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Hypercholesterolemia HELP
Based on 6,989 articles published since 2007
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These are the 6989 published articles about Hypercholesterolemia that originated from Worldwide during 2007-2017.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline 2017 Focused Update of the 2016 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway on the Role of Non-Statin Therapies for LDL-Cholesterol Lowering in the Management of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Expert Consensus Decision Pathways. 2017

Lloyd-Jones, Donald M / Morris, Pamela B / Ballantyne, Christie M / Birtcher, Kim K / Daly, David D / DePalma, Sondra M / Minissian, Margo B / Orringer, Carl E / Smith, Sidney C. · ·J Am Coll Cardiol · Pubmed #28886926.

ABSTRACT: In 2016, the American College of Cardiology published the first expert consensus decision pathway (ECDP) on the role of non-statin therapies for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol lowering in the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. Since the publication of that document, additional evidence and perspectives have emerged from randomized clinical trials and other sources, particularly considering the longer-term efficacy and safety of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors in secondary prevention of ASCVD. Most notably, the FOURIER (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk) trial and SPIRE-1 and -2 (Studies of PCSK9 Inhibition and the Reduction of Vascular Events), assessing evolocumab and bococizumab, respectively, have published final results of cardiovascular outcomes trials in patients with clinical ASCVD and in a smaller number of high-risk primary prevention patients. In addition, further evidence on the types of patients most likely to benefit from the use of ezetimibe in addition to statin therapy after acute coronary syndrome has been published. Based on results from these important analyses, the ECDP writing committee judged that it would be desirable to provide a focused update to help guide clinicians more clearly on decision making regarding the use of ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors in patients with clinical ASCVD with or without comorbidities. In the following summary table, changes from the 2016 ECDP to the 2017 ECDP Focused Update are highlighted, and a brief rationale is provided. The content of the full document has been changed accordingly, with more extensive and detailed guidance regarding decision making provided both in the text and in the updated algorithms. Revised recommendations are provided for patients with clinical ASCVD with or without comorbidities on statin therapy for secondary prevention. The ECDP writing committee judged that these new data did not warrant changes to the decision pathways and algorithms regarding the use of ezetimibe or PCSK9 inhibitors in primary prevention patients with LDL-C <190 mg/dL with or without diabetes mellitus or patients without ASCVD and LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL not due to secondary causes. Based on feedback and further deliberation, the ECDP writing committee down-graded recommendations regarding bile acid sequestrant use, recommending bile acid sequestrants only as optional secondary agents for consideration in patients intolerant to ezetimibe. For clarification, the writing committee has also included new information on diagnostic categories of heterozygous and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, based on clinical criteria with and without genetic testing. Other changes to the original document were kept to a minimum to provide consistent guidance to clinicians, unless there was a compelling reason or new evidence, in which case justification is provided.

2 Guideline [2016 European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts. Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation]. 2017

Piepoli, Massimo F / Hoes, Arno W / Agewall, Stefan / Albus, Christian / Brotons, Carlos / Catapano, Alberico L / Cooney, Marie-Therese / Corrà, Ugo / Cosyns, Bernard / Deaton, Christi / Graham, Ian / Hall, Michael Stephen / Hobbs, F D Richard / Løchen, Maja-Lisa / Löllgen, Herbert / Marques-Vidal, Pedro / Perk, Joep / Prescott, Eva / Redon, Josep / Richter, Dimitrios J / Sattar, Naveed / Smulders, Yvo / Tiberi, Monica / van der Worp, H Bart / van Dis, Ineke / Verschuren, W M Monique. · · European Society of Cardiology (ESC). · International Society of Behavioural Medicine (ISBM). · WONCA Europe. · European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). · International Diabetes Federation European Region (IDF Europe). · International Federation of Sport Medicine (FIMS). · European Society of Hypertension (ESH). · European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). · European Stroke Organisation (ESO). · European Heart Network (EHN). ·G Ital Cardiol (Rome) · Pubmed #28714997.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Guideline Joint position statement on "Nutraceuticals for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia" of the Italian Society of Diabetology (SID) and of the Italian Society for the Study of Arteriosclerosis (SISA). 2017

