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Pancreatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by Cristina Bosetti
Based on 30 articles published since 2009
(Why 30 articles?)
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Between 2009 and 2019, C. Bosetti wrote the following 30 articles about Pancreatic Neoplasms.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2
1 Article Strong excess risk of pancreatic cancer for low frequency and duration of cigarette smoking: A comprehensive review and meta-analysis. 2018

Lugo, Alessandra / Peveri, Giulia / Bosetti, Cristina / Bagnardi, Vincenzo / Crippa, Alessio / Orsini, Nicola / Rota, Matteo / Gallus, Silvano. ·Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy. · Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy; Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Brescia, Italy. · Department of Oncology, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy. · Department of Statistics and Quantitative Methods, Università Degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy. · Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. · Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. · Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università Degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. · Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: silvano.gallus@marionegri.it. ·Eur J Cancer · Pubmed #30347287.

ABSTRACT: AIM: Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer but an updated quantification of the association is lacking. Our aim is to provide the most accurate and updated estimate of the dose-response relationships between cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer risk. METHODS: Using an innovative approach for the identification of original publications, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies published on the issue up to April 2017. Random effects models were used to provide pooled estimates for the cigarette smoking status; dose-risk relationships were evaluated using one-stage random effects models with restricted cubic splines. RESULTS: Seventy-eight studies were included, providing a pooled relative risk (RR) of pancreatic cancer of 1.8 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.7-1.9) for the current and 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1-1.2) for the former vs. never smokers. A sharp increase in pancreatic cancer risk was found already with a low number of cigarettes and up to 30 cigarettes/day (RR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.9-2.4). Similarly, the risk of pancreatic cancer steady increased after a few years of smoking up to 30 years (RR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.6-2.0). The risk rapidly decreased with increasing time since quitting and was 0.6 (95% CI: 0.5-0.7, for the former vs. current smokers) after 20 years of quitting. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis indicates that pancreatic cancer risk sharply increases with a low number of cigarettes or after a few years of smoking and that it rapidly decreases a few years after cessation, although it takes almost 20 years to reach that of never smokers.

2 Article The Association of Recently Diagnosed Diabetes and Long-term Diabetes With Survival in Pancreatic Cancer Patients: A Pooled Analysis. 2018

Jeon, Christie Y / Li, Donghui / Cleary, Sean / Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael / Bosetti, Cristina / La Vecchia, Carlo / Porta, Miquel / Toriola, Adetunji T / Hung, Rayjean J / Kurtz, Robert C / Olson, Sara H. · ·Pancreas · Pubmed #29401167.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether long-standing diabetes or new-onset pancreatogenic diabetes contributes to poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: We investigated the influence of diabetes diagnosed shortly before PDAC and long-term diabetes on overall survival in 2792 PDAC patients who had participated in 3 PDAC case-control studies in the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium. There were 300 patients with long-term diabetes of more than 3 years' duration (11%) and 418 patients with recently diagnosed diabetes of 3-year duration or less (15%). We performed Cox regression to determine the association of long-term diabetes and recently diagnosed diabetes with overall survival, adjusting for study site, age, sex, race, stage of disease, surgery, chemotherapy, smoking history, and body mass index at diagnosis. RESULTS: In the overall population, neither long-term diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-1.26) nor recently diagnosed diabetes (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.94-1.18) was associated with shorter survival. When stratified by stage of disease, long-term diabetes was associated with 42% increase in rate of death in persons with resectable PDAC (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.13-1.78), whereas it was not associated with survival in PDAC patients with more advanced disease. CONCLUSION: Long-term diabetes was associated with increased rate of death in patients with resectable PDAC.

3 Article A systems approach identifies time-dependent associations of multimorbidities with pancreatic cancer risk. 2017

Gomez-Rubio, P / Rosato, V / Márquez, M / Bosetti, C / Molina-Montes, E / Rava, M / Piñero, J / Michalski, C W / Farré, A / Molero, X / Löhr, M / Ilzarbe, L / Perea, J / Greenhalf, W / O'Rorke, M / Tardón, A / Gress, T / Barberá, V M / Crnogorac-Jurcevic, T / Muñoz-Bellvís, L / Domínguez-Muñoz, E / Gutiérrez-Sacristán, A / Balsells, J / Costello, E / Guillén-Ponce, C / Huang, J / Iglesias, M / Kleeff, J / Kong, B / Mora, J / Murray, L / O'Driscoll, D / Peláez, P / Poves, I / Lawlor, R T / Carrato, A / Hidalgo, M / Scarpa, A / Sharp, L / Furlong, L I / Real, F X / La Vecchia, C / Malats, N / Anonymous4870902. ·Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO), Madrid, and CIBERONC, Spain. · Branch of Medical Statistics, Biometry and Epidemiology "G.A. Maccacaro," Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan. · Unit of Medical Statistics, Biometry and Bioinformatics, National Cancer Institute, IRCCS Foundation, Milan. · Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research-IRCCS, Milan, Italy. · Research Programme on Biomedical Informatics (GRIB), Hospital del Mar Research Institute (IMIM), Pompeu Fabra Univeristy (UPF), Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Surgery, Technical University of Munich, Munich. · Department of Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Gastroenterology, Santa Creu i Sant Pau Hospital, Barcelona. · Exocrine Pancreas Research Unit and Vall d'Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona. · Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona. · Network of Biomedical Research Centres (CIBER), Hepatic and Digestive Diseases and Epidemiology and Public Health, Madrid, Spain. · Gastrocentrum, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. · Department of Gastroenterology, Parc de Salut Mar University Hospital, Barcelona. · Department of Surgery, 12 de Octubre University Hospital, Madrid, Spain. · Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, The Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool. · Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK. · Department of Medicine, University Institute of Oncology of Asturias, Oviedo, Spain. · Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital of Giessen and Marburg, Marburg, Germany. · Molecular Genetics Laboratory, General University Hospital of Elche, Elche, Spain. · Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, John Vane Science Centre, London, UK. · General and Digestive Surgery Department, Salamanca University Hospital, Salamanca. · Department of Gastroenterology, Clinical University Hospital of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela. · Department of Oncology, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Madrid, and CIBERONC, Spain. · Research Programme, National Cancer Registry Ireland. · ARC-Net Centre for Applied Research on Cancer and Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital trust of Verona, Verona, Italy. · Clara Campal Integrated Oncological Centre, Sanchinarro Hospital, Madrid, Spain. · Institute of Health & Society, Newcastle University, UK. · Epithelial Carcinogenesis Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, and CIBERONC. · Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain. ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #28383714.

