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Pancreatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by Péter Hegyi
Based on 10 articles published since 2009
(Why 10 articles?)
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Between 2009 and 2019, P. Hegyi wrote the following 10 articles about Pancreatic Neoplasms.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Guideline [Pancreatic cancer. Evidence based management guidelines of the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group]. 2015

Szmola, Richárd / Farkas, Gyula / Hegyi, Péter / Czakó, László / Dubravcsik, Zsolt / Hritz, István / Kelemen, Dezső / Lásztity, Natália / Morvay, Zita / Oláh, Attila / Párniczky, Andrea / Rubovszky, Gábor / Sahin-Tóth, Miklós / Szentkereszti, Zsolt / Szücs, Ákos / Takács, Tamás / Tiszlavicz, László / Pap, Ákos / Anonymous2350820. ·Országos Onkológiai Intézet Intervenciós Gasztroenterológiai Részleg Budapest Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar II. Belgyógyászati Klinika Budapest. · Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Szent-Györgyi Albert Klinikai Központ Sebészeti Klinika Szeged. · Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Szent-Györgyi Albert Klinikai Központ I. Belgyógyászati Klinika Szeged MTA-SZTE Lendület Gasztroenterológiai Multidiszciplináris Kutatócsoport Szeged. · Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Szent-Györgyi Albert Klinikai Központ I. Belgyógyászati Klinika Szeged. · Bács-Kiskun Megyei Kórház Gasztroenterológia Kecskemét. · Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Szent-Györgyi Albert Klinikai Központ I. Belgyógyászati Klinika Szeged Bács-Kiskun Megyei Kórház Gasztroenterológia Kecskemét. · Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Klinikai Központ, Sebészeti Klinika Pécs. · Heim Pál Gyermekkórház-Rendelőintézet Budapest. · Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Szent-Györgyi Albert Klinikai Központ Radiológiai Klinika Szeged. · Petz Aladár Megyei Oktató Kórház Sebészeti Osztály Győr. · Országos Onkológiai Intézet B Belgyógyászati-Onkológiai és Klinikai Farmakológiai Osztály Budapest. · Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine Department of Molecular and Cell Biology Boston Massachusetts USA. · Debreceni Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Orvos- és Egészségtudományi Centrum Sebészeti Klinika Debrecen. · Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar I. Sebészeti Klinika Budapest. · Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Szent-Györgyi Albert Klinikai Központ Pathologiai Intézet Szeged. · Péterfy Sándor utcai Kórház-Rendelőintézet Budapest. ·Orv Hetil · Pubmed #25662149.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is a disease with a poor prognosis usually diagnosed at a late stage. Therefore, screening, diagnosis, treatment and palliation of pancreatic cancer patients require up-to-date and evidence based management guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare an evidence based guideline based on the available scientific evidence and international guidelines. The preparatory and consultation board appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and complemented/modified the recent international guidelines. 37 clinical statements in 10 major topics were defined (Risk factors and genetics, Screening, Diagnosis, Staging, Surgical care, Pathology, Systemic treatment, Radiation therapy, Palliation and supportive care, Follow-up and recurrence). Evidence was graded according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) grading system. The draft of the guideline was presented and discussed at the consensus meeting in September 12, 2014. Statements were accepted with either total (more than 95% of votes, n = 15) or strong agreement (more than 70% of votes, n = 22). The present guideline is the first evidence-based pancreatic cancer guideline in Hungary that provides a solid ground for teaching purposes, offers quick reference for daily patient care and guides financing options. The authors strongly believe that these guidelines will become a standard reference for pancreatic cancer treatment in Hungary.

2 Guideline [Chronic pancreatitis. Evidence based management guidelines of the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group]. 2015

