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Pancreatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by Massimo Falconi
Based on 176 articles published since 2009
(Why 176 articles?)
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Between 2009 and 2019, Massimo Falconi wrote the following 176 articles about Pancreatic Neoplasms.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8
1 Guideline None 2018

Grimaldi, Franco / Fazio, Nicola / Attanasio, Roberto / Frasoldati, Andrea / Papini, Enrico / Cremonini, Nadia / Davi, Maria V / Funicelli, Luigi / Massironi, Sara / Spada, Francesca / Toscano, Vincenzo / Versari, Annibale / Zini, Michele / Falconi, Massimo / Oberg, Kjell. ·Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Udine, Udine, Italy. · Division of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology and Neuroendocrine Tumor, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. · Endocrinology Service, Galeazzi Institute IRCCS, Milan, Italy. · Endocrinology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera S. Maria Nuova IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy. · Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Albano Laziale (Rome), Italy. · Endocrinology Clinics, Clinica Villalba, Bologna, Italy. · Section of Endocrinology, Medicina Generale e Malattie Aterotrombotiche e Degenerative, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, Verona, Italy. · Division of Radiology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. · Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy. · Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. · Nuclear Medicine Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera S. Maria Nuova IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy. · Division of Pancreatic Surgery, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita e Salute University, Milan, Italy. · Department of Endocrine Oncology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. ·Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets · Pubmed #29237387.

ABSTRACT: Well-established criteria for evaluating the response to treatment and the appropriate followup of individual patients are critical in clinical oncology. The current evidence-based data on these issues in terms of the management of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) are unfortunately limited. This document by the Italian Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AME) on the criteria for the follow-up of GEP-NEN patients is aimed at providing comprehensive recommendations for everyday clinical practice based on both the best available evidence and the combined opinion of an interdisciplinary panel of experts. The initial risk stratification of patients with NENs should be performed according to the grading, staging and functional status of the neoplasm and the presence of an inherited syndrome. The evaluation of response to the initial treatment, and to the subsequent therapies for disease progression or recurrence, should be based on a cost-effective, risk-effective and timely use of the appropriate diagnostic resources. A multidisciplinary evaluation of the response to the treatment is strongly recommended and, at every step in the follow-up, it is mandatory to assess the disease state and the patient performance status, comorbidities, and recent clinical evolution. Local expertise, available technical resources and the patient preferences should always be evaluated while planning the individual clinical management of GEP-NENs.

2 Guideline Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours). 2017

Kos-Kudła, Beata / Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta / Strzelczyk, Janusz / Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata / Bednarczuk, Tomasz / Bolanowski, Marek / Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka / Borowska, Małgorzata / Cichocki, Andrzej / Ćwikła, Jarosław B / Falconi, Massimo / Foltyn, Wanda / Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria / Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja / Jarząb, Barbara / Junik, Roman / Kajdaniuk, Dariusz / Kamiński, Grzegorz / Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Agnieszka / Kowalska, Aldona / Król, Robert / Królicki, Leszek / Krzakowski, Maciej / Kunikowska, Jolanta / Kuśnierz, Katarzyna / Lampe, Paweł / Lange, Dariusz / Lewczuk-Myślicka, Anna / Lewiński, Andrzej / Lipiński, Michał / Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena / Marek, Bogdan / Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna / Nawrocki, Sergiusz / Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa / Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna / Rosiek, Violetta / Ruchała, Marek / Siemińska, Lucyna / Sowa-Staszczak, Anna / Starzyńska, Teresa / Steinhof-Radwańska, Katarzyna / Sworczak, Krzysztof / Syrenicz, Anhelli / Szawłowski, Andrzej / Szczepkowski, Marek / Wachuła, Ewa / Zajęcki, Wojciech / Zemczak, Anna / Zgliczyński, Wojciech / Zieniewicz, Krzysztof. ·Klinika Endokrynologii i Nowotworów Neuroendokrynnych, Katedra Patofizjologii i Endokrynologii, Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny. endoklin@sum.edu.pl. ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #28597909.

ABSTRACT: Progress in the diagnostics and therapy of gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN), the published results of new randomised clinical trials, and the new guidelines issued by the European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society (ENETS) have led the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours to update the 2013 guidelines regarding management of these neoplasms. We present the general recommendations for the management of NENs, developed by experts during the Third Round Table Conference - Diagnostics and therapy of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: Polish recommendations in view of current European recommenda-tions, which took place in December 2016 in Żelechów near Warsaw. Drawing from the extensive experience of centres dealing with this type of neoplasms, we hope that we have managed to develop the optimal management system, applying the most recent achievements in the field of medicine, for these patients, and that it can be implemented effectively in Poland. These management guidelines have been arranged in the following order: gastric and duodenal NENs (including gastrinoma); pancreatic NENs; NENs of the small intestine and appendix, and colorectal NENs.