ABSTRACT: Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is usually diagnosed in late adulthood; therefore, many patients suffer or have suffered from other diseases. Identifying disease patterns associated with PDAC risk may enable a better characterization of high-risk patients. Methods: Multimorbidity patterns (MPs) were assessed from 17 self-reported conditions using hierarchical clustering, principal component, and factor analyses in 1705 PDAC cases and 1084 controls from a European population. Their association with PDAC was evaluated using adjusted logistic regression models. Time since diagnosis of morbidities to PDAC diagnosis/recruitment was stratified into recent (<3 years) and long term (≥3 years). The MPs and PDAC genetic networks were explored with DisGeNET bioinformatics-tool which focuses on gene-diseases associations available in curated databases. Results: Three MPs were observed: gastric (heartburn, acid regurgitation, Helicobacter pylori infection, and ulcer), metabolic syndrome (obesity, type-2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension), and atopic (nasal allergies, skin allergies, and asthma). Strong associations with PDAC were observed for ≥2 recently diagnosed gastric conditions [odds ratio (OR), 6.13; 95% confidence interval CI 3.01-12.5)] and for ≥3 recently diagnosed metabolic syndrome conditions (OR, 1.61; 95% CI 1.11-2.35). Atopic conditions were negatively associated with PDAC (high adherence score OR for tertile III, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.36-0.55). Combining type-2 diabetes with gastric MP resulted in higher PDAC risk for recent (OR, 7.89; 95% CI 3.9-16.1) and long-term diagnosed conditions (OR, 1.86; 95% CI 1.29-2.67). A common genetic basis between MPs and PDAC was observed in the bioinformatics analysis. Conclusions: Specific multimorbidities aggregate and associate with PDAC in a time-dependent manner. A better characterization of a high-risk population for PDAC may help in the early diagnosis of this cancer. The common genetic basis between MP and PDAC points to a mechanistic link between these conditions.

4 Article Dietary acrylamide and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). 2017

Pelucchi, C / Rosato, V / Bracci, P M / Li, D / Neale, R E / Lucenteforte, E / Serraino, D / Anderson, K E / Fontham, E / Holly, E A / Hassan, M M / Polesel, J / Bosetti, C / Strayer, L / Su, J / Boffetta, P / Duell, E J / La Vecchia, C. ·Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan. · Unit of Medical Statistics, Biometry and Bioinformatics, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco. · Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, USA. · Population Health Department, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia. · Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Drug Research and Children's Health, University of Florence, Florence. · Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, CRO Aviano National Cancer Institute, Aviano (PN), Italy. · School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. · Department of Epidemiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center School of Public Health, New Orleans, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy. · Department of Epidemiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock. · The Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA. · Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain. ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #27836886.

ABSTRACT: Background: Occupational exposure to acrylamide was associated with excess mortality from pancreatic cancer, though in the absence of dose-risk relationship. Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between acrylamide from diet and pancreatic cancer risk. Patients and methods: We considered this issue in a combined set of 1975 cases of pancreatic cancer and 4239 controls enrolled in six studies of the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) by estimating study-specific ORs through multivariate unconditional logistic regression models and pooling the obtained estimates using random-effects models. Results: Compared with the lowest level of estimated dietary acrylamide intake, the pooled ORs were 0.97 (95% CI, 0.79-1.19) for the second, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.71-1.16) for the third, and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.66-1.28) for the fourth (highest) quartile of intake. For an increase of 10 µg/day of acrylamide intake, the pooled OR was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.87-1.06), with heterogeneity between estimates (I2 = 67%). Results were similar across various subgroups, and were confirmed when using a one-stage modelling approach. Conclusions: This PanC4 pooled-analysis found no association between dietary acrylamide and pancreatic cancer.

5 Article Global Trends in Pancreatic Cancer Mortality From 1980 Through 2013 and Predictions for 2017. 2016

Lucas, Aimee L / Malvezzi, Matteo / Carioli, Greta / Negri, Eva / La Vecchia, Carlo / Boffetta, Paolo / Bosetti, Cristina. ·Henry D. Janowitz Division of Gastroenterology, Samuel Bronfman Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. Electronic address: aimee.lucas@mssm.edu. · Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Milan, Italy. · Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. · Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Milan, Italy. · Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. ·Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol · Pubmed #27266982.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality, and its mortality has not decreased in recent years. We sought to determine global trends in pancreatic cancer mortality. METHODS: We derived data on deaths from pancreatic cancer from the World Health Organization database for 59 countries from 1980 through 2013. Age-standardized mortalities were computed for persons of all ages and for persons 35-64 years old; for selected countries, they were computed for persons 25-49 years old. Joinpoint regression models were used to identify significant changes in mortality. For selected larger countries, we predicted number of deaths and mortality for 2017. RESULTS: Between 1980 and 2013, overall pancreatic cancer mortality in men increased in the European Union (EU) as well as in Southern and Eastern Europe, Brazil, Japan, and Republic of Korea. Overall pancreatic cancer mortality decreased in most Northern European countries, Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the United States (US). In women, mortality increased in the EU, Brazil, US, Japan, and Republic of Korea but decreased in Canada and Mexico. In 2012, Eastern Europe and Japan had the highest pancreatic cancer mortality for both sexes. In men 25-49 years old, mortality decreased in the EU, US, Japan, and most large European countries. On the basis of our data, we predict overall pancreatic cancer mortality in 2017 to level off in men in the EU and US but increase in Japan. In women, mortality will continue to increase in most countries except the US; the greatest increase is predicted to occur in Japan. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality from pancreatic cancer has not decreased as it has for other cancers in recent years. A notable exception is a decrease in mortality in men 25-49 years old, which could indicate a reversal in the current increasing global trends.

