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Hearing Disorders: HELP
Articles from Wales
Based on 51 articles published since 2010
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These are the 51 published articles about Hearing Disorders that originated from Wales during 2010-2020.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3
1 Review Asymmetrical Hearing Loss in Cases of Industrial Noise Exposure: A Systematic Review of the Literature. 2016

Masterson, Liam / Howard, James / Liu, Zi Wei / Phillips, John. ·*Department of ENT, Norfolk & Norwich Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Norwich, U.K. †Department of ENT, Glan Clwyd Hospital, Denbighshire, U.K. ‡Department of Paediatric ENT, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, U.K. ·Otol Neurotol · Pubmed #27273399.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Asymmetrical hearing thresholds are common in people claiming compensation for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). When present and otherwise unexplained, there is some controversy as to whether such asymmetry can be attributed to occupational noise exposure. In this review, our main objectives were to collate the overall prevalence of this finding in subjects with NIHL, and further, to provide a balanced argument regarding causality. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane, Google Scholar. No date or language restrictions. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: A systematic review of the literature was performed and data on noise exposure, pure tone audiometry, and lateralized hearing outcomes were reviewed. Newcastle-Ottawa (N-O) criteria were employed to assess quality of studies where applicable. DATA SYNTHESIS: N/A CONCLUSION:: Six studies met the inclusion criteria giving a total of 4,735 individual cases with NIHL. Asymmetrical hearing loss accounted for between 2.4% and 22.6% of NIHL cases (L-R difference >15 dB for any frequency 0.5-8 kHz). However, the overwhelming majority of subjects in this review have symmetrical hearing loss when adjusted for other significant variables, e.g., age, sex, and binaural hearing deterioration. Subjects considered for noise exposure remuneration were men (94.3% SE ± 2.7), aged 52.9 years (inter-quartile range, 46.1-58.4), and from a broad range of industrial backgrounds. Future research will be needed to establish the influence of other factors such as smoking status, exposure to chemical agents, specific drugs, or genetic predisposition.

2 Review Daily music exposure dose and hearing problems using personal listening devices in adolescents and young adults: A systematic review. 2016

Jiang, Wen / Zhao, Fei / Guderley, Nicola / Manchaiah, Vinaya. ·a Audiology Centre, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College , Xuzhou , Jiangsu , China . · b Centre for Speech Language Therapy and Hearing Science, Cardiff Metropolitan University , Cardiff , Wales, UK . · c Department of Hearing and Speech Science , Xinhua College, Sun Yat-Sen University , Guangzhou , China . · d Audiology Department , Guys and St. Thomas' Hospital , London , UK . · e Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences , Lamar University , Beaumont , Texas , USA . · f The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning , Linköping University , Linköping , Sweden , and. · g Audiology India , Mysore , Karnataka , India. ·Int J Audiol · Pubmed #26768911.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to explore the evidence on whether the preferred listening levels (PLLs) and durations of music listening through personal listening devices (PLDs) in adolescents and young adults exceed the current recommended 100% daily noise dose; together with the impact on hearing and possible influential factors of such listening behaviours. DESIGN: A systematic search was conducted using multiple online bibliographic databases. STUDY SAMPLE: The 26 studies were included on the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS: The results showed that up to 58.2% of participants exceeded the 100% daily noise dose, particularly in the presence of background noise. Significantly positive correlations were found among background noise levels and mean PLLs, as well as the proportion of participants exceeding the 100% daily noise dose. Moreover, significantly worse hearing thresholds were found in PLD users using audiometry, and significantly poor results in otoacoustic emission (OAE), even in the participants with self-reported 'normal hearing'. CONCLUSION: It is crucial to develop appropriate standards and safe recommendations for daily music exposure dose in future studies. Providing an essential guide and effective education to adolescents and young adults will help raise awareness, increase knowledge, and consequently change attitudes and listening habits.