Pirro, M / Vetrani, C / Bianchi, C / Mannarino, M R / Bernini, F / Rivellese, A A. ·Unit of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; Italian Society for the Study of Arteriosclerosis (SISA), Italy. · Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, "Federico II" University, Naples, Italy; Italian Society of Diabetology (SID), Italy. · Italian Society of Diabetology (SID), Italy; Unit of Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Medical Area "Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana", Pisa, Italy. · Italian Society for the Study of Arteriosclerosis (SISA), Italy; Department of Pharmacy, University of Parma, Parma, Italy. · Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, "Federico II" University, Naples, Italy; Italian Society of Diabetology (SID), Italy. Electronic address: rivelles@unina.it. ·Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis · Pubmed #27956024.

ABSTRACT: AIM: Evidence showed that LDL-cholesterol lowering is associated with a significant cardiovascular risk reduction. The initial therapeutic approach to hypercholesterolemia includes dietary modifications but the compliance to recommendations is often inadequate. Some dietary components with potential cholesterol-lowering activity are present in small amounts in food. Therefore, in recent years the use of "nutraceuticals" (i.e., nutrients and/or bioactive compounds with potential beneficial effects on human health) has become widespread. Such substances may be added to foods and beverages, or taken as dietary supplements (liquid preparations, tablets, capsules). In the present manuscript, the cholesterol-lowering activity of some nutraceuticals (i.e. fiber, phytosterols, soy, policosanol, red yeast rice and berberine) will be discussed along with: 1) the level of evidence on the cholesterol-lowering efficacy emerging from clinical trial; 2) the possible side effects associated with their use; 3) the categories of patients who could benefit from their use. DATA SYNTHESIS: Based on the current literature, the cholesterol-lowering effect of fiber, phytosterols and red yeast rice is consistent and supported by a good level of evidence. Over berberine, there is sufficient evidence showing significant cholesterol-lowering effects, although the results come from studies carried out almost exclusively in Asian populations. Data on the effects of soy are conflicting and, therefore, the strength of recommendation is quite low. The evidence on policosanol is inconclusive. CONCLUSION: Although health benefits may arise from the use of nutraceuticals with cholesterol-lowering activity, their use might be also associated with possible risks and pitfalls, some of which are common to all nutraceuticals whereas others are related to specific nutraceuticals.

4 Guideline [ANMCO Position paper: Clinical management of hypercholesterolemia in patients with acute coronary syndrome]. 2016

Colivicchi, Furio / Gulizia, Michele Massimo / Arca, Marcello / Abrignani, Maurizio Giuseppe / Perna, Gian Piero / Mureddu, Gian Francesco / Nardi, Federico / Riccio, Carmine / Anonymous4200872. ·U.O.C. Cardiologia, Ospedale S. Filippo Neri, Roma. · U.O.C. Cardiologia, Ospedale Garibaldi-Nesima, Azienda di Rilievo Nazionale e Alta Specializzazione "Garibaldi", Catania. · Centro Aterosclerosi, Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma. · U.O.C. Cardiologia, Ospedale Civile Sant'Antonio Abate, Erice (TP). · U.O.C. Cardiologia, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria "Ospedali Riuniti", Ancona. · U.O.C. Cardiologia, A.O. San Giovanni-Addolorata, Roma. · U.O.C. Cardiologia, Ospedale Castelli, Verbania. · U.O.C. Cardiologia e Riabilitazione Cardiologica, A.O. Sant'Anna e San Sebastiano, Caserta. · ·G Ital Cardiol (Rome) · Pubmed #27311088.

ABSTRACT: LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction after acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is associated with a significant reduction in ischemic recurrences. Accordingly, international guidelines recommend a reduction of LDL-C below 70 mg/dl in ACS patients. Such a result can be accomplished by using high intensity statins, possibly associated with ezetimibe in selected cases. This document outlines the management strategies that can be consistently implemented in clinical practice in order to achieve and maintain guideline-recommended therapeutic goals.

