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Pancreatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by Dr. J Kleeff
Based on 93 articles published since 2009
(Why 93 articles?)
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Between 2009 and 2019, J. Kleeff wrote the following 93 articles about Pancreatic Neoplasms.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4
1 Guideline [S3-guideline exocrine pancreatic cancer]. 2013

Seufferlein, T / Porzner, M / Becker, T / Budach, V / Ceyhan, G / Esposito, I / Fietkau, R / Follmann, M / Friess, H / Galle, P / Geissler, M / Glanemann, M / Gress, T / Heinemann, V / Hohenberger, W / Hopt, U / Izbicki, J / Klar, E / Kleeff, J / Kopp, I / Kullmann, F / Langer, T / Langrehr, J / Lerch, M / Löhr, M / Lüttges, J / Lutz, M / Mayerle, J / Michl, P / Möller, P / Molls, M / Münter, M / Nothacker, M / Oettle, H / Post, S / Reinacher-Schick, A / Röcken, C / Roeb, E / Saeger, H / Schmid, R / Schmiegel, W / Schoenberg, M / Siveke, J / Stuschke, M / Tannapfel, A / Uhl, W / Unverzagt, S / van Oorschot, B / Vashist, Y / Werner, J / Yekebas, E / Anonymous230779 / Anonymous240779 / Anonymous250779. ·Klinik für Innere Medizin I, Universitätsklinikum Ulm. · Klinik für Allgemeine Chirurgie, Viszeral-, Thorax-, Transplantations- und Kinderchirurgie, Universitätsklinikum Kiel. · Klinik für Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin. · Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, TU München. · Institut für Allgemeine Pathologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, TU München. · Strahlenklinik, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen. · Leitlinienprogramm Onkologie, Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft e. V., Berlin. · I. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Universitätsmedizin Mainz. · Klinik für Allgemeine Innere Medizin, Onkologie/Hämatologie, Gastroenterologie und Infektiologie, Klinikum Esslingen. · Klinik für Allgemeine Chirurgie, Viszeral-, Gefäß- und Kinderchirurgie, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes Homburg/Saar. · Klinik für Gastroenterologie, Endokrinologie und Stoffwechsel, Universitätsklinikum Gießen und Marburg. · Medizinischen Klinik und Poliklinik III, Klinikum der Universität München LMU. · Chirurgische Klinik, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen. · Klinik für Allgemein- und Viszeralchirurgie, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg. · Klinik für Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Thoraxchirurgie, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf. · Klinik für Allgemeine Chirurgie, Thorax-, Gefäß- und Transplantationschirurgie, Universitätsmedizin Rostock. · AWMF-Institut für Medizinisches Wissensmanagement, Marburg. · Medizinische Klinik I, Klinikum Weiden. · Klinik für Allgemein-, Gefäß- und Viszeralchirurgie, Martin-Luther-Krankenhaus Berlin. · Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin A, Universitätsmedizin Greifswald. · Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm. · Institut für Pathologie, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg. · Medizinische Klinik - Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie, Endokrinologie, Infektiologie, Caritasklinikum Saarbrücken. · Institut für Pathologie, Universitätsklinikum Ulm. · Klinik und Poliklinik für Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, TU München. · Klinik für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Klinikum Stuttgart. · AWMF-Institut für Medizinisches Wissensmanagement, Berlin. · Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Hämatologie und Onkologie, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin. · Chirurgische Klinik, Universitätsmedizin Mannheim. · Abt. für Hämatologie und Onkologie, St. Josef-Hospital, Klinikum der Ruhr-Universität Bochum. · Institut für Pathologie, Universitätsklinikum Kiel. · Medizinische Klinik II, SP Gastroenterologie, Universitätsklinikum Gießen und Marburg. · Klinik für Viszeral-, Thorax- und Gefäßchirurgie, Universitätsklinikum Dresden. · II. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, TU München. · Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum der Ruhr-Universität Bochum. · Klinik für Chirurgie, Rotkreuzklinikum München. · Klinik für Strahlentherapie, Universitätsklinikum Essen. · Institut für Pathologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum. · Chirurgische Klinik, St. Josef-Hospital, Klinikum der Ruhr-Universität Bochum. · Institut für Medizinische Epidemiologie, Biometrie und Informatik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg. · Klinik und Poliklinik für Strahlentherapie, Universitätsklinikum Würzburg. · Klinik für Allgemeine, Viszerale und Transplantationschirurgie, Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg. · Klinik für Allgemein-, Thorax- und Viszeralchirurgie, Klinikum Darmstadt. ·Z Gastroenterol · Pubmed #24338757.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Review Therapeutic developments in pancreatic cancer: current and future perspectives. 2018

Neoptolemos, John P / Kleeff, Jörg / Michl, Patrick / Costello, Eithne / Greenhalf, William / Palmer, Daniel H. ·Department of General Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. john.neoptolemos@med.uni-heidelberg.de. · Department of Visceral, Vascular and Endocrine Surgery, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany. joerg.kleeff@uk-halle.de. · Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. joerg.kleeff@uk-halle.de. · Department of Internal Medicine I, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany. · Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. ·Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol · Pubmed #29717230.

