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Pancreatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by Elena Gabriela Chiorean
Based on 29 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, E. G. Chiorean wrote the following 29 articles about Pancreatic Neoplasms.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2
1 Guideline Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, Version 2.2017, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. 2017

Tempero, Margaret A / Malafa, Mokenge P / Al-Hawary, Mahmoud / Asbun, Horacio / Bain, Andrew / Behrman, Stephen W / Benson, Al B / Binder, Ellen / Cardin, Dana B / Cha, Charles / Chiorean, E Gabriela / Chung, Vincent / Czito, Brian / Dillhoff, Mary / Dotan, Efrat / Ferrone, Cristina R / Hardacre, Jeffrey / Hawkins, William G / Herman, Joseph / Ko, Andrew H / Komanduri, Srinadh / Koong, Albert / LoConte, Noelle / Lowy, Andrew M / Moravek, Cassadie / Nakakura, Eric K / O'Reilly, Eileen M / Obando, Jorge / Reddy, Sushanth / Scaife, Courtney / Thayer, Sarah / Weekes, Colin D / Wolff, Robert A / Wolpin, Brian M / Burns, Jennifer / Darlow, Susan. · ·J Natl Compr Canc Netw · Pubmed #28784865.

ABSTRACT: Ductal adenocarcinoma and its variants account for most pancreatic malignancies. High-quality multiphase imaging can help to preoperatively distinguish between patients eligible for resection with curative intent and those with unresectable disease. Systemic therapy is used in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant pancreatic cancer setting, as well as in the management of locally advanced unresectable and metastatic disease. Clinical trials are critical for making progress in treatment of pancreatic cancer. The NCCN Guidelines for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma focus on diagnosis and treatment with systemic therapy, radiation therapy, and surgical resection.

2 Review Biomarker-driven and molecularly targeted therapies for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. 2018

Zhen, David B / Coveler, Andrew / Zanon, Silvia / Reni, Michele / Chiorean, E Gabriela. ·Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA. · Department of Medical Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Department of Medical Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: reni.michele@hsr.it. · Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address: gchiorea@uw.edu. ·Semin Oncol · Pubmed #30391013.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a deadly disease with few effective treatment options. Our knowledge of molecular alterations in PDAC has significantly grown and helped identify new therapeutic targets. The success of immune checkpoint inhibition in mismatch repair deficient tumors, PARP inhibitors for tumors with DNA repair defects, and targeting hyaluronan with PEGPH20 in patients with high expressing (hyaluronan-high) tumors are examples of promising biomarker-driven therapies. We review the major biological mechanisms in PDAC and discuss current and future directions for molecularly targeted therapies in this disease.

3 Review Localized Pancreatic Cancer: Multidisciplinary Management. 2016

Coveler, Andrew L / Herman, Joseph M / Simeone, Diane M / Chiorean, E Gabriela. ·From the Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Washington, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. ·Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book · Pubmed #27249726.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive cancer that continues to have single-digit 5-year mortality rates despite advancements in the field. Surgery remains the only curative treatment; however, most patients present with late-stage disease deemed unresectable, either due to extensive local vascular involvement or the presence of distant metastasis. Resection guidelines that include a borderline resectable group, as well as advancements in neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation that improve resectability of locally advanced disease, may improve outcomes for patients with more invasive disease. Multi-agent chemotherapy regimens fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) and nab-paclitaxel with gemcitabine improved response rates and survival in metastatic pancreatic cancer and are now being used in earlier stages for patients with localized potentially resectable and unresectable disease, with goals of downstaging tumors to allow margin-negative resection and reducing systemic recurrence. Chemoradiotherapy, although still controversial for both resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer, is being used in the context of contemporary chemotherapy backbone regimens, and novel radiation techniques such as stereotactic body frame radiation therapy (SBRT) are studied on the premise of maintaining or improving efficacy and reducing treatment duration. Patient selection for optimal treatment designation is currently provided by multidisciplinary tumor boards, but biomarker discovery, in blood, tumors, or through novel imaging, is an area of intense research. Results to date suggest that some patients with unresectable disease at the outset have survival rates as good as those with initially resectable disease if able to undergo surgical resection. Long-term follow-up and improved clinical trials options are needed to determine optimal treatment modalities for patients with localized pancreatic cancer.

4 Review Algenpantucel-L immunotherapy in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. 2016

Coveler, Andrew L / Rossi, Gabriela R / Vahanian, Nicholas N / Link, Charles / Chiorean, E Gabriela. ·Department of Medicine/Division Oncology, University of Washington, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 825 Eastlake Ave E, G4-833, Seattle, WA 98109-1023, USA. · NewLink Genetics, Ames, IA 50010, USA. ·Immunotherapy · Pubmed #26787078.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the 4th leading cause of cancer death in the USA and the EU. A minority of patients presents with surgically resectable and potentially curable disease, but among these, 80% are destined to relapse and overall survival rates with adjuvant chemotherapy average 24 months. Immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic option and a potential paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer, and may be particularly effective when used early in the disease course to prevent metastatic spread. Algenpantucel-L (HyperAcute Pancreas, NewLink Genetics, Ames, IA, USA) is a whole-cell immunotherapy consisting of irradiated allogeneic pancreatic cancer cells genetically engineered to express the murine enzyme α-GT, which results in hyperacute rejection of the tumor cells with complement- and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. Phase II clinical trial data has been encouraging, particularly for patients who demonstrated humoral immunologic responses. Here, we report preliminary results and biomarkers correlations with clinical activity of algenpantucel-L in pancreatic cancer.