3 Guideline Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms - management guidelines (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours). 2017

Kos-Kudła, Beata / Rosiek, Violetta / Borowska, Małgorzata / Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata / Bednarczuk, Tomasz / Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta / Bolanowski, Marek / Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka / Cichocki, Andrzej / Ćwikła, Jarosław B / Falconi, Massimo / Foltyn, Wanda / Handkiewicz-Junak, Foltyn / Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja / Jarząb, Barbara / Jarząb, Michał / Junik, Roman / Kajdaniuk, Dariusz / Kamiński, Grzegorz / Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Agnieszka / Kowalska, Aldona / Król, Robert / Królicki, Leszek / Kunikowska, Jolanta / Kuśnierz, Katarzyna / Lampe, Paweł / Lange, Dariusz / Lewczuk-Myślicka, Anna / Lewiński, Andrzej / Lipiński, Michał / Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena / Marek, Bogdan / Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna / Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa / Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna / Ruchała, Marek / Siemińska, Lucyna / Sowa-Staszczak, Anna / Starzyńska, Teresa / Steinhof-Radwańska, Katarzyna / Strzelczyk, Janusz / Sworczak, Krzysztof / Syrenicz, Anhelli / Szawłowski, Andrzej / Szczepkowski, Marek / Wachuła, Ewa / Zajęcki, Wojciech / Zemczak, Anna / Zgliczyński, Wojciech. ·vml@wp.pl. ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #28540973.

ABSTRACT: This article presents updated diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for the management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNEN), proposed by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours. The guidelines contain new data received in the years 2013-2016, which confirm previous recommendations, and have led to modification of previous guidelines or have resulted in the formulation of new guidelines. Biochemical and imaging (anatomical and functional) tests are of great importance in diagnostics, as well as histopathological diagnosis to determine the management of PNEN patients, but they must be confirmed by an immunohistochemical examination. PNEN therapy requires collaboration among the members a multidisciplinary team of specialists experienced in the management of these neoplasms. Surgery is the basic form of treatment in many cases. Further therapy requires a multidirectional procedure; therefore, the rules of biotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, molecular targeted therapy, and chemotherapy are discussed.

4 Guideline Gastroduodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms, including gastrinoma - management guidelines (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours). 2017

Lipiński, Michał / Rydzewska, Grażyna / Foltyn, Wanda / Andrysiak-Mamos, Elżbieta / Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata / Bednarczuk, Tomasz / Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta / Bolanowski, Marek / Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka / Borowska, Małgorzata / Cichocki, Andrzej / Ćwikła, Jarosław B / Falconi, Massimo / Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria / Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja / Jarząb, Barbara / Junik, Roman / Kajdaniuk, Dariusz / Kamiński, Grzegorz / Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Agnieszka / Kowalska, Aldona / Król, Robert / Królicki, Leszek / Kunikowska, Jolanta / Kuśnierz, Katarzyna / Lampe, Paweł / Lange, Dariusz / Lewczuk-Myślicka, Anna / Lewiński, Andrzej / Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena / Marek, Bogdan / Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna / Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa / Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna / Poczkaj, Karolina / Rosiek, Violetta / Ruchała, Marek / Siemińska, Lucyna / Sowa-Staszczak, Anna / Starzyńska, Teresa / Steinhof-Radwańska, Katarzyna / Strzelczyk, Janusz / Sworczak, Krzysztof / Syrenicz, Anhelli / Szawłowski, Andrzej / Szczepkowski, Marek / Wachuła, Ewa / Zajęcki, Wojciech / Zemczak, Anna / Zgliczyński, Wojciech / Kos-Kudła, Beata. ·grazka3558@yahoo.pl. ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #28540972.

ABSTRACT: This paper presents the updated Polish Neuroendocrine Tumour Network expert panel recommendations on the management of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the stomach and duodenum, including gastrinoma. The recommendations discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation of these tumours as well as their diagnosis, including biochemical, histopathological, and localisation diagnoses. The principles of treatment are discussed, including endoscopic, surgical, pharmacological, and radionuclide treatments. Finally, there are also recommendations on patient monitoring.

5 Guideline Italian consensus guidelines for the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of cystic pancreatic neoplasms. 2014

Anonymous4750793 / Anonymous4760793 / Buscarini, Elisabetta / Pezzilli, Raffaele / Cannizzaro, Renato / De Angelis, Claudio / Gion, Massimo / Morana, Giovanni / Zamboni, Giuseppe / Arcidiacono, Paolo / Balzano, Gianpaolo / Barresi, Luca / Basso, Daniela / Bocus, Paolo / Calculli, Lucia / Capurso, Gabriele / Canzonieri, Vincenzo / Casadei, Riccardo / Crippa, Stefano / D'Onofrio, Mirko / Frulloni, Luca / Fusaroli, Pietro / Manfredi, Guido / Pacchioni, Donatella / Pasquali, Claudio / Rocca, Rodolfo / Ventrucci, Maurizio / Venturini, Silvia / Villanacci, Vincenzo / Zerbi, Alessandro / Falconi, Massimo / Anonymous4770793. ·Gastroenterology Unit, Maggiore Hospital, Crema, Italy. Electronic address: ebuscarini@rim.it. · Pancreas Unit, Department of Digestive Diseases and Internal Medicine, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy. · Gastroenterology Unit, CRO-National Cancer Institute, Aviano, Italy. · Gastroenterology and Hepatology Department, A.O. San Giovanni Battista/Molinette, University of Turin, Turin, Italy. · Department of Clinical Pathology, AULSS 12, Venice, Italy. · Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Ospedale Cà Foncello, Treviso, Italy. · Department of Pathology, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. · Division of Gastroenterology and Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Vita-Salute, Italy. · Department of Surgery, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Unit, ISMETT, Palermo, Italy. · Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital, Padua, Italy. · Gastroenterology Unit, Ospedale Sacro Cuore-Don Calabria, Negrar, Verona, Italy. · Department of Radiology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy. · Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome at S. Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy. · Division of Pathology, CRO-National Cancer Institute, IRCCS, Aviano, Italy. · Department of Surgery, University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy. · Department of Surgery, Pancreas Unit, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy. · Department of Radiology, University Hospital G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. · Department of Surgical and Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. · Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. · Gastroenterology Unit, Maggiore Hospital, Crema, Italy. · Pathology Unit, A.O. San Giovanni Battista/Molinette, Turin, Italy. · Surgery Unit IV, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy. · Gastroenterology Unit, Mauriziano Hospital, Turin, Italy. · Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, Bentivoglio Hospital, Bologna, Italy. · 2nd Pathology Section, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Brescia, Italy. · Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Milan, Italy. ·Dig Liver Dis · Pubmed #24809235.