3 Review 'Wind turbine syndrome': fact or fiction? 2013

Farboud, A / Crunkhorn, R / Trinidade, A. ·Department of ENT Head and Neck Surgery, Glan Clwyd Hospital, Rhyl, Wales, UK. amirfarboud@doctors.net.uk ·J Laryngol Otol · Pubmed #23331380.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Symptoms, including tinnitus, ear pain and vertigo, have been reported following exposure to wind turbine noise. This review addresses the effects of infrasound and low frequency noise and questions the existence of 'wind turbine syndrome'. DESIGN: This review is based on a search for articles published within the last 10 years, conducted using the PubMed database and Google Scholar search engine, which included in their title or abstract the terms 'wind turbine', 'infrasound' or 'low frequency noise'. RESULTS: There is evidence that infrasound has a physiological effect on the ear. Until this effect is fully understood, it is impossible to conclude that wind turbine noise does not cause any of the symptoms described. However, many believe that these symptoms are related largely to the stress caused by unwanted noise exposure. CONCLUSION: There is some evidence of symptoms in patients exposed to wind turbine noise. The effects of infrasound require further investigation.

4 Review The benefit of bilateral versus unilateral cochlear implantation to speech intelligibility in noise. 2012

Culling, John F / Jelfs, Sam / Talbert, Alice / Grange, Jacques A / Backhouse, Steven S. ·School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff, United Kingdom. cullingj@cf.ac.uk ·Ear Hear · Pubmed #22717687.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To develop a predictive model of spatial release from masking (SRM) for cochlear implantees, and validate this model against data from the literature. To establish the spatial configurations for which the model predicts a large advantage of bilateral over unilateral implantation. To collect data to support these predictions and generate predictions of more typical advantages of bilateral implantation. DESIGN: The model initially assumed that bilateral cochlear implantees had equally effective implants on each side, with which they could perform optimal better-ear listening. Predictions were compared with measurements of SRM, using one and two implants with up to three interfering noises. The effect of relaxing the assumption of equally effective implants was explored. Novel measurements of SRM for eight unilateral implantees were collected, including measurements using speech and noise at azimuths of ± 60 degrees, and compared with prediction. A spatial map of bilateral implant benefit was generated for a situation with one interfering noise in anechoic conditions, and predictions of benefit were generated from binaural room impulse responses in a variety of real rooms. RESULTS: The model accurately predicted data from a previous study for multiple interfering noises in a variety of spatial configurations, even when implants were assumed to be equally effective (r = 0.97). It predicted that the maximum benefit of bilateral implantation was 18 dB. Predictions were little affected if the implants were not assumed to be equally effective. The new measurements supported the 18 dB advantage prediction. The spatial map of predicted benefit showed that, for a listener facing the target voice, bilateral implantees could enjoy an advantage of about 10 dB over unilateral implantees in a wide range of situations. Predictions based on real-room measurements with speech and noise at 1 m showed that large benefits can occur even in reverberant spaces. CONCLUSIONS: In optimal conditions, the benefit of bilateral implantation to speech intelligibility in noise can be much larger than has previously been reported. This benefit is thus considerably larger than reported benefits of summation or squelch and is robust in reverberation when the interfering source is close.

