscopic ultrasonography and other anatomical and functional imaging methods. High importance is attached to correct histopathological diagnosis which determines further management of patients with PETs. Antitumor therapy requires multidirectional procedure, and therefore the rules of surgical treatment, biotherapy, chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy are discussed.

16 Article [Endocrine tumors of the stomach and duodenum (including gastrinoma) - management guidelines (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors)]. 2008

Rydzewska, Grazyna / Cichocki, Andrzej / Cwikła, Jarosław / Kos-Kudła, Beata / Krzyzanowska-Swiniarska, Barbara / Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna / Szawłowski, Andrzej / Tomaszewska, Romana A / Anonymous3310594. ·Klinka Chorob Wewnwtrznych i Gastroenterologii CSK MSWiA, Warszawa, Poland. grazyna.rydzewska@cskmswia.pl ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #18335401.

ABSTRACT: The neuroendocrine tumors of the stomach and duodenum constitute only minority of neoplasms in this localisation. However due to their clinical behaviour and/or hormonal syndromes they pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. They display distinct phenotypes, regarding their pathogenesis, pathology and clinical course. Herein we present Polish guidelines for biochemical, pathological and localisation diagnosis, and discuss therapeutic approaches, considering endoscopic and surgical treatment, pharmacological and radionuclide therapy.

17 Article [Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors)]. 2008

Kos-Kudła, Beata / Bolanowski, Marek / Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria / Jarzab, Barbara / Królicki, Leszek / Krzakowski, Maciej / Kunikowska, Jolanta / Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna / Nowak, Andrzej / Rydzewska, Grazyna / Starzyńska, Teresa / Szawłowski, Andrzej / Anonymous3300594. ·Klinika Endokrynologii, Katedra Patofizjologii i Endokrynologii, Slaski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Zabrze, Poland. endoklin@slam.katowice.pl ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #18335400.

ABSTRACT: We have recently observed an increased interest in gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP NET). They are rare cancer types and therefore collaborative effort of specialists in various disciplines of medicine is necessary to work out the diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines. In this publication we present general guidelines of the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors for the management of patients with GEP NET, developed at the Round Table Conference which took place in Kliczków near Wrocław in November 2007. In the subsequent parts of this publication, we present the rules of diagnostic and therapeutic management of: - endocrine tumors of the stomach and duodenum (including gastrinoma); - pancreatic endocrine tumors; - neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine and the appendix; - neuroendocrine tumors of the colon. We hope that the proposed guidelines by Polish and foreign experts representing various disciplines of medicine, including endocrinology, gastroenterology, surgery, oncology, nuclear medicine and pathomorphology, will become a useful tool in the diagnostics and treatment of these patients.