5 Guideline [Severe hypercholesterolaemia--when to use the proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 protease inhibitors (PCSK9 inhibitors)? Polish Society of Cardiology experts' group statement]. 2016

Cybulska, Barbara / Gaciong, Zbigniew / Hoffman, Piotr / Jankowski, Piotr / Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina / Kaźmierczak, Jarosław / Mitręga, Katarzyna / Opolski, Grzegorz / Pająk, Andrzej / Ponikowski, Piotr / Rynkiewicz, Andrzej / Stępińska, Janina / Średniawa, Beata / Kalarus, Zbigniew. ·Instytut Żywności i Żywienia. barbara.cybulska@wp.pl. · ·Kardiol Pol · Pubmed #27098076.

ABSTRACT: The severe hypercholesterolaemia can be recognised when low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) serum levels are equal to or above 5 mmol/L (≥ 190 mg/dL). The prevalence of LDL-C ≥ 5 mmol/L is 3.8% in Polish population aged 18-79 years. Among these adults there are patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). According to meta-analysis of 6 Polish population surveys prevalence of heterozygous FH (HeFH) diagnosed using Dutch Lipid Clinic criteria is 0.4% (95% Cl 0.28-0.53%) in men and women aged 20-74 years, i.e. one in every 250 people. As HeFH is a wellknown cause of premature coronary heart disease the rigorous treatment targets for LDL-C have been established in clinical guidelines. Their achievements, even with a high dose of high efficacy statin therapy is difficult or even impossible. New strong hypolipidaemic drugs i.e. PCSK9 inhibitors have been initiated against this chalange. Both drugs, evolocumab and alirocumab, have been extensively studied in numerous phase 2 and phase 3 trials. Fewer studies with bococizumab are available until now. The PCSK9 inhibitors, as monotherapy as well in combination with statins were associated with mean LDL-C reduction about 60%. It means that the majority of patients (70-90%) with severe hypercholesterolaemia (including HeFH), treated with statins, after addition of PCSK9 inhibitors were able to achieve an LDL-C < 2.5 mmol/L (< 100 mg/dL) or < 1.8 mmol/L (< 70 mg/dL) level. Another group of patients who may benefit from PCSK9 inhibitors include those who need lipid lowering therapy, but who are statin intolerant, especially because of statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). In our statement we have accepted the diagnosis of SAMS proposed recently by European Atherosclerosis Society. Today the longest clinical trial with evolocumab (11 months) was the open OSLER study, and with alirocumab ODYSSEY LONG TERM (78 weeks). In the first one the reduction of cardiovascular events by 53% (95% Cl 22-72%) was observed, and in the second one by 48% (10-69%). Neurocognitive events were reported more frequently with both drugs than with placebo. This adverse effect will be the subject of observation in ongoing studies. We still await the results of 4 ongoing large placebo controlled phase 3 trials investigating whether PCSK9 inhibitors on background of statin therapy reduce cardiovascular events. Meanwhile evolocumab, as well as alirocumab have been accepted to use in clinical practice by European Medicine Agency. In this situation the experts of Polish Society of Cardiology have prepared the statement on the use PCSK9 inhibitors with indication in the first place for HeFH patients, statin intolerant and those at high risk who are not able to reach LDL-C target level with a high potent high dose statin.

6 Guideline Application of New Cholesterol Guidelines to the Korean Adult Diabetic Patients. 2015

Kim, Bu Kyung / Kim, Hyeon Chang / Ha, Kyoung Hwa / Kim, Dae Jung. ·Department of Internal Medicine, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea. · Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. · Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea. · Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea. ; Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea. ·J Korean Med Sci · Pubmed #26539005.

ABSTRACT: The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) 2013 joint guidelines for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia expand the indications for statin therapy. This study was performed to estimate the numbers of diabetic patients indicated for statin therapy according to the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III) of the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines and the new ACC/AHA guidelines in Korea. We analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Patients with diabetes over 30 yr of age were analyzed by the two guidelines. Of the total 1,975 diabetic patients, only 377 (19.1%) were receiving drugs for dyslipidemia. Among 1,598 patients who had not taken any medications for dyslipidemia, 65.6% would be indicated for statin therapy according to the ATP-III guidelines. When we apply the new guidelines, 94.3% would be eligible for statin therapy. Among the total diabetic patients, the new guidelines, compared with the ATP-III guidelines, increase the number eligible for statin therapy from 53.1% to 76.2%. The new guidelines would increase the indication for statin therapy for most diabetic patients. At present, many diabetic patients do not receive appropriate statin therapy. Therefore efforts should be made to develop the Korean guidelines and to ensure that more diabetic patients receive appropriate statin therapy.