5 Review Pancreatic cancer: Update on immunotherapies and algenpantucel-L. 2016

McCormick, Kinsey A / Coveler, Andrew L / Rossi, Gabriela R / Vahanian, Nicholas N / Link, Charles / Chiorean, E Gabriela. ·a University of Washington , Seattle , WA , USA. · b NewLink Genetics , Ames , IA , USA. ·Hum Vaccin Immunother · Pubmed #26619245.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is notoriously lethal, and despite improvements in systemic chemotherapy approaches bringing survival rates for metastatic disease to almost 1 year, by 2030 it is expected to become the second leading cause of cancer death. Pancreatic cancer (PC) prognosis has been associated with both the presence of intratumoral helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, as well as humoral immune responses to tumor associated antigens like mesothelin. It is well described that the PC microenvironment is characterized by a fibroinflammatory and immunosuppressive stroma. On these premises several immune-targeted strategies have been developed to harness the adaptable immune system with a goal of improving survival with little toxicity. Cancer vaccines involve the administration of tumor-associated antigens with the goal of inducing an endogenous anti-tumor response. Among several strategies discussed, we will focus on the algenpantucel-L (HyperAcute™ Pancreas) immunotherapy. Algenpantucel-L is a whole cell immunotherapy consisting of irradiated allogeneic PC cells genetically engineered to express the murine enzyme α(1,3)-galactosyltransferase (αGT), which ultimately leads to hyperacute rejection with complement- and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. While phase III data in the adjuvant treatment of pancreatic cancer are pending, phase II results have been encouraging, particularly for patients who demonstrated humoral immunologic responses. Novel strategies using immune checkpoint inhibitors, costimulatory antibodies, and combinations with cancer vaccines may overcome immunotolerance and improve treatment success.

6 Review Pancreatic cancer: optimizing treatment options, new, and emerging targeted therapies. 2015

Chiorean, Elena Gabriela / Coveler, Andrew L. ·Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. ·Drug Des Devel Ther · Pubmed #26185420.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the US and is expected to become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the next decade. Despite 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin with irinotecan and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) and gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel significantly improving outcomes for metastatic cancer, refractory disease still poses significant challenges. Difficulties with early detection and the inherent chemo- and radio-resistant nature of this malignancy led to attempts to define the sequential biology of pancreatic cancer in order to improve survival outcomes. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by several germline or acquired genetic mutations, the most common being KRAS (90%), CDK2NA (90%), TP53 (75%-90%), DPC4/SMAD4 (50%). In addition, the tumor microenvironment, chemoresistant cancer stem cells, and the desmoplastic stroma have been the target of some promising clinical investigations. Among the core pathways reproducibly shown to lead the development and progression of this disease, DNA repair, apoptosis, G1/S cell cycle transition, KRAS, Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, TGF-beta, and other cell invasion pathways, have been the target of "precision therapeutics". No single molecularly targeted therapeutic though has been uniformly successful, probably due to the tumor heterogeneity, but biomarker research is evolving and it hopes to select more patients likely to benefit. Recent reports note activity with immunotherapies such as CD40 agonists, CCR2 inhibitors, cancer vaccines, and novel combinations against the immunosuppressive tumor milieu are ongoing. While many obstacles still exist, clearly we are making progress in deciphering the heterogeneity within pancreatic cancers. Integrating conventional and immunological targeting will be the key to effective treatment of this deadly disease.

7 Review Taxanes: impact on pancreatic cancer. 2014

Chiorean, E Gabriela / Von Hoff, Daniel D. ·aDepartment of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington bTranslational Genomics Research Institute (TGen)/Virginia Piper Cancer Center, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA. ·Anticancer Drugs · Pubmed #24463484.

ABSTRACT: Taxanes are core therapeutic components for several advanced malignancies, and have been studied extensively in pancreatic adenocarcinomas with mixed results. Although the triplet combination FOLFIRINOX improves outcomes for patients with metastatic disease, it is compounded by significant toxicity, and novel regimens, rationally designed and based on thorough mechanistic activity on the tumor targets, are clearly needed. Solvent-based taxanes, docetaxel and paclitaxel, have little activity as single agents, but combinations with fluoropyrimidines and gemcitabine show efficacy, albeit they have not undergone testing in phase III trials. Pancreatic cancer is characterized by an abundant desmoplastic, fibroinflammatory and hypoperfused stroma, which has been blamed for its overall chemoresistance. Nanoparticle bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) has been pharmacologically designed as a novel water-soluble agent, with improved therapeutic index compared with the cremophor-based formulation, capable of achieving higher systemic exposure. In preclinical systems, when combined with gemcitabine, nab-paclitaxel increased intratumoral gemcitabine delivery, possibly due to inducing stromal 'collapse' and through inhibition of the gemcitabine-catabolizing enzyme cytidine deaminase. Most recently, the combination of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine demonstrated significant survival benefit with good tolerability in metastatic pancreatic cancer in the phase III trial MPACT, and now represents one of the gold-standard regimens for this disease. Although taxanes are overall potent chemotherapeutics for various cancers, it is clear that for meaningful results in pancreatic adenocarcinomas, rationally designed combinations and novel technologies for drug delivery are likely to be most successful.

8 Clinical Trial The role of the folate pathway in pancreatic cancer risk. 2018

Chittiboyina, Shirisha / Chen, Zhongxue / Chiorean, E Gabriela / Kamendulis, Lisa M / Hocevar, Barbara A. ·Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America. · University of Washington, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. · Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #29474406.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Several dietary factors have been identified that modify pancreatic cancer risk, including low folate levels. In addition to nutrition and lifestyle determinants, folate status may be influenced by genetic factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In the present study, we investigated the association between folate levels, genetic polymorphisms in genes of the folate pathway, and pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate levels were measured in pancreatic cancer and control subjects. Genotypes were determined utilizing Taqman probes and SNP frequencies between cases and controls were assessed using Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to measure the association between genotypes and pancreatic cancer risk. The association between folate levels and SNP expression was calculated using one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Mean RBC folate levels were significantly lower in pancreatic cancer cases compared to unrelated controls (508.4 ± 215.9 ng/mL vs 588.3 ± 229.2 ng/mL, respectively) whereas serum folate levels were similar. Irrespective of cancer status, several SNPs were found to be associated with altered serum folate concentrations, including the D919G SNP in methionine synthase (MTR), the L474F SNP in serine hydroxymethyl transferase 1 (SHMT1) and the V175M SNP in phosphatidyl ethanolamine methyltransferase (PEMT). Further, the V allele of the A222V SNP and the E allele of the E429A SNP in methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) were associated with low RBC folate levels. Pancreatic cancer risk was found to be significantly lower for the LL allele of the L78R SNP in choline dehydrogenase (CHDH; OR = 0.29; 95% CI 0.12-0.76); however, it was not associated with altered serum or RBC folate levels.