5 Review Oral or topical nasal steroids for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children. 2011

Simpson, Sharon A / Lewis, Ruth / van der Voort, Judith / Butler, Christopher C. ·Department of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK, CF14 4XN. ·Cochrane Database Syst Rev · Pubmed #21563132.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is common and may cause hearing loss with associated developmental delay. Treatment remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To examine the evidence for treating children with hearing loss associated with OME with systemic or topical intranasal steroids. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane ENT Group Trials Register; CENTRAL; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; mRCT and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was 26 August 2010. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of oral and topical intranasal steroids, either alone or in combination with another agent such as an oral antibiotic. We excluded publications in abstract form only; uncontrolled, non-randomised or retrospective studies; and studies reporting outcomes by ears (rather than children). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The authors independently extracted data from the published reports using standardised data extraction forms and methods. We assessed the quality of the included studies using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We expressed dichotomous results as a risk ratio (RR) and continuous data as weighted mean difference (WMD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where feasible we pooled studies using a random-effects model and performed tests for heterogeneity between studies. In trials with a cross-over design, we did not use post cross-over treatment data. MAIN RESULTS: We included 12 medium to high-quality studies with a total of 945 participants. No study documented hearing loss associated with OME prior to randomisation. The follow-up period was generally limited, with only one study of intranasal steroid reporting outcome data beyond six months. There was no evidence of benefit from steroid treatment (oral or topical) in terms of hearing loss associated with OME. Pooled data using a fixed-effect model for OME resolution at short-term follow up (< 1 month) showed a significant effect of oral steroids compared to control (RR 4.48; 95% CI 1.52 to 13.23; Chi² 2.75, df = 2, P = 0.25; I² = 27%). Oral steroids plus antibiotic also resulted in an improvement in OME resolution compared to placebo plus antibiotic at less than one month follow up, using a random-effects model (RR 1.99; 95% CI 1.14 to 3.49; five trials, 409 children). However, there was significant heterogeneity between studies (P < 0.01, I² = 69%). There was no evidence of beneficial effect on OME resolution at greater than one month follow up with oral steroids (used alone or with antibiotics) or intranasal steroids (used alone or with antibiotics) at any follow-up period. There was also no evidence of benefit from steroid treatment (oral or topical) in terms of symptoms. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: While oral steroids, especially when used in combination with an oral antibiotic, lead to a quicker resolution of OME in the short term, there is no evidence of longer-term benefit and no evidence that they relieve symptoms of hearing loss. We found no evidence of benefit from treatment of OME with topical intranasal steroids, alone or in combination with an antibiotic, either at short or longer-term follow up.

6 Review The genetic basis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). 2011

Manchaiah, Vinaya K C / Zhao, Fei / Danesh, Ali A / Duprey, Rachel. ·Long Term & Chronic Conditions Centre, College of Human & Health Sciences, Swansea University, United Kingdom. V.K.C.Manchaiah@swansea.ac.uk ·Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol · Pubmed #21176974.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Auditory neuropathy is a hearing disorder where outer hair cell function within the cochlea is normal, but inner hair cell and/or the auditory nerve function is disrupted. It is a heterogeneous disorder which can have either congenital or acquired causes. Furthermore, the aetiology of auditory neuropathy is vast, which may include prematurity, hyperbilirubinaemia, anoxia, hypoxia, congenital brain anomalies, ototoxic drug exposure, and genetic factors. It is estimated that approximately 40% of cases have an underlying genetic basis, which can be inherited in both syndromic and non syndromic conditions. This review paper provides an overview of the genetic conditions associated with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders (ANSDs) and highlights some of the defective genes that have been found to be linked to the pathological auditory changes. METHOD: Literature search was conducted using a number of resources including textbooks, professional journals and the relevant websites. RESULTS: The largest proportion of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders (ANSDs) is due to genetic factors which can be syndromic, non-syndromic or mitochondrial related. The inheritance pattern can include all the four main types of inheritances such as autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked and mitochondrial. CONCLUSION: This paper has provided an overview of mutation with some of the genes and/or loci discovered to be the cause for auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders (ANSDs). It has been noted that different gene mutations may trigger different pathological changes in patients with this disorder. These discoveries have provided us with vital information as to the sites of pathology in auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders (ANSDs), and the results highlight the heterogeneity of the disorder.