7 Guideline The new cholesterol treatment guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, 2013: what clinicians need to know. 2014

Lim, Tanna H / Orija, Israel B / Pearlman, Brian L / Anonymous6310811 / Anonymous6320811. ·Department of Internal Medicine, Atlanta Medical Center, Atlanta, GA. tannalim@yahoo.com. · ·Postgrad Med · Pubmed #25387212.

ABSTRACT: The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association blood cholesterol guidelines of 2013 are the first major revision of cholesterol therapy guidance in over a decade. Commonly used low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) target goals have been abrogated in favor of intensity of statin therapy, more in line with data from randomized clinical trials. Four groups of adult patients have been identified from these studies who will most benefit from statins: patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD); patients with primary elevations of LDL-C ≥ 190 mg/dL; diabetic patients between age 40 and 75 years without ASCVD whose LDL-C is between 70 and 189 mg/dL; and patients between age 40 and 75 years without ASCVD or diabetes with LDL-C between 70 and 189 mg/dL and an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk of 7.5% or higher. This last primary prevention group has engendered the most controversy because the newly recommended risk calculator may overestimate risk or the 7.5% threshold may be too low, thereby subjecting too many patients to statins unnecessarily. This review summarizes the latest guidelines and pertinent evidence, and provides case examples to help clinicians familiarize themselves with the new recommendations.

8 Guideline Cardiac risk factors: new cholesterol and blood pressure management guidelines. 2014

Anthony, David / George, Paul / Eaton, Charles B. ·Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, 111 Brewster St., Pawtucket, RI 02903, USA. david_anthony@brown.edu · Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 222 Richmond Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA. Paul-George@Brown.edu · Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 222 Richmond Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA. Charles_Eaton@Brown.edu ·FP Essent · Pubmed #24936717.

ABSTRACT: The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines depart from low-density lipoprotein (LDL) treatment targets and recommend treating four specific patient groups with statins. Statins are the only cholesterol-lowering drugs with randomized trial evidence of benefit for preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The groups are patients with clinical ASCVD; patients ages 40 to 75 years with diabetes and LDL of 70 to 189 mg/dL but no clinical ASCVD; patients 21 years or older with LDL levels of 190 mg/dL or higher; and patients ages 40 to 75 years with LDL of 70 to 189 mg/dL without clinical ASCVD or diabetes but with 10-year ASCVD risk of 7.5% or higher. Ten-year ASCVD risk may be calculated using the Pooled Cohort Equations. The Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) guidelines for blood pressure management recommend a blood pressure goal of less than 140/90 mm Hg for all adults except those 60 years or older. For the latter group, the JNC 8 recommends a systolic blood pressure goal of less than 150 mm Hg. In another notable change from prior guidelines, the JNC 8 recommends relaxing the systolic blood pressure goal for patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease to less than 140 mm Hg from less than 130 mm Hg.

9 Guideline [New thought from American new guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol]. 2014

Zhao, Shuiping / Peng, Daoquan / Yu, Bilian / Huang, Xiansheng / Hu, Dayi / Shi, Xubo. · ·Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi · Pubmed #24735622.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Guideline New AHA and ACC guidelines on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk. 2014

Klose, Gerald / Beil, Frank Ulrich / Dieplinger, Hans / von Eckardstein, Arnold / Föger, Bernhard / Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna / Heigl, Franz / Koenig, Wolfgang / Kostner, Gert M / Landmesser, Ulf / Laufs, Ulrich / Leistikow, Frank / März, Winfried / Noll, Georg / Parhofer, Klaus G / Paulweber, Bernhard / Riesen, Walter F / Schaefer, Jürgen R / Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth / Steinmetz, Armin / Toplak, Hermann / Wanner, Christoph / Windler, Eberhard / Anonymous2081334. ·Practice for Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology, Cardiology and Preventive Medicine, Bremen, Germany. · ·Wien Klin Wochenschr · Pubmed #24615676.