9 Clinical Trial Phase I/II study of mocetinostat in combination with gemcitabine for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer and other advanced solid tumors. 2018

Chan, Emily / Chiorean, E Gabriela / O'Dwyer, Peter J / Gabrail, Nashat Y / Alcindor, Thierry / Potvin, Diane / Chao, Richard / Hurwitz, Herbert. ·Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USA. · Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. · Indiana University Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA. · Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · Gabrail Cancer Center, Canton, OH, USA. · McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada. · Mirati Therapeutics Inc., 9393 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 200, San Diego, CA, 92121, USA. · Mirati Therapeutics Inc., 9393 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 200, San Diego, CA, 92121, USA. chaor@MIRATI.COM. · Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. ·Cancer Chemother Pharmacol · Pubmed #29238851.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of mocetinostat (a Class I/IV HDAC inhibitor) in combination with gemcitabine in patients with solid tumors, including pancreatic cancer. METHODS: In this open-label, non-randomized Phase I/II study (NCT00372437) sequential cohorts of patients with solid tumors received gemcitabine (1000 mg/m RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled into the Phase I (n = 25) and Phase II (n = 23) studies. In the Phase I study, the MTD/RP2D was mocetinostat 90 mg TIW + gemcitabine 1000 mg/m CONCLUSIONS: Mocetinostat TIW in combination with gemcitabine was associated with significant toxicities in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. The level of clinical activity of this treatment combination was not considered high enough to merit further testing in this setting.

10 Clinical Trial Second-line therapy after nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine or after gemcitabine for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. 2016

Chiorean, E Gabriela / Von Hoff, Daniel D / Tabernero, Josep / El-Maraghi, Robert / Ma, Wen Wee / Reni, Michele / Harris, Marion / Whorf, Robert / Liu, Helen / Li, Jack Shiansong / Manax, Victoria / Romano, Alfredo / Lu, Brian / Goldstein, David. ·Division Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, 825 Eastlake Avenue E, G4-833, Seattle, WA 98109-1023, USA. · Translational Genomics Research Institute and HonorHealth, 445 North Fifth Street, Suite 600, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA. · Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO), P Vall d'Hebron 119-129, Barcelona 08035, Spain. · Royal Victoria Hospital Barrie Canada, 201 Georgian Drive, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 6M2. · Roswell Park Cancer Institute, 665 Elm Street, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA. · San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgetina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy. · Monash Health, 246 Clayton Road, Melbourne VIC 3168, Australia. · Florida Cancer Specialists, 2401 60th Street Ct W, Bradenton, FL 34209-5500, USA. · Celgene Corporation, 86 Morris Avenue, Summit, NJ 07901, USA. · Department of Medical Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, South Sydney Illawarra, Barker Street, Sydney NSW 2031, Australia. ·Br J Cancer · Pubmed #27351217.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This exploratory analysis evaluated second-line (2L) therapy for metastatic pancreatic cancer in a large phase 3 trial (MPACT). METHODS: Patients who received first-line (1L) nab-paclitaxel+gemcitabine (nab-P+Gem) or Gem were assessed for survival based on 2L treatment received. Multivariate analyses tested influence of treatment effect and prognostic factors on survival. RESULTS: The majority of 2L treatments (267 out of 347, 77%) contained a fluoropyrimidine (5-fluorouracil or capecitabine). Median total survival (1L randomisation to death) for patients who received 2L treatment after 1L nab-P+Gem vs Gem alone was 12.8 vs 9.9 months (P=0.015). Median total survival for patients with a fluoropyrimidine-containing 2L therapy after nab-P+Gem vs Gem was 13.5 vs 9.5 months (P=0.012). Median 2L survival (duration from start of 2L therapy to death) was 5.3 vs 4.5 months for nab-P+Gem vs Gem, respectively (P=0.886). Factors significantly associated with longer post-1L survival by multivariate analyses included 1L nab-P+Gem, receiving 2L treatment, longer 1L progression-free survival, and Karnofsky performance status⩾70 and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio⩽5 at the end of 1L treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the use of 2L therapy for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Fluoropyrimidine-containing treatment after 1L nab-P+Gem is an active regimen with significant clinical effect.

11 Clinical Trial CA19-9 decrease at 8 weeks as a predictor of overall survival in a randomized phase III trial (MPACT) of weekly nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine alone in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. 2016

Chiorean, E G / Von Hoff, D D / Reni, M / Arena, F P / Infante, J R / Bathini, V G / Wood, T E / Mainwaring, P N / Muldoon, R T / Clingan, P R / Kunzmann, V / Ramanathan, R K / Tabernero, J / Goldstein, D / McGovern, D / Lu, B / Ko, A. ·Department of Medicine/Oncology, University of Washington, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle gchiorea@uw.edu. · HonorHealth and The Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), Scottsdale, USA. · Department of Radiation Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Department of Oncology, NYU Langone Arena Oncology, Lake Success. · Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Tennessee Oncology, PLLC, Nashville. · Cancer Center of Excellence, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester. · UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center, Birmingham, USA. · Mater Private Centre for Haematology & Oncology, South Brisbane, Australia. · Department of Oncology, Genesis Cancer Center, Hot Springs, USA. · Southern Medical Day Care Centre, Wollongong, Australia. · Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik II, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany. · Medical of Medical Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Institute of Oncology (VHIO), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia. · Celgene Corporation, Summit, USA. ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #26802160.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A phase I/II study and subsequent phase III study (MPACT) reported significant correlations between CA19-9 decreases and prolonged overall survival (OS) with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (nab-P + Gem) treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC). CA19-9 changes at week 8 and potential associations with efficacy were investigated as part of an exploratory analysis in the MPACT trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Untreated patients with MPC (N = 861) received nab-P + Gem or Gem alone. CA19-9 was evaluated at baseline and every 8 weeks. RESULTS: Patients with baseline and week-8 CA19-9 measurements were analyzed (nab-P + Gem: 252; Gem: 202). In an analysis pooling the treatments, patients with any CA19-9 decline (80%) versus those without (20%) had improved OS (median 11.1 versus 8.0 months; P = 0.005). In the nab-P + Gem arm, patients with (n = 206) versus without (n = 46) any CA19-9 decrease at week 8 had a confirmed overall response rate (ORR) of 40% versus 13%, and a median OS of 13.2 versus 8.3 months (P = 0.001), respectively. In the Gem-alone arm, patients with (n = 159) versus without (n = 43) CA19-9 decrease at week 8 had a confirmed ORR of 15% versus 5%, and a median OS of 9.4 versus 7.1 months (P = 0.404), respectively. In the nab-P + Gem and Gem-alone arms, by week 8, 16% (40/252) and 6% (13/202) of patients, respectively, had an unconfirmed radiologic response (median OS 13.7 and 14.7 months, respectively), and 79% and 84% of patients, respectively, had stable disease (SD) (median OS 11.1 and 9 months, respectively). Patients with SD and any CA19-9 decrease (158/199 and 133/170) had a median OS of 13.2 and 9.4 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: This analysis demonstrated that, in patients with MPC, any CA19-9 decrease at week 8 can be an early marker for chemotherapy efficacy, including in those patients with SD. CA19-9 decrease identified more patients with survival benefit than radiologic response by week 8.