ABSTRACT: The overall 5-year survival for pancreatic cancer has changed little over the past few decades, and pancreatic cancer is predicted to be the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the next decade in Western countries. The past few years, however, have seen improvements in first-line and second-line palliative therapies and considerable progress in increasing survival with adjuvant treatment. The use of biomarkers to help define treatment and the potential of neoadjuvant therapies also offer opportunities to improve outcomes. This Review brings together information on achievements to date, what is working currently and where successes are likely to be achieved in the future. Furthermore, we address the questions of how we should approach the development of pancreatic cancer treatments, including those for patients with metastatic, locally advanced and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer, as well as for patients with resected tumours. In addition to embracing newer strategies comprising genomics, stromal therapies and immunotherapies, conventional approaches using chemotherapy and radiotherapy still offer considerable prospects for greater traction and synergy with evolving concepts.

3 Review Contemporary strategies to improve the outcome in locally advanced pancreatic cancer. 2017

Schneider, Rick / Späth, Christoph / Nitsche, Ulrich / Erkan, Mert / Kleeff, Jörg. ·Department of Visceral, Vascular and Endocrine Surgery, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany. · Department of General Surgery, North Shore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. · Department of Surgery, Rechts der Isar Hospital, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany. · Department of Surgery, Koç University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey. · Department of Visceral, Vascular and Endocrine Surgery, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany - joerg.kleeff@uk-halle.de. ·Minerva Chir · Pubmed #28565894.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 7%. After many years of basic and clinical research efforts, pancreatic cancer patients presenting with locally advanced, unresectable tumors remain a therapeutic challenge. Despite the lack of high quality randomized controlled trials, perioperative/neoadjuvant treatment strategies seem to be beneficial in these patients. At present the FOLFIRINOX regimen, which was established in the palliative setting, is increasingly recognized as the backbone of neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced PDAC. Surgical resection follows the same principles and guidelines as upfront surgery specifically regarding the extent of resection including lymphadenectomy, vascular resections and multivisceral resections. Because of the limited diagnostic accuracy of restaging after neoadjuvant treatment, an adjusted intraoperative strategy is necessary to minimize the risk of debulking procedures and maximize the chance of a potential curative resection. Locally advanced PDAC requires a multidisciplinary and individualized treatment approach, and further research efforts for novel and innovative therapies. This article provides an updated overview on strategies to improve the outcome in locally advanced PDAC.

4 Review Reduced risk of pancreatic cancer associated with asthma and nasal allergies. 2017

Gomez-Rubio, Paulina / Zock, Jan-Paul / Rava, Marta / Marquez, Mirari / Sharp, Linda / Hidalgo, Manuel / Carrato, Alfredo / Ilzarbe, Lucas / Michalski, Christoph / Molero, Xavier / Farré, Antoni / Perea, José / Greenhalf, William / O'Rorke, Michael / Tardón, Adonina / Gress, Thomas / Barberà, Victor / Crnogorac-Jurcevic, Tatjana / Domínguez-Muñoz, Enrique / Muñoz-Bellvís, Luís / Alvarez-Urturi, Cristina / Balcells, Joaquim / Barneo, Luis / Costello, Eithne / Guillén-Ponce, Carmen / Kleeff, Jörg / Kong, Bo / Lawlor, Rita / Löhr, Matthias / Mora, Josefina / Murray, Lim / O'Driscoll, Damian / Peláez, Pablo / Poves, Ignasi / Scarpa, Aldo / Real, Francisco X / Malats, Núria / Anonymous6460850. ·Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO), Madrid, Spain. · Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain. · National Cancer Registry Ireland, Cork, Ireland, and Institute of Health & Society, Newcastle University, UK. · Hospital Madrid-Norte-Sanchinarro, Madrid, Spain. · Department of Oncology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain. · Hospital del Mar-Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona, Spain. · Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany. · Exocrine Pancreas Research Unit, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain. · Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Surgery, 12 de Octubre University Hospital, Madrid, Spain. · The Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK. · Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK. · Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain. · Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Marburg, Germany. · Laboratorio de Genética Molecular, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, Elche, Spain. · Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK. · Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain. · Cirugía General y del Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain. · Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. · Gastrocentrum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. · Epithelial Carcinogenesis Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain. ·Gut · Pubmed #26628509.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Studies indicate an inverse association between ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (PDAC) and nasal allergies. However, controversial findings are reported for the association with asthma. Understanding PDAC risk factors will help us to implement appropriate strategies to prevent, treat and diagnose this cancer. This study assessed and characterised the association between PDAC and asthma and corroborated existing reports regarding the association between allergies and PDAC risk. DESIGN: Information about asthma and allergies was collated from 1297 PDAC cases and 1024 controls included in the PanGenEU case-control study. Associations between PDAC and atopic diseases were studied using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Meta-analyses of association studies on these diseases and PDAC risk were performed applying random-effects model. RESULTS: Asthma was associated with lower risk of PDAC (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.88), particularly long-standing asthma (>=17 years, OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.65). Meta-analysis of 10 case-control studies sustained our results (metaOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.89). Nasal allergies and related symptoms were associated with lower risk of PDAC (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.83 and OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.77, respectively). These results were supported by a meta-analysis of nasal allergy studies (metaOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.72). Skin allergies were not associated with PDAC risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a consistent inverse association between PDAC and asthma and nasal allergies, supporting the notion that atopic diseases are associated with reduced cancer risk. These results point to the involvement of immune and/or inflammatory factors that may either foster or restrain pancreas carcinogenesis warranting further research to understand the molecular mechanisms driving this association.