ABSTRACT: After the publication of the new guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology and the European Atherosclerosis Society for the prevention and treatment of dyslipidemias (Eur Heart J 32:1769-1818, 2011; Eur Heart J 33:1635-1701, 2012), a group of authors has recently published on behalf of the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology guidelines on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk (Circulation 2013). These new guidelines are supposed to replace the until now widely accepted, at least in the USA, recommendations of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III from the years 2002 (Circulation 106:3143-3421, 2002) and 2004 (Circulation 110:227-39, 2004). Furthermore, they claim to be based mainly on hard evidence derived from the interpretation of results of prospective randomized controlled trials. This Joint Position Statement of the Society for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases e.V. (D.A.CH), the Austrian Atherosclerosis Society and the Working Group on Lipids and Atherosclerosis (AGLA) of the Swiss Society of Cardiology concludes that the use of individualized prevention strategies based on specific indications and LDL cholesterol target concentrations, a strategy whose worth has been widely proven and accepted for more than a decade in Europe, should not be given up.

11 Guideline Treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults: synopsis of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guideline. 2014

Stone, Neil J / Robinson, Jennifer G / Lichtenstein, Alice H / Goff, David C / Lloyd-Jones, Donald M / Smith, Sidney C / Blum, Conrad / Schwartz, J Sanford / Anonymous2930783. · ·Ann Intern Med · Pubmed #24474185.

ABSTRACT: DESCRIPTION: In November 2013, the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) released a clinical practice guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce cardiovascular risk in adults. This synopsis summarizes the major recommendations. METHODS: In 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) IV to update the 2001 ATP-III cholesterol guidelines using a rigorous process to systematically review randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs that examined cardiovascular outcomes. The panel commissioned independent systematic evidence reviews on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals in secondary and primary prevention and the effect of lipid drugs on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events and adverse effects. In September 2013, the panel's draft recommendations were transitioned to the ACC/AHA. RECOMMENDATIONS: This synopsis summarizes key features of the guidelines in 8 areas: lifestyle, groups shown to benefit from statins, statin safety, decision making, estimation of cardiovascular disease risk, intensity of statin therapy, treatment targets, and monitoring of statin therapy.

12 Guideline 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 2014

Stone, Neil J / Robinson, Jennifer G / Lichtenstein, Alice H / Bairey Merz, C Noel / Blum, Conrad B / Eckel, Robert H / Goldberg, Anne C / Gordon, David / Levy, Daniel / Lloyd-Jones, Donald M / McBride, Patrick / Schwartz, J Sanford / Shero, Susan T / Smith, Sidney C / Watson, Karol / Wilson, Peter W F / Anonymous3630896. · ·J Am Coll Cardiol · Pubmed #24239923.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

13 Guideline 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 2014

Stone, Neil J / Robinson, Jennifer G / Lichtenstein, Alice H / Bairey Merz, C Noel / Blum, Conrad B / Eckel, Robert H / Goldberg, Anne C / Gordon, David / Levy, Daniel / Lloyd-Jones, Donald M / McBride, Patrick / Schwartz, J Sanford / Shero, Susan T / Smith, Sidney C / Watson, Karol / Wilson, Peter W F / Eddleman, Karen M / Jarrett, Nicole M / LaBresh, Ken / Nevo, Lev / Wnek, Janusz / Anderson, Jeffrey L / Halperin, Jonathan L / Albert, Nancy M / Bozkurt, Biykem / Brindis, Ralph G / Curtis, Lesley H / DeMets, David / Hochman, Judith S / Kovacs, Richard J / Ohman, E Magnus / Pressler, Susan J / Sellke, Frank W / Shen, Win-Kuang / Smith, Sidney C / Tomaselli, Gordon F / Anonymous3680775. · ·Circulation · Pubmed #24222016.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

14 Guideline [V Brazilian Guidelines on Dyslipidemias and Prevention of Atherosclerosis]. 2013

Xavier, H T / Izar, M C / Faria Neto, J R / Assad, M H / Rocha, V Z / Sposito, A C / Fonseca, F A / dos Santos, J E / Santos, R D / Bertolami, M C / Faludi, A A / Martinez, T L R / Diament, J / Guimarães, A / Forti, N A / Moriguchi, E / Chagas, A C P / Coelho, O R / Ramires, J A F. · ·Arq Bras Cardiol · Pubmed #24217493.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