Takács, Tamás / Czakó, László / Dubravcsik, Zsolt / Farkas, Gyula / Hegyi, Péter / Hritz, István / Kelemen, Dezső / Lásztity, Natália / Morvay, Zita / Oláh, Attila / Pap, Ákos / Párniczky, Andrea / Patai, Árpád / Sahin-Tóth, Miklós / Szentkereszti, Zsolt / Szmola, Richárd / Tiszlavicz, László / Szücs, Ákos / Anonymous2280820. ·Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Szent-Györgyi Albert Klinikai Központ I. Belgyógyászati Klinika Szeged. · Bács-Kiskun Megyei Kórház Gasztroenterológia Kecskemét. · Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Szent-Györgyi Albert Klinikai Központ Sebészeti Klinika Szeged. · Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Szent-Györgyi Albert Klinikai Központ I. Belgyógyászati Klinika Szeged MTA-SZTE Lendület Gasztroenterológiai Multidiszciplináris Kutatócsoport Szeged. · Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Szent-Györgyi Albert Klinikai Központ I. Belgyógyászati Klinika Szeged Bács-Kiskun Megyei Kórház Gasztroenterológia Kecskemét. · Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Klinikai Központ, Sebészeti Klinika Pécs. · Heim Pál Gyermekkórház-Rendelőintézet Budapest. · Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Szent-Györgyi Albert Klinikai Központ Radiológiai Klinika Szeged. · Petz Aladár Megyei Oktató Kórház Sebészeti Osztály Győr. · Péterfy Sándor utcai Kórház-Rendelőintézet Budapest. · Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar II. Belgyógyászati Klinika Budapest. · Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine Department of Molecular and Cell Biology Boston Massachusetts USA. · Debreceni Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Orvos- és Egészségtudományi Centrum Sebészeti Klinika Debrecen. · Országos Onkológiai Intézet Intervenciós Gasztroenterológiai Részleg Budapest. · Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Szent-Györgyi Albert Klinikai Központ Pathologiai Intézet Szeged. · Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar I. Sebészeti Klinika Budapest. ·Orv Hetil · Pubmed #25661971.

ABSTRACT: Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease associated with structural and functional damage of the pancreas. In most cases pain, maldigestion and weight loss are the leading symptoms, which significantly worsen the quality of life. Correct diagnosis and differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and treatment of these patients requires up-to-date and evidence based treatment guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare an evidence based guideline based on the available international guidelines and evidence. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and complemented and/or modified the international guidelines if it was necessary. 123 relevant clinical questions in 11 topics were defined. Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate® grading system. The draft of the guidelines were presented and discussed at the consensus meeting in September 12, 2014. All clinical questions were accepted with total or strong agreement. The present guideline is the first evidence based guideline for chronic pancreatitis in Hungary. This guideline provides very important and helpful data for tuition, everyday practice and proper financing of chronic pancreatitis. Therefore, the authors believe that these guidelines will widely become a basic reference in Hungary.

3 Clinical Trial Efficacy and Safety of FOLFIRINOX in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer. A Single Center Experience. 2017

Lakatos, G / Petranyi, A / Szűcs, A / Nehéz, L / Harsanyi, L / Hegyi, P / Bodoky, G. ·Department of Oncology, St. Istvan and St. Laszlo Hospital and Out-Patient Department, 5-7 Albert Flórián street, Budapest, H-1097, Hungary. lakagab@yahoo.com. · Department of Oncology, St. Istvan and St. Laszlo Hospital and Out-Patient Department, 5-7 Albert Flórián street, Budapest, H-1097, Hungary. · First Department of Surgery, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. · Institute for Translational Medicine, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary. · First Department of Medicine, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary. · MTA-SZTE Translational Gastroenterology Research Group, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary. ·Pathol Oncol Res · Pubmed #28062950.

ABSTRACT: The management of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is a major challenge. Although new drugs are available for the treatment of metastatic disease, the optimal treatment of non-metastatic cases remains controversial. The role of neoadjuvant therapy is still a question of debate in this setting. The aim of the study was to prospectively collect and analyse data on efficacy and safety of a modified FOLFIRINOX regimen in LAPC patients treated in a single institution. Another major objective was to assess the capability of FOLFIRINOX to render primary non-resectable cancer to resectable. No bolus fluorouracil was given and a 20% dose reduction of oxaliplatin and irinotecan was applied. Primary G-CSF prophylaxis was applied to prevent febrile neutropenia. Thirty-two patients (mean age 60.2 years, range: 40-77 years) have been enrolled into the study. All patients had ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. Best response to therapy was stable disease (SD) or partial regression (PR) in 18 (56.2%) and 6 (18.8%) cases. Two patients (6.3%) underwent surgical resection (100% R0). The most frequent grade 3/4 adverse events were nausea (18.8%), fatigue (12.5%) and diarrhea (12.5%). The incidence of severe neutropenia was 28.1%, with only one documented case of febrile neutropenia. The probability of disease progression was 25% and 50% after 75 and 160 days with 88.4% of possibility of disease progression after 500 days. OS probability was 92.1, 71.5% and 49.5% at 180-, 365 and 540 days. Our data does not support the capability of FOLFIRINOX to render primary non-resectable cancer to resectable. However, due to the high disease control rate observed, FOLFRINOX might be recommended as first line option for the palliative treatment of LAPC. Despite reduced chemotherapy doses significant toxicity has been seen.