12 Clinical Trial Prognostic factors of survival in a randomized phase III trial (MPACT) of weekly nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine alone in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. 2015

Tabernero, Josep / Chiorean, E Gabriela / Infante, Jeffrey R / Hingorani, Sunil R / Ganju, Vinod / Weekes, Colin / Scheithauer, Werner / Ramanathan, Ramesh K / Goldstein, David / Penenberg, Darryl N / Romano, Alfredo / Ferrara, Stefano / Von Hoff, Daniel D. ·Medical Oncology Department, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Institute of Oncology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Division of Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; Department of Oncology/Hematology, Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, Tennessee, USA; Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA; Department of Oncology, Peninsula Oncology Centre, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia; Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado, USA; Division of Clinical Oncology, Medizinische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria; Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA; Department of Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Celgene Corporation, Summit, New Jersey, USA; Department of Oncology, Virginia G. Piper Cancer Center at Scottsdale Healthcare/TGen, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA jtabernero@vhio.net. · Medical Oncology Department, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Institute of Oncology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Division of Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; Department of Oncology/Hematology, Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, Tennessee, USA; Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA; Department of Oncology, Peninsula Oncology Centre, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia; Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado, USA; Division of Clinical Oncology, Medizinische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria; Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA; Department of Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Celgene Corporation, Summit, New Jersey, USA; Department of Oncology, Virginia G. Piper Cancer Center at Scottsdale Healthcare/TGen, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA. ·Oncologist · Pubmed #25582141.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: nab-Paclitaxel in combination with gemcitabine has emerged as a new treatment option for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC), based on superiority over gemcitabine demonstrated in the phase III MPACT trial. Previously, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score and the presence of liver metastases were shown to be predictive of survival with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine treatment. This analysis sought to further explore the relationship between clinical characteristics and survival in the MPACT trial and to identify potential predictors of overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with MPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cox regression models adjusted for stratification factors and a stepwise multivariate analysis of prespecified baseline prognostic factors were performed. RESULTS: Treatment effect was significantly associated with survival, with a similar magnitude of reduction in risk of death compared with the previously reported primary analysis. Treatment effect consistently favored nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine across the majority of the prespecified factors. In addition to KPS score and presence of liver metastases, age and number of metastatic sites were independent prognostic factors of overall and progression-free survival. Baseline carbohydrate antigen 19-9 was not found to be an independent prognostic factor of survival in this analysis. CONCLUSION: The results of this analysis confirm broad utility of nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine for the treatment of MPC. In addition, these findings suggest that KPS score, presence of liver metastases, age, and number of metastatic sites are important predictors of survival that may be useful when making treatment decisions and designing future clinical trials.

13 Clinical Trial Randomized Phase II Trial of Gemcitabine Plus TH-302 Versus Gemcitabine in Patients With Advanced Pancreatic Cancer. 2015

Borad, Mitesh J / Reddy, Shantan G / Bahary, Nathan / Uronis, Hope E / Sigal, Darren / Cohn, Allen L / Schelman, William R / Stephenson, Joe / Chiorean, E Gabriela / Rosen, Peter J / Ulrich, Brian / Dragovich, Tomislav / Del Prete, Salvatore A / Rarick, Mark / Eng, Clarence / Kroll, Stew / Ryan, David P. ·Mitesh J. Borad, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale · Tomislav Dragovich, Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ · Shantan G. Reddy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport, Shreveport, LA · Nathan Bahary, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA · Hope E. Uronis, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC · Darren Sigal, Scripps Clinic, La Jolla · Peter J. Rosen, Disney Family Cancer Center, Burbank · Clarence Eng and Stew Kroll, Threshold Pharmaceuticals, South San Francisco, CA · Allen L. Cohn, Rocky Mountain Cancer Center, Denver, CO · William R. Schelman, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI · Joe Stephenson Jr, Institute for Translational Oncology Research, Greenville, SC · E. Gabriela Chiorean, Indiana University Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN · Brian Ulrich, Texas Oncology, Wichita Falls, TX · Salvatore A. Del Prete, Hematology Oncology PC, Stamford, CT · Mark Rarick, Kaiser Permanente Northwest Region Oncology Hematology, Portland, OR · and David P. Ryan, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA. ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #25512461.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: TH-302 is an investigational hypoxia-activated prodrug that releases the DNA alkylator bromo-isophosphoramide mustard in hypoxic settings. This phase II study (NCT01144455) evaluated gemcitabine plus TH-302 in patients with previously untreated, locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2)), gemcitabine plus TH-302 240 mg/m(2) (G+T240), or gemcitabine plus TH-302 340 mg/m(2) (G+T340). Randomized crossover after progression on gemcitabine was allowed. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), tumor response, CA 19-9 response, and safety. RESULTS: Two hundred fourteen patients (77% with metastatic disease) were enrolled between June 2010 and July 2011. PFS was significantly longer with gemcitabine plus TH-302 (pooled combination arms) compared with gemcitabine alone (median PFS, 5.6 v 3.6 months, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.87; P = .005; median PFS for metastatic disease, 5.1 v 3.4 months, respectively). Median PFS times for G+T240 and G+T340 were 5.6 and 6.0 months, respectively. Tumor response was 12%, 17%, and 26% in the gemcitabine, G+T240, and G+T340 arms, respectively (G+T340 v gemcitabine, P = .04). CA 19-9 decrease was greater with G+T340 versus gemcitabine (-5,398 v -549 U/mL, respectively; P = .008). Median OS times for gemcitabine, G+T240, and G+T340 were 6.9, 8.7, and 9.2 months, respectively (P = not significant). The most common adverse events (AEs) were fatigue, nausea, and peripheral edema (frequencies similar across arms). Skin and mucosal toxicities (2% grade 3) and myelosuppression (55% grade 3 or 4) were the most common TH-302-related AEs but were not associated with treatment discontinuation. CONCLUSION: PFS, tumor response, and CA 19-9 response were significantly improved with G+TH-302. G+T340 is being investigated further in the phase III MAESTRO study (NCT01746979).