15 Guideline European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). 2012

Perk, Joep / De Backer, Guy / Gohlke, Helmut / Graham, Ian / Reiner, Zeljko / Verschuren, Monique / Albus, Christian / Benlian, Pascale / Boysen, Gudrun / Cifkova, Renata / Deaton, Christi / Ebrahim, Shah / Fisher, Miles / Germano, Giuseppe / Hobbs, Richard / Hoes, Arno / Karadeniz, Sehnaz / Mezzani, Alessandro / Prescott, Eva / Ryden, Lars / Scherer, Martin / Syvänne, Mikko / Scholte op Reimer, Wilma J M / Vrints, Christiaan / Wood, David / Zamorano, Jose Luis / Zannad, Faiez / Anonymous1491380 / Anonymous1501380. ·School of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Stagneliusgatan 14, Kalmar, Sweden. joep.perk@lnu.se · ·Eur Heart J · Pubmed #22555213.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

16 Guideline [Recommendations for hypercholesterolemic children]. 2011

Luc, Gérald / Girardet, Jean-Philippe / Bruckert, Éric / Rieu, Daniel / Farnier, Michel / Darmaun, Dominique / Anonymous10730894 / Anonymous10740894. ·Nouvelle société française d’athérosclérose. gerald.luc@univ-lille2.fr · ·Presse Med · Pubmed #21391309.

ABSTRACT: Some of hypercholesterolemias observed in childhood have a high risk of premature cardiovascular diseases. The monogenic dominantly inherited hypercholesterolemias such as the familial hypercholesterolemia due to mutations on LDL receptor gene corresponds to these diseases. This article, jointly elaborated by the Nouvelle Société Française d’Athérosclérose together with the Nutrition committee of the Société Française de Pédiatrie, is to propose recommendations for a screening strategy and for management of hypercholesterolemia in children. The approach of these high-risk inherited hypercholesterolemia is specified and the dietary management, the indications and supervision of lipid lowering drug therapy in children are discussed.

17 Guideline [Recommendations for children with hypercholesterolemia]. 2011

Girardet, J-P / Luc, G / Rieu, D / Bruckert, E / Darmaun, D / Farnier, M / Anonymous2840681 / Anonymous2850681. ·Comité de nutrition de la Société française de pédiatrie, 75012 Paris, France. jean-philippe.girardet@trs.aphp.fr · ·Arch Pediatr · Pubmed #21145715.

ABSTRACT: Some cases of hypercholesterolemia observed in childhood present a high risk of premature cardiovascular disease, such as in monogenic dominantly inherited hypercholesterolemia, particularly familial hypercholesterolemia due to mutations on the LDL receptor gene. This article, jointly written by the Société Française de Pédiatrie Nutrition Committee and the Nouvelle Société Française d'Athérosclérose, proposes recommendations for a screening strategy and management of childhood hypercholesterolemia. A practical approach to high-risk cases of inherited hypercholesterolemia is detailed and the dietary management, indications, and supervision of lipid-lowering drug therapy in children are discussed.

18 Guideline [Expert recommendations on attaining the goal for treatment of hypercholesterolemia in clinical practice]. 2010

Anonymous3330666. · ·Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi · Pubmed #20654070.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

19 Guideline Best Practice Guidelines for treatment of hypercholesterolaemia: a statement from the Caribbean Cardiac Society. 2008

Chung, E E / Anonymous4730632. ·Caribbean Cardiac Society, The University of the West Indies, Kingston 7, Jamaica, West Indies. echung@mail.infochan.com · ·West Indian Med J · Pubmed #19565938.

ABSTRACT: There is an increase prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases in the Caribbean as the region undergoes an epidemiologic transition from infectious to chronic non-communicable diseases. Numerous studies have identified hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia as risk factors for the development of coronary atherosclerosis. The Caribbean Cardiac Society recognizes that there is an increased prevalence of these disease entities and in an effort to foster best practice guidelines for the region, implemented a consensus conference for the discussion of hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity in 2005. This statement outlines the recommendations of the consensus group of the Caribbean Cardiac Society on the Best Practice Guidelines for the therapy of hypercholesterolaemia.