4 Article Genetic determinants of telomere length and risk of pancreatic cancer: A PANDoRA study. 2019

Campa, Daniele / Matarazzi, Martina / Greenhalf, William / Bijlsma, Maarten / Saum, Kai-Uwe / Pasquali, Claudio / van Laarhoven, Hanneke / Szentesi, Andrea / Federici, Francesca / Vodicka, Pavel / Funel, Niccola / Pezzilli, Raffaele / Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas / Vodickova, Ludmila / Basso, Daniela / Obazee, Ofure / Hackert, Thilo / Soucek, Pavel / Cuk, Katarina / Kaiser, Jörg / Sperti, Cosimo / Lovecek, Martin / Capurso, Gabriele / Mohelnikova-Duchonova, Beatrice / Khaw, Kay-Tee / König, Anna-Katharina / Kupcinskas, Juozas / Kaaks, Rudolf / Bambi, Franco / Archibugi, Livia / Mambrini, Andrea / Cavestro, Giulia Martina / Landi, Stefano / Hegyi, Péter / Izbicki, Jakob R / Gioffreda, Domenica / Zambon, Carlo Federico / Tavano, Francesca / Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata / Jamroziak, Krzysztof / Key, Timothy J / Fave, Gianfranco Delle / Strobel, Oliver / Jonaitis, Laimas / Andriulli, Angelo / Lawlor, Rita T / Pirozzi, Felice / Katzke, Verena / Valsuani, Chiara / Vashist, Yogesh K / Brenner, Hermann / Canzian, Federico. ·Department of Biology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy. · Genomic Epidemiology Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. · Institute for Health Research Liverpool Pancreas Biomedical Research Unit, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom. · Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. · Pancreatic and Digestive Endocrine Surgery - Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology (DiSCOG), University of Padova, Padova, Italy. · Institute for Translational Medicine, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary. · First Department of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary. · Oncological Department, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, Oncological Unit of Massa Carrara, Carrara, Italy. · Department of Molecular Biology of Cancer, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Science of Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic. · Institute of Biology and Medical Genetics, 1st Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. · Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen, Czech Republic. · Department of Surgery, Unit of Experimental Surgical Pathology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy. · Pancreas Unit, Department of Digestive System, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy. · Department for Determinants of Chronic Diseases (DCD), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands. · Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. · Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Department of Laboratory Medicine, University-Hospital of Padova, Padua, Italy. · Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. · Third Surgical Clinic - Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology (DiSCOG), University of Padova, Padova, Italy. · Department of Surgery I, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc and University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic. · Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, S. Andrea Hospital, 'Sapienza' University, Rome, Italy. · PancreatoBiliary Endoscopy and EUS Division, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Center, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy. · Department of Oncology, Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic. · University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine Clinical Gerontology Unit, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom. · Department of Gastroenterology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania. · Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. · Blood Transfusion Service, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Meyer, Florence, Italy. · Gastroenterology and Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · MTA-SZTE Momentum Translational Gastroenterology Research Group, Szeged, Hungary. · Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. · Division of Gastroenterology and Molecular Biology Lab, IRCCS Ospedale Casa Sollievo Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy. · Department of Digestive Tract Diseases, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland. · Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Warsaw, Poland. · Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. · ARC-NET, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy. · Division of Abdominal Surgery, IRCCS Ospedale Casa Sollievo Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy. · Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg, Germany. · German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. ·Int J Cancer · Pubmed #30325019.