ABSTRACT: This report contains clinically oriented guidelines for the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of cystic pancreatic neoplasms in patients fit for treatment. The statements were elaborated by working groups of experts by searching and analysing the literature, and then underwent a consensus process using a modified Delphi procedure. The statements report recommendations regarding the most appropriate use and timing of various imaging techniques and of endoscopic ultrasound, the role of circulating and intracystic markers and the pathologic evaluation for the diagnosis and follow-up of cystic pancreatic neoplasms.

6 Guideline Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in adults: a shared position statement of the Italian Association for the Study of the Pancreas. 2013

Pezzilli, Raffaele / Andriulli, Angelo / Bassi, Claudio / Balzano, Gianpaolo / Cantore, Maurizio / Delle Fave, Gianfranco / Falconi, Massimo / Anonymous240778. ·Raffaele Pezzilli, Angelo Andriulli, Claudio Bassi, Gianpaolo Balzano, Maurizio Cantore, Gianfranco Delle Fave, Massimo Falconi, Luca Frulloni; the Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency collaborative (EPIc) Group, Department of Digestive Diseases, Internal Medicine Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40138 Bologna, Italy. ·World J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #24307787.

ABSTRACT: This is a medical position statement developed by the Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency collaborative group which is a part of the Italian Association for the Study of the Pancreas (AISP). We covered the main diseases associated with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) which are of common interest to internists/gastroenterologists, oncologists and surgeons, fully aware that EPI may also occur together with many other diseases, but less frequently. A preliminary manuscript based on an extended literature search (Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar) of published reports was prepared, and key recommendations were proposed. The evidence was discussed at a dedicated meeting in Bologna during the National Meeting of the Association in October 2012. Each of the proposed recommendations and algorithms was discussed and an initial consensus was reached. The final draft of the manuscript was then sent to the AISP Council for approval and/or modification. All concerned parties approved the final version of the manuscript in June 2013.

7 Guideline International consensus guidelines 2012 for the management of IPMN and MCN of the pancreas. 2012

Tanaka, Masao / Fernández-del Castillo, Carlos / Adsay, Volkan / Chari, Suresh / Falconi, Massimo / Jang, Jin-Young / Kimura, Wataru / Levy, Philippe / Pitman, Martha Bishop / Schmidt, C Max / Shimizu, Michio / Wolfgang, Christopher L / Yamaguchi, Koji / Yamao, Kenji / Anonymous6680728. ·Department of Surgery and Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan. masaotan@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp ·Pancreatology · Pubmed #22687371.

ABSTRACT: The international consensus guidelines for management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas established in 2006 have increased awareness and improved the management of these entities. During the subsequent 5 years, a considerable amount of information has been added to the literature. Based on a consensus symposium held during the 14th meeting of the International Association of Pancreatology in Fukuoka, Japan, in 2010, the working group has generated new guidelines. Since the levels of evidence for all items addressed in these guidelines are low, being 4 or 5, we still have to designate them "consensus", rather than "evidence-based", guidelines. To simplify the entire guidelines, we have adopted a statement format that differs from the 2006 guidelines, although the headings are similar to the previous guidelines, i.e., classification, investigation, indications for and methods of resection and other treatments, histological aspects, and methods of follow-up. The present guidelines include recent information and recommendations based on our current understanding, and highlight issues that remain controversial and areas where further research is required.

8 Guideline Familial pancreatic cancer in Italy. Risk assessment, screening programs and clinical approach: a position paper from the Italian Registry. 2010

Del Chiaro, Marco / Zerbi, Alessandro / Capurso, Gabriele / Zamboni, Giuseppe / Maisonneuve, Patrick / Presciuttini, Silvano / Arcidiacono, Paolo Giorgio / Calculli, Lucia / Falconi, Massimo / Anonymous7420665. ·Division of General and Transplant Surgery, Pisa University Hospital, Via Paradisa 2, 56124 Cisanello, Pisa, Italy. m.delchiaro@ao-pisa.toscana.it ·Dig Liver Dis · Pubmed #20627831.