5 Review Pancreatic cancer. 2016

Kleeff, Jorg / Korc, Murray / Apte, Minoti / La Vecchia, Carlo / Johnson, Colin D / Biankin, Andrew V / Neale, Rachel E / Tempero, Margaret / Tuveson, David A / Hruban, Ralph H / Neoptolemos, John P. ·NIHR Pancreas Biomedical Research Unit, Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, University of Liverpool, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust, Duncan Building, Daulby Street, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK. · Department of General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany. · Departments of Medicine, and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, the Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, and the Pancreatic Cancer Signature Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. · SWS Clinical School, University of New South Wales, and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. · University Surgical Unit, University Hospital Southampton, Southampton, UK. · Institute of Cancer Sciences, Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Garscube Estate, Bearsden, Glasgow, Scotland, UK. · QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · UCSF Pancreas Center, University of California San Francisco - Mission Bay Campus/Mission Hall, San Francisco, California, USA. · Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, New York, USA. · The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Departments of Pathology and Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. ·Nat Rev Dis Primers · Pubmed #27158978.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is a major cause of cancer-associated mortality, with a dismal overall prognosis that has remained virtually unchanged for many decades. Currently, prevention or early diagnosis at a curable stage is exceedingly difficult; patients rarely exhibit symptoms and tumours do not display sensitive and specific markers to aid detection. Pancreatic cancers also have few prevalent genetic mutations; the most commonly mutated genes are KRAS, CDKN2A (encoding p16), TP53 and SMAD4 - none of which are currently druggable. Indeed, therapeutic options are limited and progress in drug development is impeded because most pancreatic cancers are complex at the genomic, epigenetic and metabolic levels, with multiple activated pathways and crosstalk evident. Furthermore, the multilayered interplay between neoplastic and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment challenges medical treatment. Fewer than 20% of patients have surgically resectable disease; however, neoadjuvant therapies might shift tumours towards resectability. Although newer drug combinations and multimodal regimens in this setting, as well as the adjuvant setting, appreciably extend survival, ∼80% of patients will relapse after surgery and ultimately die of their disease. Thus, consideration of quality of life and overall survival is important. In this Primer, we summarize the current understanding of the salient pathophysiological, molecular, translational and clinical aspects of this disease. In addition, we present an outline of potential future directions for pancreatic cancer research and patient management.

6 Review Pathobiology of pancreatic cancer: implications on therapy. 2016

Regel, Ivonne / Hausmann, Simone / Benitz, Simone / Esposito, Irene / Kleeff, Jörg. ·a Institute of Pathology , Heinrich-Heine-University , Duesseldorf , Germany. · b Department of Surgery , Technical University , Munich , Germany. · c Department of Surgery , The Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals , Liverpool , UK. · d Department of Surgery , Heinrich-Heine-University , Duesseldorf , Germany. ·Expert Rev Anticancer Ther · Pubmed #26652651.

ABSTRACT: Although the concept of tumor heterogeneity was established several decades ago, the interest in this topic is still unbroken. With the identification of inter- and intratumoral genomic rearrangements and the detection of cancer stem cells (CSCs) through phenotypic variations of cancer cells there are increasing options for pancreatic cancer therapy. Indeed, some pre-clinical studies have shown promising results in the treatment of drug-resistant CSCs, whereby a few strategies were already tested in clinical trials. Basically, CSCs are influenced by the tumor microenvironment and an epigenetic reprogramming to gain stem cell-like characteristics. Targeting options inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk or promoting epigenetic-driven differentiation of CSCs to a less aggressive phenotype raised the possibilities of further therapeutic applications, which will be discussed in this review.

7 Review The role of hypoxia in pancreatic cancer: a potential therapeutic target? 2016

Erkan, Mert / Kurtoglu, Metin / Kleeff, Jorg. ·a Department of Surgery , Koç University School of Medicine , Istanbul , Turkey. · b Department of Oncology , Koç University School of Medicine , Istanbul , Turkey. · c Department of Surgery , The Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals , Liverpool , UK. · d Department of General-, Visceral- and Pediatric Surgery , University Hospital Düsseldorf, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf , Düsseldorf , Germany. ·Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol · Pubmed #26560854.

ABSTRACT: One of the key factors that correlates with poor survival of patients with pancreatic cancer is the extent of hypoxic areas within the tumor tissue. The adaptation of pancreatic cancer cells to limited oxygen delivery promotes the induction of an invasive and treatment-resistant phenotype, triggering metastases at an early stage of tumor development, which resist in most cases adjuvant therapies following tumor resection. In this article, the authors summarize the evidence demonstrating the significance of hypoxia in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis and discuss the possible hypoxia-induced mechanisms underlying its aggressive nature. We then conclude with promising strategies that target hypoxia-adapted pancreatic cancer cells.

8 Review Strategies to improve the outcome in locally advanced pancreatic cancer. 2015

Späth, C / Nitsche, U / Müller, T / Michalski, C / Erkan, M / Kong, B / Kleeff, J. ·Department of Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany - christoph.spaeth@tum.de. ·Minerva Chir · Pubmed #25658301.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is associated with the worst prognosis of all gastrointestinal malignancies. The major reasons for the dismal outcome are late diagnosis due to unspecific symptoms and aggressive tumor biology. Although highly effective chemotherapeutic options have emerged within the last decade, radical resection offers the only chance of cure. Only 10-20% of patients are resectable at presentation, and 30-40% present with borderline resectable or locally advanced/unresectable tumors. Even if resectable, the 5-year-survival rate after complete resections remains unsatisfactory, with less than 25%. This article gives an overview on current therapy standards as well as on new approaches especially for locally advanced tumors and outlines the importance of ongoing research to improve prognosis.