ABSTRACT: Telomere deregulation is a hallmark of cancer. Telomere length measured in lymphocytes (LTL) has been shown to be a risk marker for several cancers. For pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) consensus is lacking whether risk is associated with long or short telomeres. Mendelian randomization approaches have shown that a score built from SNPs associated with LTL could be used as a robust risk marker. We explored this approach in a large scale study within the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium. We analyzed 10 SNPs (ZNF676-rs409627, TERT-rs2736100, CTC1-rs3027234, DHX35-rs6028466, PXK-rs6772228, NAF1-rs7675998, ZNF208-rs8105767, OBFC1-rs9420907, ACYP2-rs11125529 and TERC-rs10936599) alone and combined in a LTL genetic score ("teloscore", which explains 2.2% of the telomere variability) in relation to PDAC risk in 2,374 cases and 4,326 controls. We identified several associations with PDAC risk, among which the strongest were with the TERT-rs2736100 SNP (OR = 1.54; 95%CI 1.35-1.76; p = 1.54 × 10

5 Article Resection of pancreatic cancer in Europe and USA: an international large-scale study highlighting large variations. 2019

Huang, Lei / Jansen, Lina / Balavarca, Yesilda / Molina-Montes, Esther / Babaei, Masoud / van der Geest, Lydia / Lemmens, Valery / Van Eycken, Liesbet / De Schutter, Harlinde / Johannesen, Tom B / Fristrup, Claus W / Mortensen, Michael B / Primic-Žakelj, Maja / Zadnik, Vesna / Becker, Nikolaus / Hackert, Thilo / Mägi, Margit / Cassetti, Tiziana / Sassatelli, Romano / Grützmann, Robert / Merkel, Susanne / Gonçalves, Ana F / Bento, Maria J / Hegyi, Péter / Lakatos, Gábor / Szentesi, Andrea / Moreau, Michel / van de Velde, Tony / Broeks, Annegien / Sant, Milena / Minicozzi, Pamela / Mazzaferro, Vincenzo / Real, Francisco X / Carrato, Alfredo / Molero, Xavier / Besselink, Marc G / Malats, Núria / Büchler, Markus W / Schrotz-King, Petra / Brenner, Hermann. ·Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. · German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. · Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg, Germany. · Geneticand Molecular Epidemiology Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), CIBERONC, ISCIII, Madrid, Spain. · Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR), Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organization (IKNL), Utrecht, Netherlands. · Belgian Cancer Registry (BCR), Brussels, Belgium. · Registry Department, The Cancer Registry of Norway (CRN), Oslo, Norway. · Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database (DPCD), Odense, Denmark. · Danish Pancreatic Cancer Group, HPB Section, Department of Surgery, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark. · Epidemiology and Cancer Registry, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia. · Clinical Cancer Registry, DKFZ and NCT, Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany. · Estonian Cancer Registry, National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia. · Pancreatic Cancer Registry of Reggio Emilia Province, Unit of Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy AUSL-RE, Local Health Authority-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy. · Department of Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany. · Departments of Epidemiology, Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (IPOP), Porto, Portugal. · Institute for Translational Medicine, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary. · Department of Oncology, St. Istvan and St. Laszlo Hospital and Out-Patient Department, Budapest, Hungary. · Department of Surgical Oncology, Jules Bordet Institute (IJB), Brussels, Belgium. · Biometrics Department, The Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Analytical Epidemiology and Health Impact Unit, Department of Preventive and Predictive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (INT), Milan, Italy. · Hepato-Biliary Surgery Unit, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (INT), and University of Milan, Milan, Italy. · Epithelial Carcinogenesis Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), CIBERONC, Madrid, Spain. · Department de Ciencies Experimentals i de la, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Oncology, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, IRYCIS, Alcala University, CIBERONC, Madrid, Spain. · Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Exocrine Pancreas Research Unit and Vall d'Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus de la UAB, Barcelona, Spain. · CIBEREHD and CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain. · Dutch Pancreatic Cancer Group, Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ·Gut · Pubmed #29158237.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Resection can potentially cure resectable pancreatic cancer (PaC) and significantly prolong survival in some patients. This large-scale international study aimed to investigate variations in resection for PaC in Europe and USA and determinants for its utilisation. DESIGN: Data from six European population-based cancer registries and the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database during 2003-2016 were analysed. Age-standardised resection rates for overall and stage I-II PaCs were computed. Associations between resection and demographic and clinical parameters were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 153 698 records were analysed. In population-based registries in 2012-2014, resection rates ranged from 13.2% (Estonia) to 21.2% (Slovenia) overall and from 34.8% (Norway) to 68.7% (Denmark) for stage I-II tumours, with great international variations. During 2003-2014, resection rates only increased in USA, the Netherlands and Denmark. Resection was significantly less frequently performed with more advanced tumour stage (ORs for stage III and IV versus stage I-II tumours: 0.05-0.18 and 0.01-0.06 across countries) and increasing age (ORs for patients 70-79 and ≥80 versus those <60 years: 0.37-0.63 and 0.03-0.16 across countries). Patients with advanced-stage tumours (stage III-IV: 63.8%-81.2%) and at older ages (≥70 years: 52.6%-59.5%) receiving less frequently resection comprised the majority of diagnosed cases. Patient performance status, tumour location and size were also associated with resection application. CONCLUSION: Rates of PaC resection remain low in Europe and USA with great international variations. Further studies are warranted to explore reasons for these variations.