ABSTRACT: In Italy, pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of tumor related death with about 7000 new cases per year and a mortality rate of 95%. In a recent prospective epidemiological study on the Italian population, a family history was found in about 10% of patients suffering from a ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (PDAC). A position paper from the Italian Registry for Familial Pancreatic Cancer was made to manage these high-risk individuals. Even though in the majority of high-risk individuals a genetic test to identify familial predisposition is not available, a screening protocol seems to be reasonable for subjects who have a >10-fold greater risk for the development of PDAC. However this kind of screening should be included in clinical trials, performed in centers with high expertise in pancreatic disease, using the least aggressive diagnostic modalities.

9 Guideline ENETS Consensus Guidelines for the Standards of Care in Neuroendocrine Tumors: pre- and perioperative therapy in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. 2009

Akerström, Göran / Falconi, Massimo / Kianmanesh, Reza / Ruszniewski, Philippe / Plöckinger, Ursula / Anonymous1010637 / Anonymous1020637. ·Department of Surgery, Uppsala University Hospital, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. goran.akerstrom@kirurgi.uu.se ·Neuroendocrinology · Pubmed #19713712.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Editorial Focus on pancreatic cancer. 2018

Silvestris, Nicola / Falconi, Massimo. ·Medical Oncology Unit and Scientific Directorate, Cancer Institute "Giovanni Paolo II", Bari, Italy. Electronic address: n.silvestris@oncologico.bari.it. · Pancreatic Surgery Unit, Pancreas Translational and Research Institute, Scientific Institute, San Raffaele Hospital, University Vita e Salute, Milan, Italy. ·Dig Liver Dis · Pubmed #30301604.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

11 Editorial Management of ampullary neoplasms: A tailored approach between endoscopy and surgery. 2015

Panzeri, Francesca / Crippa, Stefano / Castelli, Paola / Aleotti, Francesca / Pucci, Alessandro / Partelli, Stefano / Zamboni, Giuseppe / Falconi, Massimo. ·Francesca Panzeri, Department of Surgery, Ospedale "Mater Salutis", 37045 Legnago, Italy. ·World J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #26185369.

ABSTRACT: Ampullary neoplasms, although rare, present distinctive clinical and pathological features from other neoplastic lesions of the periampullary region. No specific guidelines about their management are available, and they are often assimilated either to biliary tract or to pancreatic carcinomas. Due to their location, they tend to become symptomatic at an earlier stage compared to pancreatic malignancies. This behaviour results in a higher resectability rate at diagnosis. From a pathological point of view they arise in a zone of transition between two different epithelia, and, according to their origin, may be divided into pancreatobiliary or intestinal type. This classification has a substantial impact on prognosis. In most cases, pancreaticoduodenectomy represents the treatment of choice when there is an overt or highly suspicious malignant behaviour. The rate of potentially curative resection is as high as 90% and in high-volume centres an acceptable rate of complications is reported. In selected situations less invasive approaches, such as ampullectomy, have been advocated, although there are some concerns mainly because of a higher recurrence rate associated with limited resections for invasive carcinomas. Importantly, these methods have the drawback of not including an appropriate lymphadenectomy, while nodal involvement has been shown to be frequently present also in apparently low-risk carcinomas. Endoscopic ampullectomy is now the procedure of choice in case of low up to high-grade dysplasia providing a proper assessment of the T status by endoscopic ultrasound. In the present paper the evidence currently available is reviewed, with the aim of offering an updated framework for diagnosis and management of this specific type of disease.

12 Editorial Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the biliary and pancreatic ducts--a shape shifting outlook into an increasingly recognized disease. 2012

Crippa, Stefano / Falconi, Massimo. · ·Dig Liver Dis · Pubmed #22265327.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

13 Review Optimizing the management of locally advanced pancreatic cancer with a focus on induction chemotherapy: Expert opinion based on a review of current evidence. 2019

Seufferlein, Thomas / Hammel, Pascal / Delpero, Jean Robert / Macarulla, Teresa / Pfeiffer, Per / Prager, Gerald W / Reni, Michele / Falconi, Massimo / Philip, Philip A / Van Cutsem, Eric. ·University Medical Center Ulm, Ulm, Germany. Electronic address: thomas.seufferlein@uniklinik-ulm.de. · Hôpital Beaujon (AP-HP), Clichy, and Université Paris VII-Denis Diderot, France. Electronic address: pascal.hammel@aphp.fr. · Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France. Electronic address: delperojr@ipc.unicancer.fr. · Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: tmacarulla@vhio.net. · Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark. Electronic address: per.pfeiffer@rsyd.dk. · Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center Vienna, Medical University Vienna, Austria. Electronic address: gerald.prager@meduniwien.ac.at. · Department of Medical Oncology, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: reni.michele@hsr.it. · Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Centre, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, "Vita-Salute" University, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: falconi.massimo@hsr.it. · Department of Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI, USA. Electronic address: philipp@karmanos.org. · Digestive Oncology, University Hospitals Gasthuisberg Leuven and KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: eric.vancutsem@uzleuven.be. ·Cancer Treat Rev · Pubmed #31163334.