6 Article Dietary total antioxidant capacity and pancreatic cancer risk: an Italian case-control study. 2016

Lucas, Aimee L / Bosetti, Cristina / Boffetta, Paolo / Negri, Eva / Tavani, Alessandra / Serafini, Mauro / Polesel, Jerry / Serraino, Diego / La Vecchia, Carlo / Rossi, Marta. ·Samuel Bronfman Department of Medicine, Henry D. Janowitz Division of Gastroenterology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York 10029, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Milan 20156, Italy. · Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York 10029, USA. · Functional Foods and Metabolic Stress Prevention Laboratory, Center for Food and Nutrition, Research Center on Agriculture and Economics, Rome 00178, Italy. · Unit of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, CRO Aviano National Cancer Institute, Aviano (PN) 33081, Italy. · Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan 20133, Italy. ·Br J Cancer · Pubmed #27172251.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality. Diet may be associated with pancreatic cancer, but it is unknown whether specific dietary components contribute to its risk. The potential differential role of dietary antioxidants warrants further investigation. METHODS: We analysed data from a case-control study of 326 pancreatic cancer cases and 652 controls conducted between 1991 and 2008 in Northern Italy. Subjects' usual diet was assessed through a validated and reproducible food frequency questionnaire. Using this information and an Italian food composition database, we calculated three indices of dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC): Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pancreatic cancer using multiple logistic regression models conditioned on study centre, sex and age, and adjusted for major known pancreatic cancer risk factors. RESULTS: Significant inverse associations were found for the highest tertile of TAC compared with the lowest tertile for both TEAC and FRAP. The ORs were 0.61 (95% CI 0.39-0.94, P-value for trend 0.03) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.41-0.99, P-value for trend 0.05), respectively. Total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter was inversely, but not significantly, associated with pancreatic cancer risk, with an OR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.49-1.24, P-value for trend 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: Diet high in TAC, as measured by TEAC and FRAP, is inversely associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

7 Article Risk Factors for Early-Onset and Very-Early-Onset Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) Analysis. 2016

McWilliams, Robert R / Maisonneuve, Patrick / Bamlet, William R / Petersen, Gloria M / Li, Donghui / Risch, Harvey A / Yu, Herbert / Fontham, Elizabeth T H / Luckett, Brian / Bosetti, Cristina / Negri, Eva / La Vecchia, Carlo / Talamini, Renato / Bueno de Mesquita, H Bas / Bracci, Paige / Gallinger, Steven / Neale, Rachel E / Lowenfels, Albert B. ·From the *Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; †Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy; ‡Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic; §Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; ∥Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; ¶Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT; #Cancer Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI; **Louisiana State University School of Public Health, New Orleans, LA; ††Tulane School of Public Health, New Orleans, LA; ‡‡Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri," and §§Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; ∥∥S.O.C. Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, IRCCS, Aviano (PN), Italy; ¶¶National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands; School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; ##Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; ***Division of General Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; †††Cancer and Population Studies Group, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia; and ‡‡‡Department of Surgery, Department of Family Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY. ·Pancreas · Pubmed #26646264.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: While pancreatic cancer (PC) most often affects older adults, to date, there has been no comprehensive assessment of risk factors among PC patients younger than 60 years. METHODS: We defined early-onset PC (EOPC) and very-early-onset PC (VEOPC) as diagnosis of PC in patients younger than 60 and 45 years, respectively. We pooled data from 8 case-control studies, including 1954 patients with EOPC and 3278 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations with EOPC and VEOPC. RESULTS: Family history of PC, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, and pancreatitis were associated with EOPC. Alcohol use equal to or greater than 26 g daily also was associated with increased risk of EOPC (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.84), and there appeared to be a dose- and age-dependent effect of alcohol on risk. The point estimate for risk of VEOPC was an odds ratio of 2.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-4.09). CONCLUSIONS: The established risk factors for PC, including smoking, diabetes, family history of PC, and obesity, also apply to EOPC. Alcohol intake appeared to have an age-dependent effect; the strongest association was with VEOPC.

8 Article Adherence to World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and pancreatic cancer risk. 2016

Lucas, Aimee L / Bravi, Francesca / Boffetta, Paolo / Polesel, Jerry / Serraino, Diego / La Vecchia, Carlo / Bosetti, Cristina. ·Henry D. Janowitz Division of Gastroenterology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, USA. Electronic address: aimee.lucas@mssm.edu. · Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri"-IRCCS, Milan, Italy. · Tisch Cancer Institute and Institute of Translational Epidemiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, USA. · Unit of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, CRO Aviano National Cancer Institute, Aviano (PN), Italy. · Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. ·Cancer Epidemiol · Pubmed #26605429.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer death. A role of dietary factors in pancreatic carcinogenesis has been suggested. The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) published 8 recommendations for cancer prevention. We evaluated the effect of adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations on pancreatic cancer risk. METHODS: We operationalized 7 of the 8 WCRF/AICR recommendations to generate a WCRF/AICR score. We examined the association of WCRF/AICR score with pancreatic cancer in data from an Italian case-control study of 326 incident cases and 652 controls. RESULTS: Adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with a significantly decreased risk of pancreatic cancer. Using a WCRF/AICR score <3.5 as a reference, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a score 3.5-<4 was 0.80 (95% CI 0.49, 1.28), for a score 4-<5 0.54 (95% CI 0.35, 0.82), and for score 5 or more 0.41 (95% CI 0.24, 0.68; p-value for trend 0.0002). The OR for a continuous increment of one unit of the WCRF/AICR score was 0.72 (95% CI 0.60, 0.87). CONCLUSION: Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations may reduce pancreatic cancer risk.