6 Article Pancreatitis-Associated Genes and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 2018

Cazacu, Irina Mihaela / Farkas, Nelli / Garami, András / Balaskó, Márta / Mosdósi, Bernadett / Alizadeh, Hussain / Gyöngyi, Zoltán / Rakonczay, Zoltán / Vigh, Éva / Habon, Tamás / Czopf, László / Lazarescu, Marilena Alina / Erőss, Bálint / Sahin-Tóth, Miklós / Hegyi, Péter. ·Institute of Bioanalysis. · Department of Pediatrics. · Department of Haematology, First Department of Medicine, and. · Department of Public Health Medicine, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs. · Department of Pathophysiology, University of Szeged, Szeged. · Radiology and. · Cardiology, First Department of Medicine, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary. · Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston University, Boston, MA. ·Pancreas · Pubmed #30134356.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the connection between pancreatic cancer (PC) and genetic variants associated with chronic pancreatitis via systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The data search was performed in 3 major databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library). The selected studies have looked into the presence of the pancreatitis-associated genes in patients with PC and in control subjects, the outcome being the frequency of the mutations in the 2 groups. For the binary outcomes, pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Ten articles proved to be eligible for the qualitative synthesis, and 8 articles were suitable for statistical analysis. Six case-control studies, comprising 929 PC cases and 1890 control subjects for serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) mutations, and 5 case-control studies, comprising 1674 PC cases and 19,036 control subjects for CFTR mutations, were enrolled in our analysis. SPINK1 mutations showed no association with PC (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.67-3.45; P = 0.315), whereas mutations in CFTR modestly increased the risk of PC (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.84; P = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis showed that mutations in CFTR modestly increase the risk of PC, whereas no association was found between SPINK1 and PC.

7 Article Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies five new susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer. 2018