9 Review Addressing the challenges of pancreatic cancer: future directions for improving outcomes. 2015

Hidalgo, Manuel / Cascinu, Stefano / Kleeff, Jörg / Labianca, Roberto / Löhr, J-Matthias / Neoptolemos, John / Real, Francisco X / Van Laethem, Jean-Luc / Heinemann, Volker. ·Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas (CNIO), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: mhidalgo@cnio.es. · Department of Medical Oncology, University of Ancona, Ancona, Italy. · Department of General Surgery, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. · Ospedale Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy. · Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. · National Institutes of Health Research Liverpool Pancreas Biomedical Research Unit and Cancer Research UK Liverpool Clinical Trials Unit Director, University of Liverpool and Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK. · Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas (CNIO), Madrid and Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Gastroenterology-GI Cancer Unit, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium. · Comprehensive Cancer Centre Munich, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany. ·Pancreatology · Pubmed #25547205.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which accounts for more than 90% of all pancreatic tumours, is a devastating malignancy with an extremely poor prognosis, as shown by a 1-year survival rate of around 18% for all stages of the disease. The low survival rates associated with PDAC primarily reflect the fact that tumours progress rapidly with few specific symptoms and are thus at an advanced stage at diagnosis in most patients. As a result, there is an urgent need to develop accurate markers of pre-invasive pancreatic neoplasms in order to facilitate prediction of cancer risk and to help diagnose the disease at an earlier stage. However, screening for early diagnosis of prostate cancer remains challenging and identifying a highly accurate, low-cost screening test for early PDAC for use in clinical practice remains an important unmet need. More effective therapies are also crucial in PDAC, since progress in identifying novel therapies has been hampered by the genetic complexity of the disease and treatment remains a major challenge. Presently, the greatest step towards improved treatment efficacy has been made in the field of palliative chemotherapy by introducing FOLFIRINOX (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan and oxaliplatin) and gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel. Strategies designed to raise the profile of PDAC in research and clinical practice are a further requirement in order to ensure the best treatment for patients. This article proposes a number of approaches that may help to accelerate progress in treating patients with PDAC, which, in turn, may be expected to improve the quality of life and survival for those suffering from this devastating disease.

10 Review Update on surgical treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. 2014

D'Haese, Jan G / Tosolini, Chiara / Ceyhan, Güralp O / Kong, Bo / Esposito, Irene / Michalski, Christoph W / Kleeff, Jörg. ·Jan G D'Haese, Chiara Tosolini, Güralp O Ceyhan, Bo Kong, Christoph W Michalski, Jörg Kleeff, Department of Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 Munich, Germany. ·World J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #25320524.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs) are rare and account for only 2%-4% of all pancreatic neoplasms. All PNENs are potential (neurendocrine tumors PNETs) or overt (neuroendocrine carcinomas PNECs) malignant, but a subset of PNETs is low-risk. Even in case of low-risk PNETs surgical resection is frequently required to treat hormone-related symptoms and to obtain an appropriate pathological diagnosis. Low-risk PNETs in the body and the tail are ideal for minimally-invasive approaches which should be tailored to the individual patient. Generally, surgeons must aim for parenchyma sparing in these cases. In high-risk and malignant PNENs, indications for tumor resection are much wider than for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, in many cases due to the relatively benign tumor biology. Thus, patients with locally advanced and metastatic PNETs may benefit from extensive resection. In experienced hands, even multi-organ resections are accomplished with acceptable perioperative morbidity and mortality rates and are associated with excellent long term survival. However, poorly differentiated neoplasms with high proliferation rates are associated with a dismal prognosis and may frequently only be treated with chemotherapy. The evidence on surgical treatment of PNENs stems from reviews of mostly single-center series and some analyses of nation-wide tumor registries. No randomized trial has been performed to compare surgical and non-surgical therapies in potentially resectable PNEN. Though such a trial would principally be desirable, ethical considerations and the heterogeneity of PNENs preclude realization of such a study. In the current review, we summarize recent advances in the surgical treatment of PNENs.

11 Review The role of stroma in pancreatic cancer: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. 2012

Erkan, Mert / Hausmann, Simone / Michalski, Christoph W / Fingerle, Alexander A / Dobritz, Martin / Kleeff, Jörg / Friess, Helmut. ·Department of General Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaningerstrasse 12, 81675 Munich, Germany. m.mert.erkan@googlemail.com ·Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol · Pubmed #22710569.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the five most lethal malignancies worldwide and survival has not improved substantially in the past 30 years. Desmoplasia (abundant fibrotic stroma) is a typical feature of PDAC in humans, and stromal activation commonly starts around precancerous lesions. It is becoming clear that this stromal tissue is not a bystander in disease progression. Cancer-stroma interactions effect tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, therapy resistance and possibly the metastatic spread of tumour cells. Therefore, targeting the tumour stroma, in combination with chemotherapy, is a promising new option for the treatment of PDAC. In this Review, we focus on four issues. First, how can stromal activity be used to detect early steps of pancreatic carcinogenesis? Second, what is the effect of perpetual pancreatic stellate cell activity on angiogenesis and tissue perfusion? Third, what are the (experimental) antifibrotic therapy options in PDAC? Fourth, what lessons can be learned from Langton's Ant (a simple mathematical model) regarding the unpredictability of genetically engineered mouse models?