ABSTRACT: Surgical resection of pancreatic cancer offers a chance of cure, but currently only 15-20% of patients are diagnosed with resectable disease, while 30-40% are diagnosed with non-metastatic, unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Treatment for LAPC usually involves systemic chemotherapy, with the aim of controlling disease progression, reducing symptoms and maintaining quality of life. In a small proportion of patients with LAPC, primary chemotherapy may successfully convert unresectable tumours to resectable tumours. In this setting, primary chemotherapy is termed 'induction therapy' rather than 'neoadjuvant'. There is currently a lack of data from randomized studies to thoroughly evaluate the benefits of induction chemotherapy in LAPC, but Phase II and retrospective data have shown improved survival and high R0 resection rates. New chemotherapy regimens such as nab-paclitaxel + gemcitabine and FOLFIRINOX have demonstrated improvement in overall survival for metastatic disease and shown promise as neoadjuvant treatment in patients with resectable and borderline resectable disease. Prospective trials are underway to evaluate these regimens further as induction therapy in LAPC and preliminary data indicate a beneficial effect of FOLFIRINOX in this setting. Further research into optimal induction schedules is needed, as well as guidance on the patients who are most suitable for induction therapy. In this expert opinion article, a panel of surgeons, medical oncologists and gastrointestinal oncologists review the available evidence on management strategies for LAPC and provide their recommendations for patient care, with a particular focus on the use of induction chemotherapy.

14 Review Diagnostic strategy with a solid pancreatic mass. 2019

Guarneri, Giovanni / Gasparini, Giulia / Crippa, Stefano / Andreasi, Valentina / Falconi, Massimo. ·Pancreas Translational & Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Pancreas Translational & Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; "Vita-Salute" University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Pancreas Translational & Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; "Vita-Salute" University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: falconi.massimo@hsr.it. ·Presse Med · Pubmed #30878333.

ABSTRACT: The correct diagnosis of a patient presenting with a solid pancreatic mass requires a careful diagnostic work-up, since many differential diagnoses are possible that completely alter the following treatments. In our chapter, we have discussed the clinical approach to the problem in a sort of diagnostic flow-chart. Firstly, we analysed the different potential presentations of a solid pancreatic mass, which can be both asymptomatic or symptomatic, and the differential diagnosis based on the symptoms of presentation. Then we focused on the various imaging techniques commonly used in the diagnostic work-up, stressing on the different presentations according to the type of disease, and the operative procedures that can supplement this part. Lastly, we discussed the best diagnostic work up that should be followed to fully understand the characteristics of each disease, which is of paramount importance to choose the adequate treatment plan, with special attention to pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its many treatment strategies such as chemotherapy, surgery, or medical therapy. In patients presenting with a solid pancreatic mass it is crucial to reach a definitive diagnosis using a well determined diagnostic work-up to better characterize the lesion, since the best treatment varies widely according not only to the type of disease but also to its features.

15 Review Treatment challenges in and outside a specialist network setting: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. 2019

Lykoudis, Panagis M / Partelli, Stefano / Muffatti, Francesca / Caplin, Martyn / Falconi, Massimo / Fusai, Giuseppe K / Anonymous971001. ·Department of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery & Liver Transplantation, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK. Electronic address: p.lykoudis@ucl.ac.uk. · Pancreatic Surgery Unit, Pancreas Translational & Research Institute, Scientific Institute San Raffaele Hospital & University "Vita e Salute", Milan, Italy. · Department of Gastroenterology and G.I. & Tumour Neuroendocrinology, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK. · Department of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery & Liver Transplantation, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK. ·Eur J Surg Oncol · Pubmed #29126671.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms comprise a group of rare tumours with special biology, an often indolent behaviour and particular diagnostic and therapeutic requirements. The specialized biochemical tests and radiological investigations, the complexity of surgical options and the variety of medical treatments that require individual tailoring, mandate a multidisciplinary approach that can be optimally achieved through an organized network. The present study describes currents concepts in the management of these tumours as well as an insight into the challenges of delivering the pathway in and outside a Network.

16 Review Pancreatic cystic neoplasms: What is the most cost-effective follow-up strategy? 2018

Maggi, Giulia / Guarneri, Giovanni / Gasparini, Giulia / Fogliati, Alessandro / Partelli, Stefano / Falconi, Massimo / Crippa, Stefano. ·Pancreatic Surgery Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita Salute University, Milan, Italy. ·Endosc Ultrasound · Pubmed #30323161.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cystic neoplasms are one of the most frequent incidental findings in the field of pancreatic diseases, estimated to be present in up to 45% of the general population. They represent an heterogeneous group of tumors with different biological behavior and variable risk of progression to malignancy. While serous cystadenomas (SCAs) have no risk of malignant progression, mucinous cyst adenoma are malignant in 20% of cases and this risk is higher in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). Nonsurgical management could be applied in patients with a SCA and in low-risk IPMN and these patients could be managed with follow-up strategies. While follow-up could be interrupted in patients unfit for surgery due to comorbidities or age, and in SCA stable over time, recent evidences do not support surveillance discontinuation in patients with IPMNs fit for surgery.

17 Review Surveillance of Cystic Lesions of the Pancreas: Whom and How to Survey? 2018

Andrianello, Stefano / Falconi, Massimo / Salvia, Roberto / Crippa, Stefano / Marchegiani, Giovanni. ·Pancreatic Surgery Unit of the Department of Surgery, Verona University Hospital, Verona, Italy. · Pancreatic Surgery Unit, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Centre, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 'Vita-Salute' University, Milan, Italy. ·Visc Med · Pubmed #30140686.