9 Article Vitamin D and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium. 2015

Waterhouse, M / Risch, H A / Bosetti, C / Anderson, K E / Petersen, G M / Bamlet, W R / Cotterchio, M / Cleary, S P / Ibiebele, T I / La Vecchia, C / Skinner, H G / Strayer, L / Bracci, P M / Maisonneuve, P / Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B / Zaton Ski, W / Lu, L / Yu, H / Janik-Koncewicz, K / Polesel, J / Serraino, D / Neale, R E / Anonymous1990830. ·Division of Population Health, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston Centre for Research Excellence in Sun and Health, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Australia. · Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Milan, Italy. · Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. · Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, USA. · Prevention and Cancer Control, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto. · Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. · Division of Population Health, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston. · Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. · Truven Health Analytics, Durham. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA. · Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. · National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK. · Department of Epidemiology, The Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland. · Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, USA. · Division of Population Health, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston Centre for Research Excellence in Sun and Health, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Australia rachel.neale@qimrberghofer.edu.au. ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #25977560.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The potential role of vitamin D in the aetiology of pancreatic cancer is unclear, with recent studies suggesting both positive and negative associations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used data from nine case-control studies from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) to examine associations between pancreatic cancer risk and dietary vitamin D intake. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, and ORs were then pooled using a random-effects model. From a subset of four studies, we also calculated pooled estimates of association for supplementary and total vitamin D intake. RESULTS: Risk of pancreatic cancer increased with dietary intake of vitamin D [per 100 international units (IU)/day: OR = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.19, P = 7.4 × 10(-6), P-heterogeneity = 0.52; ≥230 versus <110 IU/day: OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.55, P = 2.4 × 10(-3), P-heterogeneity = 0.81], with the association possibly stronger in people with low retinol/vitamin A intake. CONCLUSION: Increased risk of pancreatic cancer was observed with higher levels of dietary vitamin D intake. Additional studies are required to determine whether or not our finding has a causal basis.

10 Article Dietary inflammatory index and risk of pancreatic cancer in an Italian case-control study. 2015

Shivappa, Nitin / Bosetti, Cristina / Zucchetto, Antonella / Serraino, Diego / La Vecchia, Carlo / Hébert, James R. ·Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of South Carolina,915 Greene Street, Suite 241,Columbia,SC29208,USA. · Department of Epidemiology,IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri",Milan,Italy. · S.O.C. di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico,Aviano (PN),Italy. · Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health,Università degli Studi di Milano,Milan,Italy. ·Br J Nutr · Pubmed #25515552.

ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that various dietary components may be implicated in the aetiology of pancreatic cancer. However, the possible relationship between diet-related inflammation and the risk of pancreatic cancer has not yet been investigated. We examined the ability of a newly developed literature-derived dietary inflammatory index (DII) to predict the risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study conducted in Italy between 1991 and 2008. This included 326 incident cases and 652 controls admitted to the major teaching and general hospitals for non-neoplastic diseases, frequency-matched to cases by study centre, sex and age. The DII was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a validated and reproducible seventy-eight-item FFQ. Logistic regression models were used to estimate multivariable OR adjusted for age, sex, study centre, education, BMI, smoking status, alcohol drinking and history of diabetes. Energy adjustment was performed using the residual method. Subjects with higher DII scores (i.e., representing a more pro-inflammatory diet) had a higher risk of pancreatic cancer, with the DII being used as both a continuous variable (ORcontinuous 1.24, 95% CI 1.11, 1.38) and a categorical variable (i.e., compared with the subjects in the lowest quintile of the DII, those in the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles had, respectively, OR(quintile2 v. 1) 1.70, 95% CI 1.02, 2.80; OR(quintile3 v. 1) 1.91, 95% CI 1.16, 3.16; OR(quintile4 v. 1) 1.98, 95% CI 1.20, 3.27; OR(quintile5 v. 1) 2.48, 95% CI 1.50, 4.10; P trend= 0.0015). These data suggest that a pro-inflammatory diet increases the risk of pancreatic cancer.

11 Article Population attributable risk for pancreatic cancer in Northern Italy. 2015

Rosato, Valentina / Polesel, Jerry / Bosetti, Cristina / Serraino, Diego / Negri, Eva / La Vecchia, Carlo. ·From the *Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, †Unit of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, IRCCS-CRO Aviano National Cancer Institute, Aviano (PN); and ‡Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. ·Pancreas · Pubmed #25479588.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To provide data on the impact of known risk factors on pancreatic cancer burden, we estimated the population attributable risks (PARs) in the Italian population. METHODS: Data were derived from a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy between 1991 and 2008, including 326 case patients with incident pancreatic cancer and 652 hospital control subjects. RESULTS: We found that 13.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3-20.8) of pancreatic cancers were attributable to tobacco smoking, 13.0% (95% CI, 2.7-23.2) were attributable to heavy alcohol drinking, 9.7% (95% CI, 5.3-14.1) were attributable to diabetes, 11.9% (95% CI, -8.0 to 31.8) were attributable to a low adherence to Mediterranean diet, and 0.6% (95% CI, -1.8 to 2.9) were attributable to a family history of pancreatic cancer. The PARs for tobacco smoking increased up to 25.7% when we considered it jointly with alcohol, up to 21.7% with diabetes, and up to 24.8% with low Mediterranean diet adherence. For all the risk factors considered, the PARs were higher in men than in women, the differences being particularly evident for heavy alcohol consumption and for a low Mediterranean diet adherence. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that an appreciable proportion of pancreatic cancers could be avoided in this Italian population by intervention on a few selected modifiable lifestyle factors.