12 Review Energy metabolism and proliferation in pancreatic carcinogenesis. 2012

Regel, Ivonne / Kong, Bo / Raulefs, Susanne / Erkan, Mert / Michalski, Christoph W / Hartel, Mark / Kleeff, Jörg. ·Department of Surgery, Technische Universität München, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Munich, Germany. ·Langenbecks Arch Surg · Pubmed #22430298.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer entity with a high proliferative potential. Uncontrolled cell proliferation is mediated by a number of core signaling pathways. Recently, novel data of PDAC biology suggest that these core signal pathways affect cell proliferation and metabolism simultaneously. METHODS: Here, we reviewed the literature on core metabolic signaling pathways in pancreatic carcinogenesis. RESULTS: Results obtained from mouse genetics and in vitro experiments have demonstrated the significance of the Kras, p53, c-Myc, and Lkb1 networks in the proliferation of pancreatic epithelial and cancer cells. At the same time, these major pathways also affect energy metabolism by influencing glucose and glutamine utilization. In particular, Kras-mediated metabolic changes seem to be directly involved in carcinogenesis. However, there is a lack of solid evidence on how metabolism and proliferation are connected in pancreatic carcinogenesis. CONCLUSION: Understanding early and subtle changes in cellular metabolism of pancreatic epithelial-and specifically of acinar-cells, which accompany or directly influence malignant transformation and uncontrolled proliferation, will be paramount to define novel imaging and other modalities for earlier detection of PDAC.

13 Review The impact of the activated stroma on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma biology and therapy resistance. 2012

Erkan, Mert / Reiser-Erkan, Carolin / Michalski, Christoph W / Kong, Bo / Esposito, Irene / Friess, Helmut / Kleeff, Jorg. ·Department of General Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Germany. m.mert.erkan@googlemail.com ·Curr Mol Med · Pubmed #22272725.

ABSTRACT: Around 95% of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer will die of their disease within 5 years, three quarters within a year. The major hurdle in improving prognosis is the lack of a therapeutic time window. Early cancerous lesions are far beneath our threshold of detection. Therefore, at the time of diagnosis even early (T1) tumors can be metastatic and resistant to conventional treatments. Several therapies targeting epithelial tumor cells-all showing impressive results in vitro and in animal experiments-have failed to show relevant effects in clinical trials. This discrepancy between experimental data and clinical reality results mostly from the inefficiency of our current experimental setups in recreating the tumor microenvironment. Forming more than 80% of the tumor mass, the fibrotic stroma of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is not a passive scaffold for the malignant cells but an active player in carcinogenesis. This component is mostly missing in the xeno-/allograft- mouse models. Although tumors are bigger if stellate cells are co-implanted, due to the disproportionate cancer/stromal cell ratio and -possibly- too rapid tumor growth, the stromal reaction is much smaller than in human pancreatic cancer. One the other hand, desmoplasia is present only in some of the genetically engineered mouse models. Clinically, stromal activity of the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has as great an impact on patient prognosis as the lymph node status of the tumor. The exact molecular mechanisms behind this observation remain obscure. However, one possible fundamental biologic explanation could be that selective pressure applied by the stroma leads to the evolution of cancer cells. Consequently, somatic evolution of invasive cancer could be viewed as a sequence of phenotypical adaptations to this barrier, highlighting the importance of the fibrotic tumor microenvironment in the behavior of pancreatic cancer. In this review, the interaction of the epithelial tumor cells with the stroma in humans and in various animal models is scrutinized, and novel therapeutic options for uncoupling cancer-stroma interactions are discussed.

14 Review Palliative resections versus palliative bypass procedures in pancreatic cancer--a systematic review. 2012

Gillen, Sonja / Schuster, Tibor / Friess, Helmut / Kleeff, Jörg. ·Department of Surgery, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. ·Am J Surg · Pubmed #21872208.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although resection is the only treatment option that offers a chance for prolonged survival in pancreatic cancer, R2 resections are controversial and not a generally accepted approach. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of patients with pancreatic cancer was performed to analyze R2 resections in comparison with palliative surgical bypass procedures. Trials were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1966 to February 2011. RESULTS: Four cohort studies were identified comparing 138 patients with R2 resections with 261 patients undergoing surgical bypass procedures. Morbidity and mortality were increased in the R2 resection group, with pooled risk ratios of 1.75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-2.26; P < .0001) and 2.98 (95% CI, 1.31-6.75; P = .009), respectively. R2 resections were associated with longer operating times (mean difference, 164 minutes; 95% CI, 127-201 minutes; P < .00001) and hospital stays (mean difference, 5 days; 95% CI, 1-9 days; P = .02). Pooled median survival times were 8.2 months for R2 resection and 6.7 months for palliative bypass procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Planned palliative R2 resections are not justified in patients with pancreatic cancer.

15 Review From tissue turnover to the cell of origin for pancreatic cancer. 2011

Kong, Bo / Michalski, Christoph W / Erkan, Mert / Friess, Helmut / Kleeff, Jörg. ·Department of Surgery, Technische Universität München, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Munich, Germany. ·Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol · Pubmed #21750515.

ABSTRACT: The identity of the cell of origin for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has long been debated. PDAC has a ductal morphology, but there is no formal proof that it originates from the ductal compartment. Targeting Kras expression to adult acinar or endocrine lineages induces the formation of tumors reminiscent of human PDAC, but only in the presence of concomitant inflammation. Apart from cells of the Pdx1-positive lineage in the adult pancreas, which can be transformed (albeit with low frequency), the cells susceptible to acquiring or retaining oncogenic mutations remain elusive. Hypothetically, a subset of cells that renew the adult organ physiologically or regenerate it upon severe tissue damage would be more susceptible to oncogenic transformation than mature, differentiated cells. Such a compartment could consist of putative pancreatic stem cells, progenitor cells, facultative stem cells or transdifferentiated bone marrow cells. An integrated approach combining techniques from stem cell and cancer biology will be necessary to define and map these cells.