ABSTRACT: The sudden prevalence increase of pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCN) related to the use of cross-sectional imaging has raised several concerns. Even if there is a tangible risk of progression towards pancreatic cancer (PC), surgical resection cannot be offered to all patients due to the high risk of morbidity and mortality. Available guidelines are useful tools to identify patients at higher risk for harboring cancer thanks to their sensitivity. Because of their low specificity, however, such a risk is often overestimated. Recent evidence deriving from large observational series of surveilled patients suggests that the overall risk of PC is low. A large proportion of patients affected by PCN can be safely observed over time. Several follow-up schedules have been proposed in guidelines but none of them proved to be the most cost-effective. Moreover, it must still be demonstrated that any surveillance protocol can be associated with a reduction in PC-related mortality. By now, with most studies reporting a lifelong risk of malignancy, the only evidence-based recommendation regarding surveillance is that follow-up should never be discontinued as repeated observations are crucial for PC risk stratification.

18 Review How should incidental NEN of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract be followed? 2018

Ariotti, Riccardo / Partelli, Stefano / Muffatti, Francesca / Andreasi, Valentina / Della Sala, Francesca / Falconi, Massimo. ·Pancreatic Surgery Unit, Pancreas Translational & Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, "Vita-Salute" University, Via Olgettina 60, 20132, Milan, Italy. · Pancreatic Surgery Unit, Pancreas Translational & Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, "Vita-Salute" University, Via Olgettina 60, 20132, Milan, Italy. falconi.massimo@hsr.it. ·Rev Endocr Metab Disord · Pubmed #29527619.

ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic neoplasms (GEP-NENs) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumors, whose incidence has increased over the years. The most frequent site for primary disease is the stomach followed by small and large intestine, and pancreas. In the last decade, a dramatic growing in the incidence of small, incidental GEP-NENs has been recorded. In parallel, an increasing attitude toward more conservative approaches instead of surgical management has being widely spreading. This is particularly true for small, asymptomatic, pancreatic NEN as for these tumor forms an active surveillance has proven to be safe and feasible. Primary site and biological features of the neoplasms lead to different strategies and indications for surveillance and follow-up. This review focuses on the current evidence on modality and timing of surveillance and conservative treatment of incidentally discovered lesions.

19 Review Systematic review and meta-analysis of prognostic role of splenic vessels infiltration in resectable pancreatic cancer. 2018

Crippa, Stefano / Cirocchi, Roberto / Maisonneuve, Patrick / Partelli, Stefano / Pergolini, Ilaria / Tamburrino, Domenico / Aleotti, Francesca / Reni, Michele / Falconi, Massimo. ·Division of Pancreatic Surgery, Vita e Salute University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Pancreas Translational & Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Department of General and Oncologic Surgery, University of Perugia, St. Maria Hospital, Terni, Italy. · Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. · Department of Surgery, Ospedali Riuniti, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy. · Pancreas Translational & Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Department of Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Division of Pancreatic Surgery, Vita e Salute University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Pancreas Translational & Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: falconi.massimo@hsr.it. ·Eur J Surg Oncol · Pubmed #29183639.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Identification of factors associated with dismal survival after surgery in resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is important to select patients for neoadjuvant treatment. The present meta-analysis aimed to compare the results of distal pancreatectomy for resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic body-tail with and without splenic vessels infiltration. METHODS: A systematic search was performed of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. The inclusion criteria were studies including patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer with or without splenic vessels infiltration. 5-year overall survival (OS) was the primary outcomes. Meta-analysis was carried out applying time-to-event method. RESULTS: Six articles with 423 patients were analysed. Patients with pathological splenic artery invasion had a worse survival compared with those without infiltration (Hazard ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.36-2.28; P < 0.0001). A similar results was found when considering pathological splenic vessels infiltration, showing that survival was significantly poorer when splenic vein infiltration was present (Hazard ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.19-1.93; P = 0.0009). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis showed worse survival for patients with splenic vessels infiltration undergoing distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer. Splenic vessels infiltration represents the stigmata of a more aggressive disease, although resectable.

20 Review Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Improving Prevention and Survivorship. 2017

Sohal, Davendra P S / Willingham, Field F / Falconi, Massimo / Raphael, Kara L / Crippa, Stefano. ·From the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH; Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA; Division of Pancreatic Surgery, Università Vita-Salute, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. ·Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book · Pubmed #28561672.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is a growing problem in oncology, given slowly rising incidence and continued suboptimal outcomes. A concerted effort to reverse this tide will require prevention, early diagnosis, and improved systemic therapy for curable disease. We focus on these aspects in detail in this study. Hereditary pancreatic cancer is an underappreciated area. With the growing use of genomics (both somatic and germline) in cancer care, there is increasing recognition of hereditary pancreatic cancer cases: around 10% of all pancreatic cancer may be related to familial syndromes, such as familial atypical multiple mole and melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, Lynch syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Screening and surveillance guidelines by various expert groups are discussed. Management of resectable pancreatic cancer is evolving; the use of multiagent systemic therapies, in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings, is discussed. Current and emerging data, along with ongoing clinical trials addressing important questions in this area, are described. Surveillance recommendations based on latest ASCO guidelines are also discussed. Finally, the multimodality management of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer is discussed. The various clinicoanatomic definitions of this entity, followed by consensus definitions, are described. Then, we focus on current opinions and practices around neoadjuvant therapy, discussing chemotherapy and radiation aspects, and the role of surgical resection.