14 Clinical Trial Phase 1 pharmacogenetic and pharmacodynamic study of sorafenib with concurrent radiation therapy and gemcitabine in locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer. 2014

Chiorean, E Gabriela / Schneider, Bryan P / Akisik, Fatih M / Perkins, Susan M / Anderson, Stephen / Johnson, Cynthia S / DeWitt, John / Helft, Paul / Clark, Romnee / Johnston, Erica L / Spittler, A John / Deluca, Jill / Bu, Guixue / Shahda, Safi / Loehrer, Patrick J / Sandrasegaran, Kumar / Cardenes, Higinia R. ·Department of Medicine, Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, Indiana; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Electronic address: gchiorea@uw.edu. · Department of Medicine, Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, Indiana. · Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana. · Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana. · Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, Indiana. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana. ·Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys · Pubmed #24726286.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To define the safety, efficacy, and pharmacogenetic and pharmacodynamic effects of sorafenib with gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced pancreatic cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients received gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) intravenously weekly × 3 every 4 weeks per cycle for 1 cycle before CRT and continued for up to 4 cycles after CRT. Weekly gemcitabine 600 mg/m(2) intravenously was given during concurrent intensity modulated radiation therapy of 50 Gy to gross tumor volume in 25 fractions. Sorafenib was dosed orally 400 mg twice daily until progression, except during CRT when it was escalated from 200 mg to 400 mg daily, and 400 mg twice daily. The maximum tolerated dose cohort was expanded to 15 patients. Correlative studies included dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and angiogenesis genes polymorphisms (VEGF-A and VEGF-R2 single nucleotide polymorphisms). RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicity occurred during induction gemcitabine/sorafenib followed by concurrent CRT. The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were fatigue, hematologic, and gastrointestinal. The maximum tolerated dose was sorafenib 400 mg twice daily. The median progression-free survival and overall survival for 25 evaluable patients were 10.6 and 12.6 months, respectively. The median overall survival for patients with VEGF-A -2578 AA, -1498 CC, and -1154 AA versus alternate genotypes was 21.6 versus 14.7 months. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI demonstrated higher baseline K(trans) in responding patients. CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent sorafenib with CRT had modest clinical activity with increased gastrointestinal toxicity in localized unresectable pancreatic cancer. Select VEGF-A/VEGF-R2 genotypes were associated with favorable survival.

15 Clinical Trial Increased survival in pancreatic cancer with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine. 2013

Von Hoff, Daniel D / Ervin, Thomas / Arena, Francis P / Chiorean, E Gabriela / Infante, Jeffrey / Moore, Malcolm / Seay, Thomas / Tjulandin, Sergei A / Ma, Wen Wee / Saleh, Mansoor N / Harris, Marion / Reni, Michele / Dowden, Scot / Laheru, Daniel / Bahary, Nathan / Ramanathan, Ramesh K / Tabernero, Josep / Hidalgo, Manuel / Goldstein, David / Van Cutsem, Eric / Wei, Xinyu / Iglesias, Jose / Renschler, Markus F. ·From the Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, and Virginia G. Piper Cancer Center, Scottsdale - both in Arizona (D.D.V.H., R.K.R.) · Cancer Specialists, Fort Myers, FL (T.E.) · Arena Oncology Associates, Lake Success (F.P.A.), and Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo (W.W.M.) - both in New York · University of Washington, Seattle (E.G.C.) · Sarah Cannon Research Institute-Tennessee Oncology, Nashville (J. Infante) · Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (M.M.) · Atlanta Cancer Care (T.S.) and Georgia Cancer Specialists (M.N.S.) - both in Atlanta · Blokhin Cancer Research Center, Moscow (S.A.T.) · Southern Health, East Bentleigh, VIC (M.H.), Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney (D.G.), and Bionomics, Thebarton, SA (J. Iglesias) - all in Australia · San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (M.R.) · Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada (S.D.) · Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore (D.L.) · University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh (N.B.) · Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (J.T.) · Centro Integral Oncológico Clara Campal, Madrid (M.H.) · University Hospitals Leuven and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium (E.V.C.) · and Celgene, Summit, NJ (X.W., M.F.R.). ·N Engl J Med · Pubmed #24131140.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In a phase 1-2 trial of albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) plus gemcitabine, substantial clinical activity was noted in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. We conducted a phase 3 study of the efficacy and safety of the combination versus gemcitabine monotherapy in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with a Karnofsky performance-status score of 70 or more (on a scale from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better performance status) to nab-paclitaxel (125 mg per square meter of body-surface area) followed by gemcitabine (1000 mg per square meter) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks or gemcitabine monotherapy (1000 mg per square meter) weekly for 7 of 8 weeks (cycle 1) and then on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks (cycle 2 and subsequent cycles). Patients received the study treatment until disease progression. The primary end point was overall survival; secondary end points were progression-free survival and overall response rate. RESULTS: A total of 861 patients were randomly assigned to nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (431 patients) or gemcitabine (430). The median overall survival was 8.5 months in the nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine group as compared with 6.7 months in the gemcitabine group (hazard ratio for death, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 0.83; P<0.001). The survival rate was 35% in the nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine group versus 22% in the gemcitabine group at 1 year, and 9% versus 4% at 2 years. The median progression-free survival was 5.5 months in the nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine group, as compared with 3.7 months in the gemcitabine group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.82; P<0.001); the response rate according to independent review was 23% versus 7% in the two groups (P<0.001). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were neutropenia (38% in the nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine group vs. 27% in the gemcitabine group), fatigue (17% vs. 7%), and neuropathy (17% vs. 1%). Febrile neutropenia occurred in 3% versus 1% of the patients in the two groups. In the nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine group, neuropathy of grade 3 or higher improved to grade 1 or lower in a median of 29 days. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine significantly improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and response rate, but rates of peripheral neuropathy and myelosuppression were increased. (Funded by Celgene; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00844649.).