7 Review Asymmetric hearing loss in industry. 2010

Fernandes, Sylvester Valentine. ·Private Practice, Newcastle Cardiff, New South Wales, Australia. ·ANZ J Surg · Pubmed #20795956.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Clinical Trial COAST (Cisplatin ototoxicity attenuated by aspirin trial): A phase II double-blind, randomised controlled trial to establish if aspirin reduces cisplatin induced hearing-loss. 2017

Crabb, Simon J / Martin, Karen / Abab, Julia / Ratcliffe, Ian / Thornton, Roger / Lineton, Ben / Ellis, Mary / Moody, Ronald / Stanton, Louise / Galanopoulou, Angeliki / Maishman, Tom / Geldart, Thomas / Bayne, Mike / Davies, Joe / Lamb, Carolynn / Popat, Sanjay / Joffe, Johnathan K / Nutting, Chris / Chester, John / Hartley, Andrew / Thomas, Gareth / Ottensmeier, Christian / Huddart, Robert / King, Emma. ·Cancer Sciences Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom. · Southampton Clinical Trials Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom. · NHS Research, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom. · Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom. · Patient and Public Involvement Representative, United Kingdom. · Royal Bournemouth and Christchurch NHS Foundation Trust, Bournemouth, United Kingdom. · Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Poole, United Kingdom. · The Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow, United Kingdom. · Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom. · St James' University Hospital, Leeds, United Kingdom. · College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University and Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff, United Kingdom. · Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom. · Cancer Sciences Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom; Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Poole, United Kingdom. Electronic address: E.King@soton.ac.uk. ·Eur J Cancer · Pubmed #29128692.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is one of the most ototoxic chemotherapy drugs, resulting in a permanent and irreversible hearing loss in up to 50% of patients. Cisplatin and gentamicin are thought to damage hearing through a common mechanism, involving reactive oxygen species in the inner ear. Aspirin has been shown to minimise gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that aspirin could also reduce ototoxicity from cisplatin-based chemotherapy. METHODS: A total of 94 patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy for multiple cancer types were recruited into a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and randomised in a ratio of 1:1 to receive aspirin 975 mg tid and omeprazole 20 mg od, or matched placebos from the day before, to 2 days after, their cisplatin dose(s), for each treatment cycle. Patients underwent pure tone audiometry before and at 7 and 90 days after their final cisplatin dose. The primary end-point was combined hearing loss (cHL), the summed hearing loss at 6 kHz and 8 kHz, in both ears. RESULTS: Although aspirin was well tolerated, it did not protect hearing in patients receiving cisplatin (p-value = 0.233, 20% one-sided level of significance). In the aspirin arm, patients demonstrated mean cHL of 49 dB (standard deviation [SD] 61.41) following cisplatin compared with placebo patients who demonstrated mean cHL of 36 dB (SD 50.85). Women had greater average hearing loss than men, and patients treated for head and neck malignancy experienced the greatest cHL. CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin did not protect from cisplatin-related ototoxicity. Cisplatin and gentamicin may therefore have distinct ototoxic mechanisms, or cisplatin-induced ototoxicity may be refractory to the aspirin regimen used here.

9 Clinical Trial ADD-ASPIRIN: A phase III, double-blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial assessing the effects of aspirin on disease recurrence and survival after primary therapy in common non-metastatic solid tumours. 2016