12 Article Diabetes, antidiabetic medications, and pancreatic cancer risk: an analysis from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium. 2014

Bosetti, C / Rosato, V / Li, D / Silverman, D / Petersen, G M / Bracci, P M / Neale, R E / Muscat, J / Anderson, K / Gallinger, S / Olson, S H / Miller, A B / Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H / Scelo, G / Janout, V / Holcatova, I / Lagiou, P / Serraino, D / Lucenteforte, E / Fabianova, E / Ghadirian, P / Baghurst, P A / Zatonski, W / Foretova, L / Fontham, E / Bamlet, W R / Holly, E A / Negri, E / Hassan, M / Prizment, A / Cotterchio, M / Cleary, S / Kurtz, R C / Maisonneuve, P / Trichopoulos, D / Polesel, J / Duell, E J / Boffetta, P / La Vecchia, C. ·Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Milan, Italy cristina.bosetti@marionegri.it. · Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Milan, Italy. · M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston. · Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda. · Department of Health Sciences Research, Medicine and Medical Genetics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA. · Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia. · Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State University, Penn State. · Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA. · University Health Network, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA. · Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. · National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU), Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK. · International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France. · Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University, Olomouc. · Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece. · Unit of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, CRO Aviano National Cancer Institute, IRCCS, Aviano. · Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology Mario Aiazzi Mancini, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy. · Regional Authority of Public Health in Banská Bystrica, Banská Bystrica, Slovakia. · Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Milan, Italy M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda Department of Health Sciences Research, Medicine and Medical Genetics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State University, Penn State Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA University Health Network, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU), Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University, Olomouc Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece Unit of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, CRO Aviano National Cancer Institute, IRCCS, Aviano Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology Mario Aiazzi Mancini, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy Regional Authority of Public Health in Banská Bystrica, Banská Bystrica, Slovakia Public Health, Women · Public Health, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australia. · Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland. · Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Institute and MF MU, Brno, Czech Republic. · Louisiana State University School of Public Health, New Orleans, USA. · Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Canada. · Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA. · Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA. · Unit of Nutrition, Environment and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO-IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain. · The Tisch Cancer Institute and Institute for Translational Epidemiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA. · Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #25057164.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with an excess risk of pancreatic cancer, but the magnitude of the risk and the time-risk relationship are unclear, and there is limited information on the role of antidiabetic medications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed individual-level data from 15 case-control studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, including 8305 cases and 13 987 controls. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were estimated from multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for relevant covariates. RESULTS: Overall, 1155 (15%) cases and 1087 (8%) controls reported a diagnosis of diabetes 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis (or interview, for controls), corresponding to an OR of 1.90 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.72-2.09). Consistent risk estimates were observed across strata of selected covariates, including body mass index and tobacco smoking. Pancreatic cancer risk decreased with duration of diabetes, but a significant excess risk was still evident 20 or more years after diabetes diagnosis (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.63). Among diabetics, long duration of oral antidiabetic use was associated with a decreased pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.14-0.69, for ≥15 years). Conversely, insulin use was associated with a pancreatic cancer risk in the short term (OR 5.60, 95% CI 3.75-8.35, for <5 years), but not for longer duration of use (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.53-1.70, for ≥15 years). CONCLUSION: This study provides the most definitive quantification to date of an excess risk of pancreatic cancer among diabetics. It also shows that a 30% excess risk persists for more than two decades after diabetes diagnosis, thus supporting a causal role of diabetes in pancreatic cancer. Oral antidiabetics may decrease the risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas insulin showed an inconsistent duration-risk relationship.

13 Article Ulcer, gastric surgery and pancreatic cancer risk: an analysis from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). 2013

Bosetti, C / Lucenteforte, E / Bracci, P M / Negri, E / Neale, R E / Risch, H A / Olson, S H / Gallinger, S / Miller, A B / Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B / Talamini, R / Polesel, J / Ghadirian, P / Baghurst, P A / Zatonski, W / Fontham, E / Holly, E A / Gao, Y T / Yu, H / Kurtz, R C / Cotterchio, M / Maisonneuve, P / Zeegers, M P / Duell, E J / Boffetta, P / La Vecchia, C. ·Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Milan. ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #23970016.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer and its treatments have been associated to pancreatic cancer risk, although the evidence is inconsistent. METHODS: We pooled 10 case-control studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Case-control Consortium (PanC4), including 4717 pancreatic cancer cases and 9374 controls, and estimated summary odds ratios (OR) using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: The OR for pancreatic cancer was 1.10 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.23] for history of ulcer (OR = 1.08 for gastric and 0.97 for duodenal ulcer). The association was stronger for a diagnosis within 2 years before cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.43 for peptic, 1.75 for gastric, and 1.98 for duodenal ulcer). The OR was 1.53 (95% CI 1.15-2.03) for history of gastrectomy; however, the excess risk was limited to a gastrectomy within 2 years before cancer diagnosis (OR = 6.18, 95% CI 1.82-20.96), while no significant increased risk was observed for longer time since gastrectomy. No associations were observed for pharmacological treatments for ulcer, such as antacids, H2-receptor antagonists, or proton-pump inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: This uniquely large collaborative study does not support the hypothesis that peptic ulcer and its treatment materially affect pancreatic cancer risk. The increased risk for short-term history of ulcer and gastrectomy suggests that any such association is due to increased cancer surveillance.

14 Article The role of Mediterranean diet on the risk of pancreatic cancer. 2013

Bosetti, C / Turati, F / Dal Pont, A / Ferraroni, M / Polesel, J / Negri, E / Serraino, D / Talamini, R / La Vecchia, C / Zeegers, M P. ·Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy. cristina.bosetti@marionegri.it ·Br J Cancer · Pubmed #23928660.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet has been shown to have a beneficial role on various neoplasms, but data are scanty on pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We analysed data from two case-control studies conducted in Italy between 1983 and 2008, including 362 and 326 pancreatic cancer cases and 1552 and 652 hospital-controls, respectively. A Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) summarising major characteristics of the Mediterranean diet was used in the two studies separately and overall. Two further scores of adherence to the Mediterranean diet were applied in the second study only, the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Adherence Index (MDP) and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI). RESULTS: Odds ratios (ORs) for increasing levels of the scores (i.e., increasing adherence) were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Odds ratio for a MDS score ≥6 compared with <3 was 0.57 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34-0.95) in the first study, 0.51 (95% CI 0.29-0.92) in the second study, and 0.48 (95% CI 0.35-0.67) overall. A trend of decreasing risk was observed also for the MDP and MAI the ORs for the highest vs the lowest quintile being 0.44 (95% CI 0.27-0.73) for MDP and 0.68 (95% CI 0.42-1.11) for the MAI. The results were consistent across strata of age, sex, education, body mass index, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and diabetes. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that a priori-defined scores measuring adherence to the Mediterranean diet are favourably associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