Klein, Alison P / Wolpin, Brian M / Risch, Harvey A / Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z / Mocci, Evelina / Zhang, Mingfeng / Canzian, Federico / Childs, Erica J / Hoskins, Jason W / Jermusyk, Ashley / Zhong, Jun / Chen, Fei / Albanes, Demetrius / Andreotti, Gabriella / Arslan, Alan A / Babic, Ana / Bamlet, William R / Beane-Freeman, Laura / Berndt, Sonja I / Blackford, Amanda / Borges, Michael / Borgida, Ayelet / Bracci, Paige M / Brais, Lauren / Brennan, Paul / Brenner, Hermann / Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas / Buring, Julie / Campa, Daniele / Capurso, Gabriele / Cavestro, Giulia Martina / Chaffee, Kari G / Chung, Charles C / Cleary, Sean / Cotterchio, Michelle / Dijk, Frederike / Duell, Eric J / Foretova, Lenka / Fuchs, Charles / Funel, Niccola / Gallinger, Steven / M Gaziano, J Michael / Gazouli, Maria / Giles, Graham G / Giovannucci, Edward / Goggins, Michael / Goodman, Gary E / Goodman, Phyllis J / Hackert, Thilo / Haiman, Christopher / Hartge, Patricia / Hasan, Manal / Hegyi, Peter / Helzlsouer, Kathy J / Herman, Joseph / Holcatova, Ivana / Holly, Elizabeth A / Hoover, Robert / Hung, Rayjean J / Jacobs, Eric J / Jamroziak, Krzysztof / Janout, Vladimir / Kaaks, Rudolf / Khaw, Kay-Tee / Klein, Eric A / Kogevinas, Manolis / Kooperberg, Charles / Kulke, Matthew H / Kupcinskas, Juozas / Kurtz, Robert J / Laheru, Daniel / Landi, Stefano / Lawlor, Rita T / Lee, I-Min / LeMarchand, Loic / Lu, Lingeng / Malats, Núria / Mambrini, Andrea / Mannisto, Satu / Milne, Roger L / Mohelníková-Duchoňová, Beatrice / Neale, Rachel E / Neoptolemos, John P / Oberg, Ann L / Olson, Sara H / Orlow, Irene / Pasquali, Claudio / Patel, Alpa V / Peters, Ulrike / Pezzilli, Raffaele / Porta, Miquel / Real, Francisco X / Rothman, Nathaniel / Scelo, Ghislaine / Sesso, Howard D / Severi, Gianluca / Shu, Xiao-Ou / Silverman, Debra / Smith, Jill P / Soucek, Pavel / Sund, Malin / Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata / Tavano, Francesca / Thornquist, Mark D / Tobias, Geoffrey S / Van Den Eeden, Stephen K / Vashist, Yogesh / Visvanathan, Kala / Vodicka, Pavel / Wactawski-Wende, Jean / Wang, Zhaoming / Wentzensen, Nicolas / White, Emily / Yu, Herbert / Yu, Kai / Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne / Zheng, Wei / Kraft, Peter / Li, Donghui / Chanock, Stephen / Obazee, Ofure / Petersen, Gloria M / Amundadottir, Laufey T. ·Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA. aklein1@jhmi.edu. · Department of Pathology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA. aklein1@jhmi.edu. · Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. · Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA. · Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. · Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA. · Laboratory of Translational Genomics, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. · Genomic Epidemiology Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120, Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016, USA. · Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016, USA. · Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016, USA. · Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA. · Department of Pathology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA. · Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1×5, Canada. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA. · International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 69372, Lyon, France. · Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120, Heidelberg, Germany. · Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120, Heidelberg, Germany. · National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), 69120, Heidelberg, Germany. · Department for Determinants of Chronic Diseases (DCD), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), 3720 BA, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. · Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Centre, 3584 CX, Utrecht, The Netherlands. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK. · Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. · Department of Biology, University of Pisa, 56126, Pisa, Italy. · Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, 'Sapienza' University of Rome, 00185, Rome, Italy. · Gastroenterology and Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132, Milan, Italy. · Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, 21702, USA. · Cancer Care Ontario, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2L7, Canada. · Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 3M7, Canada. · Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1007 MB, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Barcelona, 08908, Spain. · Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, 65653, Brno, Czech Republic. · Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA. · Department of Translational Research and The New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, 56126, Pisa, Italy. · Division of Aging, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. · Boston VA Healthcare System, Boston, MA, 02132, USA. · Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Laboratory of Biology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 106 79, Athens, Greece. · Cancer Epidemiology and Intelligence Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia. · Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia. · Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia. · Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA. · SWOG Statistical Center, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA. · Department of General Surgery, University Hospital Heidelberg, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90032, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77230, USA. · First Department of Medicine, University of Szeged, 6725, Szeged, Hungary. · Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA. · Institute of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Charles University, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, 150 06, Prague 5, Czech Republic. · Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, 30303, USA. · Department of Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, 02-776, Warsaw, Poland. · Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava, 701 03, Ostrava, Czech Republic. · Faculty of Medicine, University of Olomouc, 771 47, Olomouc, Czech Republic. · Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120, Heidelberg, Germany. · School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0SP, UK. · Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA. · ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), 08003, Barcelona, Spain. · CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 08003, Barcelona, Spain. · Hospital del Mar Institute of Medical Research (IMIM), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. · Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), 08002, Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Gastroenterology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, 44307, Kaunas, Lithuania. · Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA. · ARC-NET: Centre for Applied Research on Cancer, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, 37134, Verona, Italy. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. · Cancer Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA. · Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO), 28029, Madrid, Spain. · CIBERONC, 28029, Madrid, Spain. · Oncology Department, ASL1 Massa Carrara, Carrara, 54033, Italy. · Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271, Helsinki, Finland. · Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc and University Hospital, 775 20, Olomouc, Czech Republic. · Population Health Department, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, 4029, Australia. · Department of General Surgery, University of Heidelburg, Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA. · Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology (DiSCOG), University of Padua, 35124, Padua, Italy. · Pancreas Unit, Department of Digestive Diseases and Internal Medicine, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40138, Bologna, Italy. · Epithelial Carcinogenesis Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre-CNIO, 28029, Madrid, Spain. · Departament de Ciències Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08002, Barcelona, Spain. · Centre de Recherche en Épidémiologie et Santé des Populations (CESP, Inserm U1018), Facultés de Medicine, Université Paris-Saclay, UPS, UVSQ, Gustave Roussy, 94800, Villejuif, France. · Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA. · Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, 20057, USA. · Laboratory for Pharmacogenomics, Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, 323 00, Pilsen, Czech Republic. · Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University, 901 85, Umeå, Sweden. · Department of Digestive Tract Diseases, Medical University of Łodz, 90-647, Łodz, Poland. · Division of Gastroenterology and Research Laboratory, IRCCS Scientific Institute and Regional General Hospital "Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza", 71013, San Giovanni Rotondo, FG, Italy. · Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, 94612, USA. · Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, University Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246, Hamburg, Germany. · Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA. · Department of Molecular Biology of Cancer, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 142 20, Prague 4, Czech Republic. · Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 14214, USA. · Department of Computational Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 38105, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA. · Perlmutter Cancer Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016, USA. · Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. · Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. · Laboratory of Translational Genomics, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. amundadottirl@mail.nih.gov. ·Nat Commun · Pubmed #29422604.