Coyle, Christopher / Cafferty, Fay H / Rowley, Samuel / MacKenzie, Mairead / Berkman, Lindy / Gupta, Sudeep / Pramesh, C S / Gilbert, Duncan / Kynaston, Howard / Cameron, David / Wilson, Richard H / Ring, Alistair / Langley, Ruth E / Anonymous5000885. ·MRC Clinical Trials Unit, UCL, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH, UK. · Independent Cancer Patient Voices, 17 Woodbridge Street, London EC1R 0LL, UK. · NCRI Consumer Forum, Angel Building, 407 St John Street, London EC1V 4AD, UK. · Room No. 1109, 11th Floor, Homi Bhabha Block, Tata Memorial Centre/Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012, India. · Department of Surgical Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Dr Ernest Borges Marg, Parel, Mumbai 400012, India. · MRC Clinical Trials Unit, UCL, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH, UK; Sussex Cancer Centre, Royal Sussex County Hospital, Eastern Road, Brighton, Sussex BN2 5BE, UK. · Room 2F65, Block A2, Cardiff School of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK. · Edinburgh Cancer Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road South, EH4 2XR, UK. · Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7AE, Northern Ireland, UK. · The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT, UK. · MRC Clinical Trials Unit, UCL, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH, UK. Electronic address: ruth.langley@ucl.ac.uk. ·Contemp Clin Trials · Pubmed #27777129.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is a considerable body of pre-clinical, epidemiological and randomised data to support the hypothesis that aspirin has the potential to be an effective adjuvant cancer therapy. METHODS: Add-Aspirin is a phase III, multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial with four parallel cohorts. Patients who have undergone potentially curative treatment for breast (n=3100), colorectal (n=2600), gastro-oesophageal (n=2100) or prostate cancer (n=2120) are registered into four tumour specific cohorts. All cohorts recruit in the United Kingdom, with the breast and gastro-oesophageal cohort also recruiting in India. Eligible participants first undertake an active run-in period where 100mg aspirin is taken daily for approximately eight weeks. Participants who are able to adhere and tolerate aspirin then undergo a double-blind randomisation and are allocated in a 1:1:1 ratio to either 100mg aspirin, 300mg aspirin or a matched placebo to be taken daily for at least five years. Those participants ≥75years old are only randomised to 100mg aspirin or placebo due to increased toxicity risk. RESULTS: The primary outcome measures are invasive disease-free survival for the breast cohort, disease-free survival for the colorectal cohort, overall survival for the gastro-oesophageal cohort, and biochemical recurrence-free survival for the prostate cohort, with a co-primary outcome of overall survival across all cohorts. Secondary outcomes include adherence, toxicity including serious haemorrhage, cardiovascular events and some cohort specific measures. CONCLUSIONS: The Add-Aspirin trial investigates whether regular aspirin use after standard therapy prevents recurrence and prolongs survival in participants with four non-metastatic common solid tumours.

10 Article Perceptions of the impact of disability and impairment on health, quality of life and capability. 2019

Bray, Nathan / Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor / Squires, Luke / Morrison, Valerie. ·School of Health Sciences, Bangor University, Fron Heulog, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 2EF, UK. n.bray@bangor.ac.uk. · Centre for Health Economics and Medicines Evaluation, Bangor University, Ardudwy Hall, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 2PZ, UK. · School of Psychology, University of Liverpool, Whelan Building, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GB, UK. · School of Psychology, Bangor University, Adeilad Brigantia, Penrallt Road, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 2AS, UK. ·BMC Res Notes · Pubmed #31126319.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The impact of impairment and disability on quality of life can be considerable, however advances in assistive technology can help to optimise physical and psychosocial functioning. Little is known about how impairment and subsequent adaptation influences health state perceptions, particularly amongst the general public. The aim of this pilot project was to examine student perceptions of what it would be like to live with a physical or sensory impairment, and how adaptation influences health and quality of life. RESULTS: In total 151 undergraduate Psychology students were invited to participate in a questionnaire-based survey. Ethical approval was granted by an academic ethics committee. The survey included a range of validated outcome measures relating to illness perceptions and quality of life, including the B-IPQ, EQ-5D-3L and ICECAP-O. Surveys were divided into two parts: firstly, participants were asked to self-report their own health; and secondly participants were asked to estimate the health impacts of a range of hypothetical states of impairment. Severe adapted impairments were perceived to have less impact on health status than moderate un-adapted impairments. Hearing impairment was perceived to have the least impact on health status, whilst mobility impairment was perceived to have the largest impact on health status.