16 Review Insulin-like growth factor signaling as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. 2011

Rieder, Simon / Michalski, Christoph W / Friess, Helmut / Kleeff, Jörg. ·Department of Surgery, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Strasse 22, Munich, Germany. ·Anticancer Agents Med Chem · Pubmed #21492074.

ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) leads via its receptor IGF-1R to the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, providing antiapoptotic signals to pre-malignant and malignant cells. In pancreatic cancer, IGF-1 and its receptor are constitutively overexpressed. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is the main mediator of mitogenic stimuli transduced by PI3K/Akt. Interestingly, inhibition of mTOR activates PI3K/Akt by up-regulating IGF-1R signaling. Several targeted agents have been developed to inhibit the activity of IGF-1 or to block IGF-1R. These pharmaceuticals may offer additional ways of stimulating apoptosis in neoplastic cells. Yet, there are difficulties in targeting this pathway: The ideal anti-cancer drug target is expressed only in cancer cells; however, IGF-1 and its receptor IGF-1R are ubiquitously expressed throughout the body. Moreover, when using antibodies against IGF-1R, the structurally similar insulin receptor might also be blocked, leading to hyperglycemia as a severe side effect. There are currently several phase I/II trials investigating IGF-1 and its receptor as a drug target in various kinds of cancer. Specifically, therapeutic effects on pancreatic cancer by combining a humanized monoclonal antibody against IGF-1R with other chemotherapeutics are being investigated. To improve the clinical outcome of mTOR inhibitors such as everolimus, it has been suggested to use combination therapies of mTOR inhibitors and IGF-1/IGF-1R inhibitors. In theory, this would counterbalance the feedback effects of mTOR inhibition on IGF-1 signaling. In conclusion, IGF-1 and its receptor are promising new drug targets in cancer therapy. Combination therapies of IGF-1/IGF-1R inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors could improve the clinical outcome.

17 Review Tumor microenvironment and progression of pancreatic cancer. 2010

Erkan, M / Reiser-Erkan, C / Michalski, C W / Kleeff, J. ·Department of Surgery, Technische Universität München, Ismaningerstrasse 22, Munich 81675, Germany. erkan@chir.med.tu-muenchen.de ·Exp Oncol · Pubmed #21403605.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is characterized by « tumor desmoplasia », a remarkable increase in connective tissue that penetrates and envelopes the neoplasm. It is becoming clear that this desmoplastic microenvironment of pancreatic cancer--which is forming approximately eighty percent of the tumor mass--is not a passive scaffold for the tumor cells but an active player in carcinogenesis. Several chemotherapeutic agents and novel molecular targeted therapies against epithelial tumor cells--although showing antitumor activity in cell culture and mouse experiments--have failed to show significant effects in the clinic. Thus, targeting pancreatic tumor cells alone seems unlikely to improve the dismal prognosis of pancreatic cancer. It has recently been shown that the activated stroma of pancreatic cancer is an independent prognostic marker with an impact on patient survival as much as the lymph node status of the cancer. Several primarily benign conditions associated with expansion of stromal and inflammatory components, such as chronic pancreatitis or hereditary pancreatitis are believed to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Similar observations have been made in other cancer types such as chronic hepatitis-liver cancer, Barrett dyplasia-esophageal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease-colon cancer. The common denominator of all these conditions is; chronic inflammation leads to increased incidence of cancer. In this review the impact of the activated stroma on pancreatic carcinogenesis is discussed.

18 Review [Unresectable pancreatic cancer--palliative interventional and surgical treatment]. 2010

Hüser, N / Assfalg, V / Michalski, C W / Gillen, S / Kleeff, J / Friess, H. ·Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, München, Deutschland. ·Zentralbl Chir · Pubmed #21154206.

ABSTRACT: In most cases pancreatic cancer appears in a non-curatively resectable stage at time the diagnosis is made. Thus, palliative treatment concepts come to the fore in these patients. Patients without metastases, but presenting with marginally resectable or locally non-resectable tumours should not be treated in a palliative therapeutic scheme. These patients should be enrolled in neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy trials. After finishing treatment and restaging, a potentially curative resection can be achieved in approximately one-third of these patients. Within the scope of the best possible palliative care, excision of metastases together with resection of the primary cancer represents a therapeutic option to be contemplated in selected cases. For distinct locally unresectable or metastasised advanced pancreatic cancer, treatment of bile duct or duodenal obstruction is an essential part of the comprehensive palliative therapy. However, both endoscopic / percutaneous stenting procedures and surgical bypass makeshifts constitute safe and highly effective therapeutic alternatives in this context. In the case of operative drainage of the biliary tract the prophylactic creation of a gastro-intestinal bypass (double bypass) is recommended. The decision on a surgical versus an endoscopic procedure for palliation depends considerably on the tumour stage and the estimated prognosis and has to be determined interdisciplinary and individually in each case.