16 Clinical Trial A phase I study of an agonist CD40 monoclonal antibody (CP-870,893) in combination with gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. 2013

Beatty, Gregory L / Torigian, Drew A / Chiorean, E Gabriela / Saboury, Babak / Brothers, Alex / Alavi, Abass / Troxel, Andrea B / Sun, Weijing / Teitelbaum, Ursina R / Vonderheide, Robert H / O'Dwyer, Peter J. ·Abramson Cancer Center; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. · Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine. · Department of Radiology. · University of Washington, Seattle, WA. · Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology. · University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA. · Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute. ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #23983255.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This phase I study investigated the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacodynamics, immunologic correlatives, and antitumor activity of CP-870,893, an agonist CD40 antibody, when administered in combination with gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Twenty-two patients with chemotherapy-naïve advanced PDA were treated with 1,000 mg/m(2) gemcitabine once weekly for three weeks with infusion of CP-870,893 at 0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg on day three of each 28-day cycle. RESULTS: CP-870,893 was well-tolerated; one dose-limiting toxicity (grade 4, cerebrovascular accident) occurred at the 0.2 mg/kg dose level, which was estimated as the MTD. The most common adverse event was cytokine release syndrome (grade 1 to 2). CP-870,893 infusion triggered immune activation marked by an increase in inflammatory cytokines, an increase in B-cell expression of costimulatory molecules, and a transient depletion of B cells. Four patients achieved a partial response (PR). 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) showed more than 25% decrease in FDG uptake within primary pancreatic lesions in six of eight patients; however, responses observed in metastatic lesions were heterogeneous, with some lesions responding with complete loss of FDG uptake, whereas other lesions in the same patient failed to respond. Improved overall survival correlated with a decrease in FDG uptake in hepatic lesions (R = -0.929; P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: CP-870,893 in combination with gemcitabine was well-tolerated and associated with antitumor activity in patients with PDA. Changes in FDG uptake detected on PET/CT imaging provide insight into therapeutic benefit. Phase II studies are warranted.

17 Clinical Trial Addition of algenpantucel-L immunotherapy to standard adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer: a phase 2 study. 2013

Hardacre, Jeffrey M / Mulcahy, Mary / Small, William / Talamonti, Mark / Obel, Jennifer / Krishnamurthi, Smitha / Rocha-Lima, Caio S / Safran, Howard / Lenz, Heinz-Joseph / Chiorean, E Gabriela. ·Department of Surgery, University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center and Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. jeffrey.hardacre@UHhospitals.org ·J Gastrointest Surg · Pubmed #23229886.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite continued investigation, limited progress has been made in the adjuvant treatment of resected pancreatic cancer. Novel or targeted therapies are needed. METHODS: Multi-institutional, open-label, dose-finding, phase 2 trial evaluating the use of algenpantucel-L (NewLink Genetics Corporation, Ames, IA) immunotherapy in addition to chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy in the adjuvant setting for resected pancreatic cancer (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00569387). The primary outcome was 12-month disease-free survival. Secondary outcomes included overall survival and toxicity. RESULTS: Seventy patients were treated with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy as well as algenpantucel-L (mean 12 doses, range 1-14). After a median follow-up of 21 months, the 12-month disease-free survival was 62 %, and the 12-month overall survival was 86 %. The most common adverse events were injection site pain and induration. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of algenpantucel-L to standard adjuvant therapy for resected pancreatic cancer may improve survival. A multi-institutional, phase 3 study is ongoing (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01072981).

18 Clinical Trial CD40 agonists alter tumor stroma and show efficacy against pancreatic carcinoma in mice and humans. 2011

Beatty, Gregory L / Chiorean, Elena G / Fishman, Matthew P / Saboury, Babak / Teitelbaum, Ursina R / Sun, Weijing / Huhn, Richard D / Song, Wenru / Li, Dongguang / Sharp, Leslie L / Torigian, Drew A / O'Dwyer, Peter J / Vonderheide, Robert H. ·Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 421 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ·Science · Pubmed #21436454.

ABSTRACT: Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments can restrain antitumor immunity, particularly in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Because CD40 activation can reverse immune suppression and drive antitumor T cell responses, we tested the combination of an agonist CD40 antibody with gemcitabine chemotherapy in a small cohort of patients with surgically incurable PDA and observed tumor regressions in some patients. We reproduced this treatment effect in a genetically engineered mouse model of PDA and found unexpectedly that tumor regression required macrophages but not T cells or gemcitabine. CD40-activated macrophages rapidly infiltrated tumors, became tumoricidal, and facilitated the depletion of tumor stroma. Thus, cancer immune surveillance does not necessarily depend on therapy-induced T cells; rather, our findings demonstrate a CD40-dependent mechanism for targeting tumor stroma in the treatment of cancer.

19 Clinical Trial A phase II study of gemcitabine in combination with radiation therapy in patients with localized, unresectable, pancreatic cancer: a Hoosier Oncology Group study. 2011

Cardenes, Higinia R / Moore, Annette M / Johnson, Cynthia S / Yu, Menggang / Helft, Paul / Chiorean, Elena G / Vinson, Jacob / Howard, Thomas J / Stephens, Anthony W / Tai, D Fritz / Loehrer, Patrick J. ·Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, USA. hcardene@iupui.edu ·Am J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #20881474.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: A Phase II study was conducted at Indiana University to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined weekly Gemcitabine (GEM) with external beam radiotherapy (RT) in unresectable, locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). METHODS: Eligible patients had biopsy-proven LAPC without evidence of metastatic disease. In part A of the treatment plan, patients received GEM 600 mg/m(2) IV weekly, with concurrent RT (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions, 1.8 Gy/d, 5 days per week). Part B of the treatment plan began approximately 4 weeks after completing part A: patients without disease progression received weekly GEM 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle for 6 cycles or until disease progression. RESULTS: From April 2001 to June 2003, of 28 patients evaluated, 24 (86%) completed part A. About 22 patients had grade 3 toxicities, primarily hematologic (43%) and gastrointestinal (36%). Three patients (11%) had grade 4 toxicities (one each for hyperbilirubinemia, infection, and dyspnea). The median follow-up was 10 months (1-63 months) for all enrolled patients. Six patients (21%) had a radiologic partial response, 16 (57%) had stable disease, 5 (18%) had progressive disease, and 1 patient (4%) had an unevaluable response at last follow-up. Four patients (14%) underwent surgical resection (2 with R0 resection). Median time to progression was 6 months (0-36 months). Median survival time was 10.3 months (95% confidence interval, 7.9-14.6 months). The 1- and 2-year actuarial survival rates were 30% and 11%. At last analysis, all but 2 patients died. CONCLUSION: The activity and toxicity profile of combination GEM and RT indicates that this can be safely administered for patients with LAPC.