15 Article Nutrient-based dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk. 2013

Bosetti, Cristina / Bravi, Francesca / Turati, Federica / Edefonti, Valeria / Polesel, Jerry / Decarli, Adriano / Negri, Eva / Talamini, Renato / Franceschi, Silvia / La Vecchia, Carlo / Zeegers, Maurice P. ·Dipartimento di Epidemiologia, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri Milan, Italy. cristina.bosetti@marionegri.it ·Ann Epidemiol · Pubmed #23332711.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Few data are available on the role of combinations of foods and/or nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk. To add further information on dietary patterns potentially associated to pancreatic cancer, we applied an exploratory principal component factor analysis on 28 major nutrients derived from an Italian case-control study. METHODS: Cases were 326 incident pancreatic cancer cases and controls 652 frequency-matched controls admitted to hospital for non-neoplastic diseases. Dietary information was collected through a validated and reproducible food frequency questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic variables and major recognized risk factors for pancreatic cancer were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of pancreatic cancer for each dietary pattern. RESULTS: We identified four dietary patterns-named "animal products," "unsaturated fats," "vitamins and fiber," and "starch rich," that explain 75% of the total variance in nutrient intake in this population. After allowing for all the four patterns, positive associations were found for the animal products and the starch rich patterns, the OR for the highest versus the lowest quartiles being 2.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-3.19) and 1.69 (95% CI, 1.02-2.79), respectively; an inverse association emerged for the vitamins and fiber pattern (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.35-0.86), whereas no association was observed for the unsaturated fats pattern (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.71-1.78). CONCLUSIONS: A diet characterized by a high consumption of meat and other animal products, as well as of (refined) cereals and sugars, is positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk, whereas a diet rich in fruit and vegetables is inversely associated.

16 Article Pancreatic cancer: overview of descriptive epidemiology. 2012

Bosetti, Cristina / Bertuccio, Paola / Negri, Eva / La Vecchia, Carlo / Zeegers, Maurice P / Boffetta, Paolo. ·Dipartimento di Epidemiologia, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy. ·Mol Carcinog · Pubmed #22162227.

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer mortality rates have been increasing in high-income countries between the 1950s and the 1980s, and have leveled off or declined thereafter, particularly in men. To provide a global overview of recent pancreatic cancer mortality, we analyzed official death of the world certification data derived from the World Health Organization for 35 European countries and 19 other countries over the period 1980-2007. In 2007, the highest mortality rates from pancreatic cancer were in the Baltic countries, and some central/eastern and northern European countries (over 9.5/100 000 men and 6/100 000 women), whereas the lowest ones were in Latin America and Hong Kong (below 5/100 000 men and 3/100 000 women). Japan, the USA, Russia and the European Union (EU), as well as the largest countries in the EU, had rates around 7-9/100 000 men and 5-6/100 000 women. In the early 2000s, rates have been approximately stable in many European countries, as in the USA, Japan, and Australia. In Nordic countries and the UK, where declines in rates have been observed between the 1980s and the 1990s, mortality from pancreatic cancer has tended to rise over most recent calendar years. Some persisting rises were still found in men from a few countries of southern and central/eastern Europe (with low rates in the past), as well as in the EU overall, and in women from European and Asian countries. Recent trends were generally more favorable in young adults (30-49 yr), suggesting that overall trends are likely to improve in the near future.

17 Article Cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer: an analysis from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (Panc4). 2012

Bosetti, C / Lucenteforte, E / Silverman, D T / Petersen, G / Bracci, P M / Ji, B T / Negri, E / Li, D / Risch, H A / Olson, S H / Gallinger, S / Miller, A B / Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B / Talamini, R / Polesel, J / Ghadirian, P / Baghurst, P A / Zatonski, W / Fontham, E / Bamlet, W R / Holly, E A / Bertuccio, P / Gao, Y T / Hassan, M / Yu, H / Kurtz, R C / Cotterchio, M / Su, J / Maisonneuve, P / Duell, E J / Boffetta, P / La Vecchia, C. ·Department of Epidemiology, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy. cristina.bosetti@marionegri.it ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #22104574.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer and to examine the effects of temporal variables. METHODS: We analyzed data from 12 case-control studies within the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4), including 6507 pancreatic cases and 12 890 controls. We estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) by pooling study-specific ORs using random-effects models. RESULTS: Compared with never smokers, the OR was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.3) for former smokers and 2.2 (95% CI 1.7-2.8) for current cigarette smokers, with a significant increasing trend in risk with increasing number of cigarettes among current smokers (OR=3.4 for ≥35 cigarettes per day, P for trend<0.0001). Risk increased in relation to duration of cigarette smoking up to 40 years of smoking (OR=2.4). No trend in risk was observed for age at starting cigarette smoking, whereas risk decreased with increasing time since cigarette cessation, the OR being 0.98 after 20 years. CONCLUSIONS: This uniquely large pooled analysis confirms that current cigarette smoking is associated with a twofold increased risk of pancreatic cancer and that the risk increases with the number of cigarettes smoked and duration of smoking. Risk of pancreatic cancer reaches the level of never smokers ∼20 years after quitting.