19 Review Preoperative/neoadjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of response and resection percentages. 2010

Gillen, Sonja / Schuster, Tibor / Meyer Zum Büschenfelde, Christian / Friess, Helmut / Kleeff, Jörg. ·Department of Surgery, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. ·PLoS Med · Pubmed #20422030.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor prognosis and prolonged survival is achieved only by resection with macroscopic tumor clearance. There is a strong rationale for a neoadjuvant approach, since a relevant percentage of pancreatic cancer patients present with non-metastatic but locally advanced disease and microscopic incomplete resections are common. The objective of the present analysis was to systematically review studies concerning the effects of neoadjuvant therapy on tumor response, toxicity, resection, and survival percentages in pancreatic cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Trials were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1966 to December 2009 as well as through reference lists of articles and proceedings of major meetings. Retrospective and prospective studies analyzing neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer patients, followed by re-staging, and surgical exploration/resection were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effects models. Primary outcome measures were proportions of tumor response categories and percentages of exploration and resection. A total of 111 studies (n = 4,394) including 56 phase I-II trials were analyzed. A median of 31 (interquartile range [IQR] 19-46) patients per study were included. Studies were subdivided into surveys considering initially resectable tumors (group 1) and initially non-resectable (borderline resectable/unresectable) tumors (group 2). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given in 96.4% of the studies with the main agents gemcitabine, 5-FU (and oral analogues), mitomycin C, and platinum compounds. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy was applied in 93.7% of the studies with doses ranging from 24 to 63 Gy. Averaged complete/partial response probabilities were 3.6% (95% CI 2%-5.5%)/30.6% (95% CI 20.7%-41.4%) and 4.8% (95% CI 3.5%-6.4%)/30.2% (95% CI 24.5%-36.3%) for groups 1 and 2, respectively; whereas progressive disease fraction was estimated to 20.9% (95% CI 16.9%-25.3%) and 20.8% (95% CI 14.5%-27.8%). In group 1, resectability was estimated to 73.6% (95% CI 65.9%-80.6%) compared to 33.2% (95% CI 25.8%-41.1%) in group 2. Higher resection-associated morbidity and mortality rates were observed in group 2 versus group 1 (26.7%, 95% CI 20.7%-33.3% versus 39.1%, 95% CI 29.5%-49.1%; and 3.9%, 95% CI 2.2%-6% versus 7.1%, 95% CI 5.1%-9.5%). Combination chemotherapies resulted in higher estimated response and resection probabilities for patients with initially non-resectable tumors ("non-resectable tumor patients") compared to monotherapy. Estimated median survival following resection was 23.3 (range 12-54) mo for group 1 and 20.5 (range 9-62) mo for group 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with initially resectable tumors ("resectable tumor patients"), resection frequencies and survival after neoadjuvant therapy are similar to those of patients with primarily resected tumors and adjuvant therapy. Approximately one-third of initially staged non-resectable tumor patients would be expected to have resectable tumors following neoadjuvant therapy, with comparable survival as initially resectable tumor patients. Thus, patients with locally non-resectable tumors should be included in neoadjuvant protocols and subsequently re-evaluated for resection.

20 Review Molecular mechanism of pancreatic cancer--understanding proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. 2010

Mihaljevic, André L / Michalski, Christoph W / Friess, Helmut / Kleeff, Jörg. ·Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675, Munich, Germany. ·Langenbecks Arch Surg · Pubmed #20237938.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this review is to highlight the molecular mechanisms leading to the development and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with particular emphasis on tumor cell proliferation, local invasion, and metastasis. Recent advances in the field of PDAC biology have shed light on the molecular events that trigger PDAC initiation and maintenance. RESULTS: It is now clear that apart from the genetic alterations within the tumor cells, interactions of the tumor with its environment are necessary for proliferation and invasion. Interestingly, a number of developmental signaling pathways are reactivated in PDAC. Progress has also been made in the understanding of the molecular events that govern the process of metastasis. CONCLUSION: Although our understanding of the mechanisms underlying PDAC pathobiology are more advanced than ever, little progress has been made in the clinical treatment of PDAC, and successful bench-to-bedside transfer of knowledge to boost new treatment options is still unsatisfying.

21 Review Confirmation of DNA microarray-derived differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer using quantitative RT-PCR. 2009

Streit, Sylvia / Michalski, Christoph W / Erkan, Mert / Friess, Helmut / Kleeff, Jörg. ·Department of Surgery, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany. ·Pancreatology · Pubmed #19657213.

ABSTRACT: The fact that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is still an exceptionally lethal disease with an annual mortality almost equivalent to its annual incidence has stimulated intense research efforts directed at understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms. By enabling simultaneous expression analysis of thousands of genes, microarray technology has significantly contributed to illuminating the pathophysiology of PDAC. Gene expression profiling studies have been performed for molecular classification of clinically relevant tumor subtypes and have shed light on various signaling pathways associated with tumor progression. Altered expression levels of several genes have been identified as correlating with functional in vitro data as well as patient survival, indicating the potential clinical value of transcriptional profiling. However, broad clinical use of array techniques for patient characterization has been hampered by their cost intensity and by limited inter-study comparability. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), as the most sensitive technique for mRNA detection and quantification, will complement arrays for the confirmation of individual transcripts in larger sample cohorts. This review highlights recent studies that addressed gene expression analysis with both methodologies and that identified components of the TGF-beta signaling pathway, BNIP3, or periostin to be differentially expressed in PDAC. These studies demonstrated that the combination of microarray and RT-PCR technologies is a highly efficient and reliable approach for the identification of clinically important diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as for the discovery of novel therapeutic target candidates.