11 Article Can smartphone vibration provide a valid alternative to tuning forks for use on the ENT ward round? 2019

Hopkins, M E / Owens, D. ·Department of ENT Surgery,University Hospital of Wales,Cardiff,UK. ·J Laryngol Otol · Pubmed #30983564.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: All patients undergoing tympanomastoid surgery should be assessed post-operatively for a 'dead ear'; however, tuning forks are frequently inaccessible. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that smartphone-based vibration applications provide equivalent accuracy to tuning forks when performing Weber's test. METHODS: Data were collected on lay participants with no underlying hearing loss. Earplugs were used to simulate conductive hearing loss. Both the right and left ears were tested with the iBrateMe vibration application on an iPhone and using a 512 Hz tuning fork. RESULTS: Occluding the left ear, the tuning fork lateralised to the left in 18 out of 20 cases. In 20 out of 20 cases, sound lateralised to the left with the iPhone (chi-square test, p = 0.147). Occluding the right ear, the tuning fork lateralised to the right in 19 out of 20 cases. In 19 out of 20 cases, sound lateralised to the right with the iPhone (chi-square test, p > 0.999). CONCLUSION: Smartphone-based vibration applications represent a viable, more accessible alternative to tuning forks when assessing for conductive hearing loss. They can therefore be utilised on the ward round, in patients following tympanomastoid surgery, for example.

12 Article Oral steroids for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children aged 2-8 years: the OSTRICH RCT. 2018

Francis, Nick A / Waldron, Cherry-Ann / Cannings-John, Rebecca / Thomas-Jones, Emma / Winfield, Thomas / Shepherd, Victoria / Harris, Debbie / Hood, Kerenza / Fitzsimmons, Deborah / Roberts, Amanda / Powell, Colin Ve / Gal, Micaela / Jones, Sarah / Butler, Christopher C. ·Division of Population Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. · Centre for Trials Research, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. · College of Human and Health Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea, UK. · Cardiff & Vale University Health Board, Child Health Directorate, St David's Children Centre, Cardiff, UK. · Department of General Paediatrics, Children's Hospital for Wales, Cardiff, UK. · Involving People Network, Health and Care Research Wales, Cardiff, UK. · Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. ·Health Technol Assess · Pubmed #30407151.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Children with hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion (OME) are commonly managed through surgical intervention, hearing aids or watchful waiting. A safe, inexpensive, effective medical treatment would enhance treatment options. Small, poorly conducted trials have found a short-term benefit from oral steroids. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a 7-day course of oral steroids in improving hearing at 5 weeks in children with persistent OME symptoms and current bilateral OME and hearing loss demonstrated by audiometry. DESIGN: Double-blind, individually randomised, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Ear, nose and throat outpatient or paediatric audiology and audiovestibular medicine clinics in Wales and England. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 2-8 years, with symptoms of hearing loss attributable to OME for at least 3 months, a diagnosis of bilateral OME made on the day of recruitment and audiometry-confirmed hearing loss. INTERVENTIONS: A 7-day course of oral soluble prednisolone, as a single daily dose of 20 mg for children aged 2-5 years or 30 mg for 6- to 8-year-olds, or matched placebo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Acceptable hearing at 5 weeks from randomisation. Secondary outcomes comprised acceptable hearing at 6 and 12 months, tympanometry, otoscopic findings, health-care consultations related to OME and other resource use, proportion of children who had ventilation tube (grommet) surgery at 6 and 12 months, adverse effects, symptoms, functional health status, health-related quality of life, short- and longer-term cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: A total of 389 children were randomised. Satisfactory hearing at 5 weeks was achieved by 39.9% and 32.8% in the oral steroid and placebo groups, respectively (absolute difference of 7.1%, 95% confidence interval -2.8% to 16.8%; number needed to treat = 14). This difference was not statistically significant. The secondary outcomes were consistent with the picture of a small or no benefit, and we found no subgroups that achieved a meaningful benefit from oral steroids. The economic analysis showed that treatment with oral steroids was more expensive and accrued fewer quality-adjusted life-years than treatment as usual. However, the differences were small and not statistically significant, and the sensitivity analyses demonstrated large variation in the results. CONCLUSIONS: OME in children with documented hearing loss and attributable symptoms for at least 3 months has a high rate of spontaneous resolution. Discussions about watchful waiting and other interventions will be enhanced by this evidence. The findings of this study suggest that any benefit from a short course of oral steroids for OME is likely to be small and of questionable clinical significance, and that the treatment is unlikely to be cost-effective and, therefore, their use cannot be recommended. FUTURE WORK: Studies exploring optimal approaches to sharing natural history data and enhancing shared decision-making are needed for this condition. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN49798431 and EudraCT 2012-005123-32. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in