20 Clinical Trial Pancreatic cancer: utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in assessment of antiangiogenic therapy. 2010

Akisik, M Fatih / Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan / Bu, Guixue / Lin, Chen / Hutchins, Gary D / Chiorean, Elena G. ·Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 550 N University Blvd, Room 0279, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. makisik@iupui.edu ·Radiology · Pubmed #20515976.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate the utility of dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in predicting the response of locally advanced pancreatic cancer to combined chemotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study with informed consent assessed dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in 11 patients (mean age, 54.3 years; six men and five women) with locally invasive pancreatic cancer before and 28 days after combined chemotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy. Axial perfusion images were obtained after injection of 0.1 mmol gadopentetate dimeglumine per kilogram of body weight. Sagittal images of the upper abdominal aorta were obtained for arterial input function calculation. A two-compartment kinetic model was used to calculate the perfusion parameters K(trans) (the rate constant that represents transfer of contrast agent from the arterial blood into the extravascular extracellular space), K(ep) (the rate constant that represents transfer of contrast agent from the extravascular extracellular space to the blood plasma), and volume of distribution (v(e)). Semiquantitative measurements, peak tissue gadolinium concentration (C(peak)), maximum slope of gadolinium increase (slope), and area under the gadolinium curve at 60 seconds (AUC(60)) were also calculated. Perfusion parameters and tumor size changes were correlated with carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels. Comparisons between pre- and posttreatment studies were performed by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, and comparisons between responders and nonresponders were performed by using the Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: After therapy, K(trans), v(e), C(peak), slope, and AUC(60) decreased significantly (P = .02, .001, .002, .007, and .01, respectively). Tumor size and K(ep) were not significantly changed. Pretreatment K(trans) and K(ep) were significantly higher (P = .02 and .006, respectively) in tumors that showed marker response than in those that did not. A pretreatment K(trans) value (milliliters of blood per milliliter of tissue times minutes) of more than 0.78 mL/mL . min was 100% sensitive and 71% specific for subsequent tumor response. Semiquantative parameters and tumor size were not different between the groups. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment K(trans) measurement in pancreatic tumors can predict response to antiangiogenic therapy. All perfusion parameters showed substantial reduction after 28 days of combined chemotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy.

21 Clinical Trial A phase 2 trial of glufosfamide in combination with gemcitabine in chemotherapy-naive pancreatic adenocarcinoma. 2010

Chiorean, Elena G / Dragovich, Tomislav / Hamm, John / Barrios, Carlos H / Gorini, Carlos F / Langmuir, Virginia K / Kroll, Stewart / Jung, Donald T / Tidmarsh, George T / Loehrer, Patrick J. ·Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. gchiorea@iupui.edu ·Am J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #19687729.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: A dose-escalation study of glufosfamide plus gemcitabine showed that the combination could be administered safely at full doses. The purpose of this phase II study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this combination in chemotherapy-naive pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Eligible patients had metastatic and/or locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma, Karnofsky performance status >or=70, creatinine clearance (CrCL) >or=60 mL/min, and acceptable organ function. Patients received glufosfamide 4500 mg/m intravenous on day 1 and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m intravenous on Days 1, 8, and 15 of every 28-day cycle. The primary end point was response rate. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients were enrolled; 14 male, median age 58 years. Twenty-three (79%) patients had distant metastases. Median cycles on treatment was 4 (range: 1-18+). Of 28, 5 (18%; 95% CI: 6%-37%) patients had a confirmed partial response (median duration: 8.4 months) and 1 had an unconfirmed partial response. Eleven patients (39%) had stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 3.7 months, median overall survival was 6 months, and 1-year survival was 32%. Grade 3/4 neutropenia occurred in 23 (79%) patients and grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia in 10 (34%) patients. The CrCL fell below 60 mL/min in 10 of 27 (37%) patients. Renal failure occurred in 4 patients. Decrease in CrCL was correlated with glufosfamide and isophosphoramide mustard pharmacokinetic area under the curve. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of glufosfamide plus gemcitabine is active in pancreatic cancer; however, hematologic and renal toxicity were pronounced. Alternative dosing of glufosfamide plus gemcitabine should be explored.

22 Article The role of GLI-SOX2 signaling axis for gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer. 2019

Jia, Yanfei / Gu, Dongsheng / Wan, Jun / Yu, Beiqin / Zhang, Xiaoli / Chiorean, E Gabriela / Wang, Yunshan / Xie, Jingwu. ·Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China. · Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University school of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA. · Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, Indiana University Simon Cancer Center, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA. · Shanghai Key Laboratory of Gastric Neoplasms, Shanghai Institute of Digestive Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, China. · Division of Medical Oncology, University of Washington, and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 825 Eastlake Ave E, G4-833, Seattle, WA, 98109-1023, USA. · Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China. w_yunshan@126.com. · Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University school of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA. jinxie@iu.edu. ·Oncogene · Pubmed #30382189.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer, mostly pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC), is one of the most lethal cancers, with a dismal median survival around 8 months. PDAC is notoriously resistant to chemotherapy. Thus far, numerous attempts using novel targeted therapies and immunotherapies yielded limited clinical benefits for pancreatic cancer patients. It is hoped that delineating the molecular mechanisms underlying drug resistance in pancreatic cancer may provide novel therapeutic options. Using acquired gemcitabine resistant pancreatic cell lines, we revealed an important role of the GLI-SOX2 signaling axis for regulation of gemcitabine sensitivity in vitro and in animal models. Down-regulation of GLI transcriptional factors (GLI1 or GLI2), but not SMO signaling inhibition, reduces tumor sphere formation, a characteristics of tumor initiating cell (TIC). Down-regulation of GLI transcription factors also decreased expression of TIC marker CD24. Similarly, high SOX2 expression is associated with gemcitabine resistance whereas down-regulation of SOX2 sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine treatment. We further revealed that elevated SOX2 expression is associated with an increase in GLI1 or GLI2 expression. Our ChIP assay revealed that GLI proteins are associated with a putative Gli binding site within the SOX2 promoter, suggesting a more direct regulation of SOX2 by GLI transcription factors. The relevance of our findings to human disease was revealed in human cancer specimens. We found that high SOX2 protein expression is associated with frequent tumor relapse and poor survival in stage II PDAC patients (all of them underwent gemcitabine treatment), indicating that reduced SOX2 expression or down-regulation of GLI transcription factors may be effective in sensitizing pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine treatment.