21 Review Multimodal treatment of resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. 2017

Silvestris, Nicola / Brunetti, Oronzo / Vasile, Enrico / Cellini, Francesco / Cataldo, Ivana / Pusceddu, Valeria / Cattaneo, Monica / Partelli, Stefano / Scartozzi, Mario / Aprile, Giuseppe / Casadei Gardini, Andrea / Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe / Valentini, Vincenzo / Scarpa, Aldo / Falconi, Massimo / Calabrese, Angela / Lorusso, Vito / Reni, Michele / Cascinu, Stefano. ·Medical Oncology Unit, Cancer Institute "Giovanni Paolo II", Bari, Italy. Electronic address: n.silvestris@oncologico.bari.it. · Medical Oncology Unit, Cancer Institute "Giovanni Paolo II", Bari, Italy. Electronic address: dr.oronzo.brunetti@tiscali.it. · Department of Oncology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Italy. Electronic address: e.vasile@ao.pisa.toscana.it. · Radiation Oncology Department, Gemelli ART, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italy. Electronic address: francesco.cellini@uniroma3.it. · ARC-NET Research Centre, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. Electronic address: cataldo.ivana@gmail.com. · Medical Oncology Unit, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy. Electronic address: oncologiamedica2reparto@gmail.com. · Department of Medical Oncology, University and General Hospital, Udine, Italy. Electronic address: aprile83@gmail.com. · Pancreatic Surgery Unit, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Centre, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 'Vita-Salute' University, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: partelli.stefano@hsr.it. · Medical Oncology Unit, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy. Electronic address: marioscartozzi@gmail.com. · Department of Medical Oncology, University and General Hospital, Udine, Italy; Department of Medical Oncology, General Hospital of Vicenza, Vicenza, Italy. Electronic address: aprile.giuseppe@aoud.sanita.fvg.it. · Medical Oncology Unit, IRCCS, Meldola, Italy. Electronic address: casadeigardini@gmail.com. · Radiation Oncology Center, Dept. of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine - DIMES, University of Bologna, Italy. Electronic address: alessio.morganti2@unibo.it. · Radiation Oncology Department, Gemelli ART, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italy. Electronic address: vincenzo.valentini@unicatt.it. · ARC-NET Research Centre, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. Electronic address: aldo.scarpa@univr.it. · Pancreatic Surgery Unit, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Centre, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 'Vita-Salute' University, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: falconi.massimo@hsr.it. · Radiology Unit, Cancer Institute "Giovanni Paolo II", Bari, Italy. Electronic address: acalabrese22@gmail.com. · Medical Oncology Unit, Cancer Institute "Giovanni Paolo II", Bari, Italy. Electronic address: vito.lorusso@oncologico.bari.it. · Medical Oncology Department, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: reni.michele@hsr.it. · Modena Cancer Center, Policlinico di Modena Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy. Electronic address: cascinu@yahoo.com. ·Crit Rev Oncol Hematol · Pubmed #28259290.

ABSTRACT: After a timing preoperative staging, treatment of resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) includes surgery and adjuvant therapies, the former representing the initial therapeutic option and the latter aiming to reduce the incidence of both distant metastases (chemotherapy) and locoregional failures (chemoradiotherapy). Herein, we provide a critical overview on the role of multimodal treatment in PDAC and on new opportunities related to current more active poli-chemotherapy regimens, targeted therapies, and the more recent immunotherapy approaches. Moreover, an analysis of pathological markers and clinical features able to help clinicians in the selection of the best therapeutic strategy will be discussed. Lastly, the role of neoadjuvant treatment of initially resectable disease will be considered mostly in patients whose malignancy shows morphological but not clinical or biological criteria of resectability. Depending on the results of these investigational studies, today a multidisciplinary approach can offer the best address therapy for these patients.

22 Review Systematic review and meta-analysis on laparoscopic pancreatic resections for neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs). 2017

Tamburrino, Domenico / Partelli, Stefano / Renzi, Claudio / Crippa, Stefano / Muffatti, Francesca / Perali, Carolina / Parisi, Amilcare / Randolph, Justus / Fusai, Giuseppe Kito / Cirocchi, Roberto / Falconi, Massimo. ·a HPB and Liver Transplant Surgery , Royal Free Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust , London , UK. · b Pancreatic surgery Unit, Pancreas Translational & Clinical Research Center - IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute , 'Vita e Salute' University , Milan , Italy. · c Department of General and Oncologic Surgery , University of Perugia, St. Mary's Hospital , Terni , Italy. · d Department of Digestive Surgery , University of Perugia, St. Mary's Hospital , Terni , Italy. · e Tift College of Education , Mercer University , Atlanta , GA , USA. ·Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol · Pubmed #27781493.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The safety of laparoscopic resections (LPS) of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs) has been well established in the literature. Areas covered: Studies conducted between January 2003 and December 2015 that reported on LPS and open surgery (OPS) were reviewed. The primary outcomes were the rate of post-operative complications and the length of hospital stay (LoS) after laparoscopic and open surgical resection. The rate of recurrence was the secondary outcome. Eleven studies were included with a total of 907 pancreatic resections for PNENs, of whom, 298 (32.8%) underwent LPS and 609 (67.2%) underwent open surgery. LPS resulted in a significantly shorter LoS (p < 0.0001) and lower blood loss (p < 0.0001). The meta-analysis did not show any significant difference in the pancreatic fistula rate, recurrence rate or post-operative mortality between the two groups. Expert commentary: LPS is a safe approach even for PNENs and it is associated with a shorter LoS.