13 Article Turn an Ear to Hear: How Hearing-Impaired Listeners Can Exploit Head Orientation to Enhance Their Speech Intelligibility in Noisy Social Settings. 2018

Grange, Jacques A / Culling, John F / Bardsley, Barry / Mackinney, Laura I / Hughes, Sarah E / Backhouse, Steven S. ·1 School of Psychology, Cardiff University, UK. · 2 South Wales Cochlear Implant Programme, Princess of Wales Hospital, Bridgend, UK. ·Trends Hear · Pubmed #30334495.

ABSTRACT: Turning an ear toward the talker can enhance spatial release from masking. Here, with their head free, listeners attended to speech at a gradually diminishing signal-to-noise ratio and with the noise source azimuthally separated from the speech source by 180° or 90°. Young normal-hearing adult listeners spontaneously turned an ear toward the speech source in 64% of audio-only trials, but a visible talker's face or cochlear implant (CI) use significantly reduced this head-turn behavior. All listener groups made more head movements once instructed to explore the potential benefit of head turns and followed the speech to lower signal-to-noise ratios. Unilateral CI users improved the most. In a virtual restaurant simulation with nine interfering noises or voices, hearing-impaired listeners and simulated bilateral CI users typically obtained a 1 to 3 dB head-orientation benefit from a 30° head turn away from the talker. In diffuse interference environments, the advice to U.K. CI users from many CI professionals and the communication guidance available on the Internet most often advise the CI user to face the talker head on. However, CI users would benefit from guidelines that recommend they look sidelong at the talker with their better hearing or implanted ear oriented toward the talker.

14 Article Participants' experiences of an Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention for tinnitus. 2018

Beukes, Eldré W / Manchaiah, Vinaya / Davies, Alice S A / Allen, Peter M / Baguley, David M / Andersson, Gerhard. ·a Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences , Anglia Ruskin University , Cambridge , UK. · b Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences , Lamar University , Beaumont , TX , USA. · c Department of Speech and Hearing, School of Allied Health Sciences , Manipal University , Manipal , Karnataka , India. · d Audiology India , Mysore , Karnataka , India. · e College of Human and Health Sciences , Swansea University , Swansea , UK. · f Audiology Department, Princess of Wales Hospital , Bridgend , UK. · g Vision and Eye Research Unit , Anglia Ruskin University , Cambridge , UK. · h National Institute for Health Research, Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre , Nottingham , UK. · i Hearing Sciences, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine , University of Nottingham , Nottingham , UK. · j Nottingham University Hospitals , Nottingham , UK. · k Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning , Linköping University , Linköping , Sweden. · l Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry , Karolinska Institute , Stockholm , Sweden. ·Int J Audiol · Pubmed #30295113.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore participants' experiences after undertaking an Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention (ICBT) for tinnitus. DESIGN: Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted 6-8 months after participants undertook the ICBT intervention. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to interpret the interview data. STUDY SAMPLE: A purposeful sampling strategy was used to identify a diverse range of participants. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 participants. The mean age was 58.5 years, 7 men and 8 women participated. RESULTS: The analysis generated the following main themes: (1) expectations and motivation for doing the intervention, (2) experiences of the intervention, (3) intervention engagement and (4) intervention effects. Most participants' expectations were hopeful that the intervention would lessen the impact of their tinnitus. Aspects of the intervention that were beneficial, as well as difficult, were identified together with the impact they had on engagement. Intervention effects were evident on both tinnitus and activities of daily life. CONCLUSIONS: The benefits described by participants indicate the potential of ICBT as an alternate form of intervention delivery. The difficulties that hampered engagement need to be addressed to enhance the application and to optimise the clinical acceptability of ICBT for tinnitus.