23 Article Adjuvant Gemcitabine and Gemcitabine-based Chemoradiotherapy Versus Gemcitabine Alone After Pancreatic Cancer Resection: The Indiana University Experience. 2017

Khawaja, Muhammad R / Kleyman, Svetlana / Yu, Zhangsheng / Howard, Thomas / Burns, Matthew / Nakeeb, Attila / Loehrer, Patrick J / Cardenes, Higinia R / Chiorean, Elena Gabriela. ·*Division of Hematology/Oncology Departments of †Biostatistics ‡Surgery §Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN ∥Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. ·Am J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #25121637.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Adjuvant therapy after surgical resection is the current standard for pancreatic adenocarcinoma; however, the role of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) remains unclear. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy outcomes with adjuvant gemcitabine and gemcitabine-based CRT (CT-CRT) versus gemcitabine chemotherapy (CT) alone after pancreaticoduodenectomy. METHODS: Among 165 patients who underwent surgical resection for pancreatic cancer at Indiana University Medical Center between 2004 and 2008, we retrospectively identified 53 consecutive patients who received adjuvant therapy (CT-CRT=34 patients; CT=19 patients) and had adequate follow-up medical records. The median follow-up was 19.1 months. Median disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined using Kaplan-Meier method, and a Cox-regression model was used to compare survival outcomes after adjusting for age, status of resection margins, and lymph node involvement. RESULTS: The OS for the CT-CRT group was significantly higher compared with the CT group (median, 20.4 vs. 16.6 mo; hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.17-5.01). The median DFS for the CT-CRT group was 13.7 versus 11.1 months for the CT group (hazard ratio, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.37-6.06). On subgroup analyses, significantly superior OS and DFS were observed among patients younger than 65 years, T3/T4 tumor stage, negative resection margins, and positive lymph node involvement. CONCLUSION: Gemcitabine plus gemcitabine-based CRT compared with gemcitabine alone leads to superior DFS and OS for patients with resected pancreatic cancer.

24 Article Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, version 2.2014: featured updates to the NCCN guidelines. 2014

Tempero, Margaret A / Malafa, Mokenge P / Behrman, Stephen W / Benson, Al B / Casper, Ephraim S / Chiorean, E Gabriela / Chung, Vincent / Cohen, Steven J / Czito, Brian / Engebretson, Anitra / Feng, Mary / Hawkins, William G / Herman, Joseph / Hoffman, John P / Ko, Andrew / Komanduri, Srinadh / Koong, Albert / Lowy, Andrew M / Ma, Wen Wee / Merchant, Nipun B / Mulvihill, Sean J / Muscarella, Peter / Nakakura, Eric K / Obando, Jorge / Pitman, Martha B / Reddy, Sushanth / Sasson, Aaron R / Thayer, Sarah P / Weekes, Colin D / Wolff, Robert A / Wolpin, Brian M / Burns, Jennifer L / Freedman-Cass, Deborah A. ·From UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center; Moffitt Cancer Center; St. Jude Children's Research Hospital/The University of Tennessee Health Science Center; Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University; Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/Seattle Cancer Care Alliance; City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center; Fox Chase Cancer Center; Duke Cancer Institute; Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN); University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center; Siteman Cancer Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine; The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins; Stanford Cancer Institute; UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center; Roswell Park Cancer Institute; Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center; Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah; The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute; Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center; University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center; Fred & Pamela Buffett Cancer Center at The Nebraska Medical Center; University of Colorado Cancer Center; The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center; Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center; and National Comprehensive Cancer Network. ·J Natl Compr Canc Netw · Pubmed #25099441.

ABSTRACT: The NCCN Guidelines for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma discuss the diagnosis and management of adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas and are intended to assist with clinical decision-making. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize major discussion points from the 2014 NCCN Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Panel meeting. The panel discussion focused mainly on the management of borderline resectable and locally advanced disease. In particular, the panel discussed the definition of borderline resectable disease, role of neoadjuvant therapy in borderline disease, role of chemoradiation in locally advanced disease, and potential role of newer, more active chemotherapy regimens in both settings.

25 Article Contribution of environment and genetics to pancreatic cancer susceptibility. 2014

Hocevar, Barbara A / Kamendulis, Lisa M / Pu, Xinzhu / Perkins, Susan M / Wang, Zheng-Yu / Johnston, Erica L / DeWitt, John M / Li, Lang / Loehrer, Patrick J / Klaunig, James E / Chiorean, E Gabriela. ·Department of Environmental Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America; Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America. · Department of Environmental Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America. · Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America; Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America. · Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America. · Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America. · Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America; University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #24651674.

ABSTRACT: Several risk factors have been identified as potential contributors to pancreatic cancer development, including environmental and lifestyle factors, such as smoking, drinking and diet, and medical conditions such as diabetes and pancreatitis, all of which generate oxidative stress and DNA damage. Oxidative stress status can be modified by environmental factors and also by an individual's unique genetic makeup. Here we examined the contribution of environment and genetics to an individual's level of oxidative stress, DNA damage and susceptibility to pancreatic cancer in a pilot study using three groups of subjects: a newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer group, a healthy genetically-unrelated control group living with the case subject, and a healthy genetically-related control group which does not reside with the subject. Oxidative stress and DNA damage was evaluated by measuring total antioxidant capacity, direct and oxidative DNA damage by Comet assay, and malondialdehyde levels. Direct DNA damage was significantly elevated in pancreatic cancer patients (age and sex adjusted mean ± standard error: 1.00 ± 0.05) versus both healthy unrelated and related controls (0.70 ± 0.06, p<0.001 and 0.82 ± 0.07, p = 0.046, respectively). Analysis of 22 selected SNPs in oxidative stress and DNA damage genes revealed that CYP2A6 L160H was associated with pancreatic cancer. In addition, DNA damage was found to be associated with TNFA -308G>A and ERCC4 R415Q polymorphisms. These results suggest that measurement of DNA damage, as well as select SNPs, may provide an important screening tool to identify individuals at risk for development of pancreatic cancer.

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