ABSTRACT: In 2020, 146,063 deaths due to pancreatic cancer are estimated to occur in Europe and the United States combined. To identify common susceptibility alleles, we performed the largest pancreatic cancer GWAS to date, including 9040 patients and 12,496 controls of European ancestry from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Here, we find significant evidence of a novel association at rs78417682 (7p12/TNS3, P = 4.35 × 10

8 Article Pancreatic Cancer: Multicenter Prospective Data Collection and Analysis by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group. 2016

Lakatos, Gábor / Balázs, Anita / Kui, Balázs / Gódi, Szilárd / Szücs, Ákos / Szentesi, Andrea / Szentkereszty, Zsolt / Szmola, Richárd / Kelemen, Dezső / Papp, Róbert / Vincze, Áron / Czimmer, József / Pár, Gabriella / Bajor, Judit / Szabó, Imre / Izbéki, Ferenc / Halász, Adrienn / Leindler, László / Farkas, Gyula / Takács, Tamás / Czakó, László / Szepes, Zoltán / Hegyi, Péter / Kahán, Zsuzsanna. ·Dept. Oncology, St. Istvan and St. Laszlo Hospital and Out-Patient Department, Budapest, Hungary. · 1st Dept. Medicine, University of Szeged, Hungary. · 1st Dept. Medicine, University of Pécs, Hungary. · 1st Dept. Surgery, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. · Institute of Surgery, Clinical Center, University of Debrecen, Hungary. · Dept. Interventional Gastroenterology, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary. · Dept. Surgery, University of Pécs, Hungary. · 1st Dept. Medicine, Szent György University Teaching Hospital of County Fejér, Székesfehérvár, Hungary. · Dept. Surgery, University of Szeged, Hungary. · 1st Dept. Medicine, University of Szeged, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, Momentum Gastroenterology Multidisciplinary Research Group, Institute for Translational Medicine and 1st Department of Medicine, University of Pécs, Hungary. hegyi2009@gmail.com. · Dept. Oncotherapy, University of Szeged,Szeged, Hungary. ·J Gastrointestin Liver Dis · Pubmed #27308654.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with poor prognosis. There is very limited information available regarding the epidemiology and treatment strategies of pancreatic cancer in Central Europe. The purpose of the study was to prospectively collect and analyze data of pancreatic cancer in the Hungarian population. METHODS: The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group (HPSG) organized prospective, uniform data collection. Altogether 354 patients were enrolled from 14 Hungarian centers. RESULTS: Chronic pancreatitis was present in 3.7% of the cases, while 33.7% of the patients had diabetes. Family history for pancreatic cancer was positive in 4.8%. The most frequent presenting symptoms included pain (63.8%), weight loss (63%) and jaundice (52.5%). The reported frequency of smoking and alcohol consumption was lower than expected (28.5% and 27.4%, respectively). The majority of patients (75.6%) were diagnosed with advanced disease. Most patients (83.6%) had a primary tumor located in the pancreatic head. The histological diagnosis was ductal adenocarcinoma in 90.7% of the cases, while neuroendocrine tumor was present in 5.3%. Biliary stent implantation was performed in 166 patients, 59.2% of them received metal stents. Primary tumor resection was performed in 60 (16.9%) patients. Enteral or biliary bypass was done in 35 and 49 patients, respectively. In a multivariate Cox-regression model, smoking status and presence of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy were identified as independent predictors for overall survival. CONCLUSION: We report the first data from a large cohort of Hungarian pancreatic cancer patients. We identified smoking status and chemotherapy as independent predictors in this cohort.