20 Guideline Familial hypercholesterolaemia: summary of NICE guidance. 2008

Wierzbicki, Anthony S / Humphries, Steve E / Minhas, Rubin / Anonymous47760607. ·St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH. · ·BMJ · Pubmed #18753174.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

21 Guideline Non-pharmacological control of plasma cholesterol levels. 2008

Poli, Andrea / Marangoni, Franca / Paoletti, Rodolfo / Mannarino, Elmo / Lupattelli, Graziana / Notarbartolo, Alberto / Aureli, Paolo / Bernini, Franco / Cicero, Arrigo / Gaddi, Antonio / Catapano, Alberico / Cricelli, Claudio / Gattone, Marinella / Marrocco, Walter / Porrini, Marisa / Stella, Roberto / Vanotti, Alfredo / Volpe, Massimo / Volpe, Roberto / Cannella, Carlo / Pinto, Alessandro / Del Toma, Eugenio / La Vecchia, Carlo / Tavani, Alessandra / Manzato, Enzo / Riccardi, Gabriele / Sirtori, Cesare / Zambon, Alberto / Anonymous1150592. ·Nutrition Foundation of Italy, Italy. · ·Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis · Pubmed #18258418.

ABSTRACT: The importance of non-pharmacological control of plasma cholesterol levels in the population is increasing, along with the number of subjects whose plasma lipid levels are non-optimal, or frankly elevated, according to international guidelines. In this context, a panel of experts, organized and coordinated by the Nutrition Foundation of Italy, has evaluated the nutritional and lifestyle interventions to be adopted in the control of plasma cholesterol levels (and specifically of LDL cholesterol levels). This Consensus document summarizes the view of the panel on this topic, with the aim to provide an updated support to clinicians and other health professionals involved in cardiovascular prevention.

22 Guideline Effectiveness of rosuvastatin in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel guideline III LDL-C goal attainment compared to other statins among diabetes mellitus patients: a retrospective study using an electronic medical records dataset in the United States. 2007

Fox, Kathleen M / Gandhi, Sanjay K / Ohsfeldt, Robert L / Blasetto, James W / Bays, Harold E. ·University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. kathyfox@comcast.net · ·Curr Med Res Opin · Pubmed #17655813.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare effectiveness of rosuvastatin (RSV) with other statins on lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and LDL-C goal attainment among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A retrospective study using US General Electric Medical Systems (GEMS) database of patients with diabetes mellitus (ICD9 code = 250, prescription for anti-diabetic medication or fasting blood glucose level > or = 126 mg/dL in the 12 months preceding statin therapy) treated across clinical practices in the US, who were newly prescribed statin therapy during August 2003-March 2006, was conducted. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used for analyzing prescription data with baseline LDL-C, age, gender, smoking, very high CHD risk, systolic blood pressure, and statin duration as covariates. RESULTS: Of 4754 diabetes mellitus patients, 5% were prescribed RSV, 59% atorvastatin (ATV), 21% simvastatin (SMV), 5% pravastatin (PRV), 2% fluvastatin (FLV), and 7% lovastatin (LOV). RSV patients had significantly higher (p < 0.05) baseline mean LDL-C levels (138 vs. 117-131 mg/dL), lower average starting dose (11.7 vs. 17.0-63.7 mg) and were younger (p < 0.005) than patients on other statins (mean age 61 vs. 63-69 years). Percent LDL-C reduction was significantly greater (p < 0.0001) with RSV (28.4%) compared to ATV (22.5%), SMV (20.1%), PRV (13.7%), FLV (15.8%), and LOV (17.3%). A greater (p < 0.05) proportion of RSV diabetes patients attained LDL-C goal < 100 mg/dL (72.8%) vs. diabetes mellitus patients on other statins (36.8-67.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Rosuvastatin was more effective in lowering LDL-C and achieving LDL-C treatment goals in the diabetes mellitus population as compared to other statins in real-world clinical practice setting. Validating study results in a different diabetes population with dispensed statin prescriptions will help increase generalizability of study findings.