18 Article Alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). 2012

Lucenteforte, E / La Vecchia, C / Silverman, D / Petersen, G M / Bracci, P M / Ji, B T / Bosetti, C / Li, D / Gallinger, S / Miller, A B / Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B / Talamini, R / Polesel, J / Ghadirian, P / Baghurst, P A / Zatonski, W / Fontham, E / Bamlet, W R / Holly, E A / Gao, Y T / Negri, E / Hassan, M / Cotterchio, M / Su, J / Maisonneuve, P / Boffetta, P / Duell, E J. ·Department of Epidemiology, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri Milan, Milan, Italy. ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #21536662.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Heavy alcohol drinking has been related to pancreatic cancer, but the issue is still unsolved. METHODS: To evaluate the role of alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer, we conducted a pooled analysis of 10 case-control studies (5585 cases and 11,827 controls) participating in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium. We computed pooled odds ratios (ORs) by estimating study-specific ORs adjusted for selected covariates and pooling them using random effects models. RESULTS: Compared with abstainers and occasional drinkers (< 1 drink per day), we observed no association for light-to-moderate alcohol consumption (≤ 4 drinks per day) and pancreatic cancer risk; however, associations were above unity for higher consumption levels (OR = 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.2 for subjects drinking ≥ 9 drinks per day). Results did not change substantially when we evaluated associations by tobacco smoking status, or when we excluded participants who reported a history of pancreatitis, or participants whose data were based upon proxy responses. Further, no notable differences in pooled risk estimates emerged across strata of sex, age, race, study type, and study area. CONCLUSION: This collaborative-pooled analysis provides additional evidence for a positive association between heavy alcohol consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer.

19 Article Metabolic syndrome and pancreatic cancer risk: a case-control study in Italy and meta-analysis. 2011

Rosato, Valentina / Tavani, Alessandra / Bosetti, Cristina / Pelucchi, Claudio / Talamini, Renato / Polesel, Jerry / Serraino, Diego / Negri, Eva / La Vecchia, Carlo. ·Department of Epidemiology, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy. ·Metabolism · Pubmed #21550085.

ABSTRACT: We assessed the relation between metabolic syndrome (MetS), its components, and pancreatic cancer risk in an Italian case-control study and performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies published up to February 2011. The case-control study included 326 patients with incident pancreatic cancer and 652 controls admitted to the same hospitals for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. MetS was defined as having at least 3 conditions among diabetes, drug-treated hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and body mass index at least 25 kg/m(2) at age 30 years. We computed multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression models adjusted for tobacco smoking, education, and other sociodemographic variables. For the meta-analysis, we calculated summary relative risks (RRs) using random-effects models. The OR of pancreatic cancer in the case-control study was 2.36 (95% CI, 1.43-3.90) for diabetes, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.55-1.08) for hypertension, 1.38 (95% CI, 0.94-2.01) for hypercholesterolemia, and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.91-1.78) for being overweight at age 30 years. The risk was significantly increased for subjects with 3 or more MetS components (OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.01-4.49) compared with subjects with no component, the estimates being consistent among strata of sex, age, and alcohol consumption. The meta-analysis included 3 cohort studies and our case-control study, and found a summary RR of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.19-2.01) for subjects with MetS. Metabolic syndrome is related to pancreatic cancer risk. Diabetes is the key component related to risk.

20 Article Reproductive and hormonal factors and pancreatic cancer risk in women. 2011

Lucenteforte, Ersilia / Zucchetto, Antonella / Bosetti, Cristina / Talamini, Renato / Negri, Eva / Serraino, Diego / Franceschi, Silvia / Lipworth, Loren / La Vecchia, Carlo. ·Dipartimento di Epidemiologia, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy. ersilia.lucenteforte@marionegri.it ·Pancreas · Pubmed #21343831.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of menstrual, reproductive, and hormonal factors, as well as benign female conditions, on pancreatic cancer risk. METHODS: We analyzed the combined data from 2 Italian case-control studies including 285 female case patients of pancreatic cancer and 713 female controls. All subjects were interviewed by trained interviewers during their hospital stay using similar structured questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multiple logistic regression models adjusted for selected covariates. RESULTS: Compared to nulliparae, the OR was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.51-1.12) for parous women and 0.46 (95% CI, 0.26-0.85) for women with 4 or more births, in the absence, however, of a significant trend with increasing number of births. Pancreatic cancer risk was also nonsignificantly reduced among women with age at first birth lower than 25 years (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.42-1.01). Other factors, including age at menarche and menopause, menopausal status, type of menopause, history of spontaneous and induced abortions, use of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, and history of most female benign conditions were not related to pancreatic cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides little support for the hypothesis that menstrual, reproductive, or hormonal factors are related to the development of pancreatic cancer.

21 Article Diabetes mellitus, other medical conditions and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study. 2011

Lipworth, Loren / Zucchetto, Antonella / Bosetti, Cristina / Franceschi, Silvia / Talamini, Renato / Serraino, Diego / McLaughlin, Joseph K / La Vecchia, Carlo / Negri, Eva. ·International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD, USA. ·Diabetes Metab Res Rev · Pubmed #21309046.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Diabetes and other medical conditions have been related to pancreatic cancer, but time risk quantification is unsettled. METHODS: We combined data from two case-control studies conducted in Italy, including 688 pancreatic cancer cases and 2204 controls. All subjects were interviewed by trained interviewers during their hospital stay. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 103 cases (15%) and 125 controls (5.7%) reported a history of diabetes. The OR for pancreatic cancer was more pronounced among those diagnosed with diabetes in the previous 2 years (OR = 5.17; 95% CI = 2.71-9.87) than among those with diabetes diagnosed more than 2 years ago (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.70-3.26). The ORs remained significantly elevated 2-4 years (OR = 3.81; 95% CI = 2.07-7.04) and 5-9 years (OR = 3.75; 95% CI = 2.13-6.59) since diagnosis of diabetes, after which a non-significant 20% increased risk for pancreatic cancer was observed. As compared to non-diabetic non-smokers, the OR was 1.85 among non-diabetic current smokers, 2.17 among diabetic never/former smokers, and rose to 4.67 among diabetic current smokers, indicating a multiplicative effect between these two risk factors. Pancreatic cancer was significantly associated with pancreatitis, primarily among those diagnosed within 2 years (OR = 7.16; 95% CI = 2.25-22.78). In addition, the ORs were elevated for cholelithiasis (3.53; 95% CI = 1.67-7.45) and gastroduodenal ulcer (3.16; 95% CI = 1.14-8.73) only among those diagnosed within the past 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is associated with heightened risk of pancreatic cancer. The association is significant for diabetes diagnosed up to 10 years before pancreatic cancer.