9 Article A Common CCK-B Receptor Intronic Variant in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in a Hungarian Cohort. 2016

Balázs, Anita / Németh, Balázs Csaba / Ördög, Balázs / Hegyi, Eszter / Hritz, István / Czakó, László / Czimmer, József / Gódi, Szilárd / Csiszkó, Adrienn / Rakonczay, Zoltán / Párniczky, Andrea / Izbéki, Ferenc / Halász, Adrienn / Kahán, Zsuzsanna / Hegyi, Péter / Sahin-Tóth, Miklós / Anonymous3950851. ·From the *First Department of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary; †Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA; ‡Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary; §2nd Department of Pediatrics, Comenius University Medical School, University Children's Hospital, Bratislava, Slovakia; ∥First Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pécs, Hungary; ¶Institute of Surgery, University of Debrecen, Clinical Center, Debrecen, Hungary; #Heim Pál Children's Hospital, Budapest, Hungary; **First Department of Medicine, Szent György Teaching Hospital of County Fejér, Székesfehérvár, Hungary; ††Department of Oncotherapy, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary; and ‡‡MTA-SZTE Translational Gastroenterology Research Group, Szeged, Hungary. ·Pancreas · Pubmed #26646278.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Variant c.811+32C>A in intron 4 of the cholecystokinin-B receptor gene (CCKBR) was reported to correlate with higher pancreatic cancer risk and poorer survival. The variant was suggested to induce retention of intron 4, resulting in a new splice form with enhanced receptor activity. Our objective was to validate the c.811+32C>A variant as an emerging biomarker for pancreatic cancer risk and prognosis. METHODS: We genotyped variant c.811+32C>A in 122 pancreatic adenocarcinoma case patients and 106 control subjects by sequencing and examined its association with cancer risk and patient survival. We tested the functional effect of variant c.811+32C>A on pre-messenger RNA splicing in human embryonic kidney 293T and Capan-1 cells transfected with CCKBR minigenes. RESULTS: The allele frequency of the variant was similar between patients and control subjects (18.4% and 17.9%, respectively). Survival analysis showed no significant difference between median survival of patients with the C/C genotype (266 days) and patients with the A/C or A/A genotypes (257 days). CCKBR minigenes with or without variant c.811+32C>A exhibited no difference in expression of the intron-retaining splice variant. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that variant c.811+32C>A in CCKBR does not have a significant impact on pancreatic cancer risk or survival in a Hungarian cohort.

10 Article CFTR expression but not Cl- transport is involved in the stimulatory effect of bile acids on apical Cl-/HCO3- exchange activity in human pancreatic duct cells. 2009

Ignáth, Imre / Hegyi, Péter / Venglovecz, Viktória / Székely, Csilla A / Carr, Georgina / Hasegawa, Mamoru / Inoue, Makoto / Takács, Tamás / Argent, Barry E / Gray, Michael A / Rakonczay, Zoltán. ·First Department of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary. ·Pancreas · Pubmed #19752774.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Low doses of chenodeoxycholate (CDC) stimulate apical anion exchange and HCO3(-) secretion in guinea pig pancreatic duct cells (Gut. 2008;57:1102-1112). We examined the effects of CDC on intracellular pH (pHi), intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), and apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity in human pancreatic duct cells and determined whether any effects were dependent on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) expression and Cl(-) channel activity. METHODS: Polarized CFPAC-1 cells (expressing F508del CFTR) were transduced with Sendai virus constructs containing complementary DNAs for either wild-type CFTR or beta-galactosidase. Microfluorimetry was used to record pHi and [Ca(2+)]i and apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity. Patch clamp experiments were performed on isolated guinea pig duct cells. RESULTS: Chenodeoxycholate induced a dose-dependent intracellular acidification and a marked increase in [Ca(2+)]i in CFPAC-1 cells. CFTR expression slightly reduced the rate of acidification but did not affect the [Ca(2+)]i changes. Luminal administration of 0.1 mmol/L of CDC significantly elevated apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity but only in cells that expressed CFTR. However, CDC did not activate CFTR Cl(-) conductance. CONCLUSIONS: Bile salts modulate pHi, [Ca(2+)]i, and apical anion exchange activity in human pancreatic duct cells. The stimulatory effect of CDC on anion exchangers requires CFTR expression but not CFTR channel activity.