22 Review Systematic review and meta-analysis of prophylactic gastroenterostomy for unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer. 2009

Hüser, N / Michalski, C W / Schuster, T / Friess, H / Kleeff, J. ·Department of Surgery, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. ·Br J Surg · Pubmed #19526616.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The value of prophylactic gastroenterostomy (usually combined with a biliary bypass) in patients with unresectable cancer of the pancreatic head is controversial. METHODS: A systematic review of retrospective and prospective studies, and a meta-analysis of prospective studies, on the use of prophylactic gastroenterostomy for unresectable pancreatic cancer were performed. RESULTS: Analysis of retrospective studies did not reveal any advantage or disadvantage of prophylactic gastroenterostomy. Three prospective studies comparing prophylactic gastroenterostomy plus biliodigestive anastomosis with no bypass or a biliodigestive anastomosis alone were identified (altogether 218 patients). For patients who had prophylactic gastroenterostomy, the chance of gastric outlet obstruction during follow-up was significantly lower (odds ratio (OR) 0.06 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 0.02 to 0.21); P < 0.001). The rates of postoperative delayed gastric emptying were similar in both groups (OR 1.93 (95 per cent c.i. 0.57 to 6.53); P = 0.290), as were morbidity and mortality. The estimated duration of hospital stay after prophylactic gastroenterostomy was 3 days longer than for patients without bypass (weighted mean difference 3.1 (95 per cent c.i. 0.7 to 5.5); P = 0.010). CONCLUSION: Prophylactic gastroenterostomy should be performed during surgical exploration of patients with unresectable pancreatic head tumours because it reduces the incidence of long-term gastroduodenal obstruction without impairing short-term outcome.

23 Review Defining new pancreatic tumour entities by molecular analysis. 2009

Mihaljevic, A L / Esposito, I / Michalski, C W / Kleeff, J / Friess, H. ·Department of Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany. ·Pancreatology · Pubmed #19451742.

ABSTRACT: Recent advances in molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics have broadened our understanding of tumourigenesis and of the maintenance and spread of pancreatic cancer far beyond traditional microscopic histopathological analysis. While the main focus of pancreatic cancer research has been on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, molecular research has also led to a better understanding of rare tumours of the pancreas, as well as to the definition of previously unknown tumour entities that can only be identified through the application of molecular tools. Furthermore, molecular analysis increasingly reveals the genetic and cell biological heterogeneity of established tumour entities, making subclassification of tumours possible. Genetic and molecular approaches may, therefore, not only lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of pancreatic tumours, but also culminate in more precise diagnosis as well as individually tailored treatment strategies for affected patients.

24 Review [Surgery of malignant pancreatic tumors]. 2009

Loos, M / Friess, H / Kleeff, J. ·Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, München, Deutschland. ·Radiologe · Pubmed #19153706.

ABSTRACT: Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the pancreas. Despite great efforts in basic and clinical pancreatic cancer research, the prognosis remains poor with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Complete surgical resection represents the only curative treatment option and 5-year survival rates of 20-25% can be achieved following curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy. Although pancreatic surgery is considered one of the most technically demanding and challenging procedures, there has been constant progress in surgical techniques and advances in perioperative care with a modern interdisciplinary approach including anesthesiology, oncology, radiology and nursing. This has reduced morbidity and especially mortality rates in high-volume centers. Among extended resection procedures multivisceral and venous resections are technically feasible and should be considered if a complete tumor resection can be achieved. Multimodal regimens have shown promising results, however, only adjuvant chemotherapy is supported by solid evidence from randomized controlled trials.

25 Article Ring1b-dependent epigenetic remodelling is an essential prerequisite for pancreatic carcinogenesis. 2019

Benitz, Simone / Straub, Tobias / Mahajan, Ujjwal Mukund / Mutter, Jurik / Czemmel, Stefan / Unruh, Tatjana / Wingerath, Britta / Deubler, Sabrina / Fahr, Lisa / Cheng, Tao / Nahnsen, Sven / Bruns, Philipp / Kong, Bo / Raulefs, Susanne / Ceyhan, Güralp O / Mayerle, Julia / Steiger, Katja / Esposito, Irene / Kleeff, Jörg / Michalski, Christoph W / Regel, Ivonne. ·Department of Medicine II, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany. · Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. · Bioinformatic Unit, Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany. · Quantitative Biology Center, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany. · Institute of Pathology, Heinrich-Heine University and University Hospital, Duesseldorf, Germany. · Department of Surgery, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany. · Institute of Pathology, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany. · Institute of Pathology, Heinrich-Heine-Universitat Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany. · Department of Surgery, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany. ·Gut · Pubmed #30954952.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Besides well-defined genetic alterations, the dedifferentiation of mature acinar cells is an important prerequisite for pancreatic carcinogenesis. Acinar-specific genes controlling cell homeostasis are extensively downregulated during cancer development; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Now, we devised a novel in vitro strategy to determine genome-wide dynamics in the epigenetic landscape in pancreatic carcinogenesis. DESIGN: With our in vitro carcinogenic sequence, we performed global gene expression analysis and ChIP sequencing for the histone modifications H3K4me3, H3K27me3 and H2AK119ub. Followed by a comprehensive bioinformatic approach, we captured gene clusters with extensive epigenetic and transcriptional remodelling. Relevance of Ring1b-catalysed H2AK119ub in acinar cell reprogramming was studied in an inducible Ring1b knockout mouse model. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Ring1b ablation as well as drug-induced Ring1b inhibition were functionally characterised in pancreatic cancer cells. RESULTS: The epigenome is vigorously modified during pancreatic carcinogenesis, defining cellular identity. Particularly, regulatory acinar cell transcription factors are epigenetically silenced by the Ring1b-catalysed histone modification H2AK119ub in acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and pancreatic cancer cells. Ring1b knockout mice showed greatly impaired acinar cell dedifferentiation and pancreatic tumour formation due to a retained expression of acinar differentiation genes. Depletion or drug-induced inhibition of Ring1b promoted tumour cell reprogramming towards a less aggressive phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide substantial evidence that the epigenetic silencing of acinar cell fate genes is a mandatory event in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Targeting the epigenetic repressor Ring1b could offer new therapeutic options.

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