22 Article Cigar and pipe smoking, smokeless tobacco use and pancreatic cancer: an analysis from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). 2011

Bertuccio, P / La Vecchia, C / Silverman, D T / Petersen, G M / Bracci, P M / Negri, E / Li, D / Risch, H A / Olson, S H / Gallinger, S / Miller, A B / Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B / Talamini, R / Polesel, J / Ghadirian, P / Baghurst, P A / Zatonski, W / Fontham, E T / Bamlet, W R / Holly, E A / Lucenteforte, E / Hassan, M / Yu, H / Kurtz, R C / Cotterchio, M / Su, J / Maisonneuve, P / Duell, E J / Bosetti, C / Boffetta, P. ·Department of Epidemiology, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy. ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #21245160.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is the best-characterized risk factor for pancreatic cancer. However, data are limited for other tobacco smoking products and smokeless tobacco. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of cigar and pipe smoking and smokeless tobacco use and risk of pancreatic cancer using data from 11 case-control studies (6056 cases and 11,338 controls) within the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Pooled odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by unconditional multiple logistic regression models adjusted for study center and selected covariates. RESULTS: Compared with never tobacco users, the OR for cigar-only smokers was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.3), i.e. comparable to that of cigarette-only smokers (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.4-1.6). The OR was 1.1 (95% CI 0.69-1.6) for pipe-only smokers. There was some evidence of increasing risk with increasing amount of cigar smoked per day (OR 1.82 for ≥ 10 grams of tobacco), although not with duration. The OR for ever smokeless tobacco users as compared with never tobacco users was 0.98 (95% CI 0.75-1.3). CONCLUSION: This collaborative analysis provides evidence that cigar smoking is associated with an excess risk of pancreatic cancer, while no significant association emerged for pipe smoking and smokeless tobacco use.

23 Article Dietary intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of pancreatic cancer: an Italian case-control study. 2011

Bravi, F / Polesel, J / Bosetti, C / Talamini, R / Negri, E / Dal Maso, L / Serraino, D / La Vecchia, C. ·Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan, Italy. francesca.bravi@marionegri.it ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #20530201.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: several studies have shown an inverse relation between vegetable and fruit intake and pancreatic cancer, but no specific beneficial component of such foods has been consistently identified. We considered the role of 15 selected vitamins and carotenoids and 6 minerals on pancreatic cancer risk in an Italian case-control study. METHODS: subjects were 326 patients with incident pancreatic cancer and 652 controls, admitted to the same hospitals as cases for acute conditions. Micronutrient computation was based on a validated and reproducible food-frequency questionnaire. We estimated the odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) using conditional logistic regression models, adjusted for various confounding factors and for energy intake, according to the residual model. RESULTS: comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of intake, the OR were 0.60 (95% CI 0.36-0.98) for vitamin E, 0.44 (95% CI 0.27-0.73) for vitamin C, 0.56 (95% CI 0.34-0.93) for folate, and 0.57 (95% CI 0.35-0.92) for potassium. No significant inverse associations were observed for α-carotene (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.43-1.12), β-carotene (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.39-1.06), and β-cryptoxanthin (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.39-1.09). No relation was found for other micronutrients considered. CONCLUSION: our findings support a favorable role of vitamins E and C, selected carotenoids, and folate on pancreatic carcinogenesis.

24 Article Aspirin use and pancreatic cancer risk. 2010

Bonifazi, Martina / Gallus, Silvano / Bosetti, Cristina / Polesel, Jerry / Serraino, Diego / Talamini, Renato / Negri, Eva / La Vecchia, Carlo. ·Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa, Milan, Italy. ·Eur J Cancer Prev · Pubmed #20502343.

ABSTRACT: Preclinical findings suggest that aspirin might inhibit pancreatic carcinogenesis, but epidemiological data are scanty and controversial. The role of aspirin use in pancreatic cancer is further analyzed in a multicentric hospital-based case-control study conducted in Italy between 1991 and 2008. Cases were 308 patients with incident pancreatic cancer and controls were 477 patients admitted to the same hospitals as cases for acute conditions, not related to risk factors for pancreatic cancer. A total of 22 cases (7%) and 37 controls (8%) reported regular aspirin use, with a corresponding adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-1.61]. A slight protection, although not significant, was observed for duration of use > or =5 years (OR=0.53; 95% CI: 0.21-1.33) and for time since first use > or =10 years (OR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.25-1.93). The risk of pancreatic cancer was significantly below unity for current users of > or =5 years (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.06-0.90), but the risk was based on three cases and 16 controls only. We observed no association between regular aspirin use and pancreatic cancer risk, although our results suggested a possible protective effect for long-term current users.

25 Article Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and risk of pancreatic cancer: a case-control study. 2010

Rossi, Marta / Lipworth, Loren / Polesel, Jerry / Negri, Eva / Bosetti, Cristina / Talamini, Renato / McLaughlin, Joseph K / La Vecchia, Carlo. ·Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy. ·Ann Epidemiol · Pubmed #20470973.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Carbohydrates and dietary glycemic index (GI) influence the secretion of insulin and insulin-related growth factors and may play a role in the development of diabetes and obesity, both of which have been related to pancreatic cancer risk. METHODS: We examined the association between dietary GI and glycemic load (GL) and pancreatic cancer by conducting a hospital-based case-control study in Italy in 1991-2008 of 326 cases of pancreatic cancer and 652 control patients. Dietary data were obtained with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were computed with the use of multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: GI was positively associated with pancreatic cancer, with ORs of 1.56 (95% CI, 1.06-2.30) and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.20-2.62) for the second and third tertiles, respectively, compared with the lowest. No significant association was observed between GL and pancreatic cancer. Consumption of sugar, candy, honey, and jam was positively associated with pancreatic cancer, whereas consumption of fruit was inversely associated. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the positive association with high GI, in the absence of an association with dietary GL, fruit, or total carbohydrates, likely reflects the positive association between sweets or refined carbohydrates and pancreatic cancer in this study population.

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