23 Guideline Cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk pediatric patients: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science; the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Epidemiology and Prevention, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Kidney in Heart Disease; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. 2007

Kavey, Rae-Ellen W / Allada, Vivek / Daniels, Stephen R / Hayman, Laura L / McCrindle, Brian W / Newburger, Jane W / Parekh, Rulan S / Steinberger, Julia / Anonymous4570569 / Anonymous4580569 / Anonymous4590569 / Anonymous4600569 / Anonymous4610569 / Anonymous4620569 / Anonymous4630569 / Anonymous4640569 / Anonymous4650569. · ·J Cardiovasc Nurs · Pubmed #17545824.

ABSTRACT: Although for most children the process of atherosclerosis is subclinical, dramatically accelerated atherosclerosis occurs in some pediatric disease states, with clinical coronary events occurring in childhood and very early adult life. As with most scientific statements about children and the future risk for cardiovascular disease, there are no randomized trials documenting the effects of risk reduction on hard clinical outcomes. A growing body of literature, however, identifies the importance of premature cardiovascular disease in the course of certain pediatric diagnoses and addresses the response to risk factor reduction. For this scientific statement, a panel of experts reviewed what is known about very premature cardiovascular disease in 8 high-risk pediatric diagnoses and, from the science base, developed practical recommendations for management of cardiovascular risk.

24 Guideline Estimating the impact of adding C-reactive protein as a criterion for lipid lowering treatment in the United States. 2007

Woloshin, Steven / Schwartz, Lisa M / Kerin, Kevin / Welch, H Gilbert. ·VA Outcomes Group, White River Junction, VT, USA. Steven.Woloshin@dartmouth.edu · ·J Gen Intern Med · Pubmed #17356986.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in using C-reactive protein (CRP) levels to help select patients for lipid lowering therapy--although this practice is not yet supported by evidence of benefit in a randomized trial. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of Americans potentially affected if a CRP criteria were adopted as an additional indication for lipid lowering therapy. To provide context, we also determined how well current lipid lowering guidelines are being implemented. METHODS: We analyzed nationally representative data to determine how many Americans age 35 and older meet current National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) treatment criteria (a combination of risk factors and their Framingham risk score). We then determined how many of the remaining individuals would meet criteria for treatment using 2 different CRP-based strategies: (1) narrow: treat individuals at intermediate risk (i.e., 2 or more risk factors and an estimated 10-20% risk of coronary artery disease over the next 10 years) with CRP > 3 mg/L and (2) broad: treat all individuals with CRP > 3 mg/L. DATA SOURCE: Analyses are based on the 2,778 individuals participating in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with complete data on cardiac risk factors, fasting lipid levels, CRP, and use of lipid lowering agents. MAIN MEASURES: The estimated number and proportion of American adults meeting NCEP criteria who take lipid-lowering drugs, and the additional number who would be eligible based on CRP testing. RESULTS: About 53 of the 153 million Americans aged 35 and older meet current NCEP criteria (that do not involve CRP) for lipid-lowering treatment. Sixty-five percent, however, are not currently being treated, even among those at highest risk (i.e., patients with established heart disease or its risk equivalent)-62% are untreated. Adopting the narrow and broad CRP strategies would make an additional 2.1 and 25.3 million Americans eligible for treatment, respectively. The latter strategy would make over half the adults age 35 and older eligible for lipid-lowering therapy, with most of the additionally eligible (57%) coming from the lowest NCEP heart risk category (i.e., 0-1 risk factors). CONCLUSION: There is substantial underuse of lipid lowering therapy for American adults at high risk for coronary disease. Rather than adopting CRP-based strategies, which would make millions more lower risk patients eligible for treatment (and for whom treatment benefit has not yet been demonstrated in a randomized trial), we should ensure the treatment of currently defined high-risk patients for whom the benefit of therapy is established.

25 Editorial Aortic Vascular Calcification: Cholesterol Lowering Does Not Reduce Progression in Patients With Familial Hypercholesterolemia-or Does It? 2017

Rajamannan, Nalini M / Nattel, Stanley. ·Division of Cardiology, Most Sacred Heart of Jesus Cardiology and Valvular Institute, Sheboygan, WI; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address: nrajamannan@gmail.com. · Department of Medicine, Montreal Heart Institute and Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Institute of Pharmacology, West German Heart and Vascular Center, Faculty of Medicine, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany. ·Can J Cardiol · Pubmed #28449831.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

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