23 Review Management of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the pancreas (WHO G3): A tailored approach between proliferation and morphology. 2016

Crippa, Stefano / Partelli, Stefano / Belfiori, Giulio / Palucci, Marco / Muffatti, Francesca / Adamenko, Olga / Cardinali, Luca / Doglioni, Claudio / Zamboni, Giuseppe / Falconi, Massimo. ·Stefano Crippa, Stefano Partelli, Marco Palucci, Francesca Muffatti, Olga Adamenko, Massimo Falconi, Division of Pancreatic Surgery, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita e Salute University, 20132 Milan, Italy. ·World J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #28018101.

ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) of the pancreas are defined by a mitotic count > 20 mitoses/10 high power fields and/or Ki67 index > 20%, and included all the tumors previously classified as poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas. These latter are aggressive malignancies with a high propensity for distant metastases and poor prognosis, and they can be further divided into small- and large-cell subtypes. However in the NEC category are included also neuroendocrine tumors with a well differentiated morphology but ki67 index > 20%. This category is associated with better prognosis and does not significantly respond to cisplatin-based chemotherapy, which represents the gold standard therapeutic approach for poorly differentiated NEC. In this review, the differences between well differentiated and poorly differentiated NEC are discussed considering both pathology, imaging features, treatment and prognostic implications. Diagnostic and therapeutic flowcharts are proposed. The need for a revision of current classification system is stressed being well differentiated NEC a more indolent disease compared to poorly differentiated tumors.

24 Review Enhanced recovery pathways in pancreatic surgery: State of the art. 2016

Pecorelli, Nicolò / Nobile, Sara / Partelli, Stefano / Cardinali, Luca / Crippa, Stefano / Balzano, Gianpaolo / Beretta, Luigi / Falconi, Massimo. ·Nicolò Pecorelli, Sara Nobile, Stefano Partelli, Stefano Crippa, Gianpaolo Balzano, Massimo Falconi, Division of Pancreatic Surgery, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, "Vita-Salute" University, 20132 Milan, Italy. ·World J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #27605881.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic surgery is being offered to an increasing number of patients every year. Although postoperative outcomes have significantly improved in the last decades, even in high-volume centers patients still experience significant postoperative morbidity and full recovery after surgery takes longer than we think. In recent years, enhanced recovery pathways incorporating a large number of evidence-based perioperative interventions have proved to be beneficial in terms of improved postoperative outcomes, and accelerated patient recovery in the context of gastrointestinal, genitourinary and orthopedic surgery. The role of these pathways for pancreatic surgery is still unclear as high-quality randomized controlled trials are lacking. To date, non-randomized studies have shown that care pathways for pancreaticoduodenectomy and distal pancreatectomy are safe with no difference in postoperative morbidity, leading to early discharge and no increase in hospital readmissions. Hospital costs are reduced due to better organization of care and resource utilization. However, further research is needed to clarify the effect of enhanced recovery pathways on patient recovery and post-discharge outcomes following pancreatic resection. Future studies should be prospective and follow recent recommendations for the design and reporting of enhanced recovery pathways.

25 Review Treatment of branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: state of the art. 2016

Crippa, Stefano / Piccioli, Alessandra / Salandini, Maria Chiara / Cova, Chiara / Aleotti, Francesca / Falconi, Massimo. ·Division of Pancreatic Surgery, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita e Salute University, Via Olgettina 60, 20132, Milan, Italy. · Department of Surgery, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona, Italy. · Division of Pancreatic Surgery, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita e Salute University, Via Olgettina 60, 20132, Milan, Italy. falconi.massimo@hsr.it. ·Updates Surg · Pubmed #27502606.

ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMNs) has been dramatically increased. BD-IPMNs are frequently discovered as incidental findings in asymptomatic individuals, mainly in elderly patients. An accurate evaluation of BD-IPMNs with high-resolution imaging techniques and endoscopic ultrasound is necessary. Patients with high-risk stigmata (HRS, obstructive jaundice, enhanced solid component) should undergo resection. Patients with worrisome features (WF, cyst size ≥3 cm, thickened enhanced cyst walls, non-enhanced mural nodules, and clinical acute pancreatitis) may undergo either a strict surveillance based on patients' characteristics (age, comorbidities) or surgical resection. Non-operative management is indicated for BD-IPMNs without HRS and WF. Patients with BD-IPMN who do not undergo resection may develop malignant change over time as well as IPMN-distinct pancreatic cancer. However, non-operative management of BD-IPMNs lacking WF and HRS is safe and the risk of malignant degeneration seems relatively low. The optimal surveillance protocol is currently unclear.

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