15 Article Unusual discovery of a vestibular schwannoma following eradication therapy for 2018

Wilson, Chloe / Duckers, Jamie / Rajenderkumar, Deepak. ·Medical Postgraduate Education and Training, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. · All Wales Adult CF Centre, University Hospital Llandough, Llandough, UK. · Audio-vestibular medicine, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK. ·BMJ Case Rep · Pubmed #30158267.

ABSTRACT: A young man with cystic fibrosis in his early 30s presented to accident and emergency with acute onset unilateral lower motor neuron facial palsy, hearing loss and impaired balance following

16 Article Oral steroids for resolution of otitis media with effusion in children (OSTRICH): a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomised trial. 2018

Francis, Nick A / Cannings-John, Rebecca / Waldron, Cherry-Ann / Thomas-Jones, Emma / Winfield, Tom / Shepherd, Victoria / Harris, Debbie / Hood, Kerenza / Fitzsimmons, Deborah / Roberts, Amanda / Powell, Colin / Gal, Micaela / Butler, Christopher C. ·Division of Population Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Neuadd Meirionnydd, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK. Electronic address: francisna@cardiff.ac.uk. · Centre for Trials Research, College of Biomedical & Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Neuadd Meirionnydd, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK. · Swansea Centre for Health Economics, College of Human Health Sciences, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, UK. · Cardiff and Vale University Health Board, Child Health Directorate, St David's Children Centre, Cowbridge Road East, Cardiff, UK. · Department of General Paediatrics, Children's Hospital for Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK. · Division of Population Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Neuadd Meirionnydd, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK. · Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Oxford, UK. ·Lancet · Pubmed #30152390.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Children with persistent hearing loss due to otitis media with effusion are commonly managed by surgical intervention. A safe, cheap, and effective medical treatment would enhance treatment options. Underpowered, poor-quality trials have found short-term benefit from oral steroids. We aimed to investigate whether a short course of oral steroids would achieve acceptable hearing in children with persistent otitis media with effusion and hearing loss. METHODS: In this individually randomised, parallel, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial we recruited children aged 2-8 years with symptoms attributable to otitis media with effusion for at least 3 months and with confirmed bilateral hearing loss. Participants were recruited from 20 ear, nose, and throat (ENT), paediatric audiology, and audiovestibular medicine outpatient departments in England and Wales. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to sequentially numbered identical prednisolone (oral steroid) or placebo packs by use of computer-generated random permuted block sizes stratified by site and child's age. The primary outcome was audiometry-confirmed acceptable hearing at 5 weeks. All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN Registry, number ISRCTN49798431. FINDINGS: Between March 20, 2014, and April 5, 2016, 1018 children were screened, of whom 389 were randomised. 200 were assigned to receive oral steroids and 189 to receive placebo. Hearing at 5 weeks was assessed in 183 children in the oral steroid group and in 180 in the placebo group. Acceptable hearing was observed in 73 (40%) children in the oral steroid group and in 59 (33%) in the placebo group (absolute difference 7% [95% CI -3 to 17], number needed to treat 14; adjusted odds ratio 1·36 [95% CI 0·88-2·11]; p=0·16). There was no evidence of any significant differences in adverse events or quality-of-life measures between the groups. INTERPRETATION: Otitis media with effusion in children with documented hearing loss and attributable symptoms for at least 3 months has a high rate of spontaneous resolution. A short course of oral prednisolone is not an effective treatment for most children aged 2-8 years with persistent otitis media with effusion, but is well tolerated. One in 14 children might achieve improved hearing but not quality of life. Discussions about watchful waiting and other interventions will be supported by this evidence. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme.

17 Article Cross-cultural adaptation of the Tinnitus Functional Index for measurement of chronic tinnitus in Hong Kong Chinese patients. 2018

Kam, A Cs / Leung, E Ks / Chan, P Yb / Cheung, A Pp / Tong, M Cf. ·Department of Special Education and Counselling, The Education University of Hong Kong. · Department of ENT, Prince of Wales Hospital. · Department of ENT, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital. · Department of ENT, Yan Chai Hospital. · Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. ·Hong Kong Med J · Pubmed #30135275.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

18 Article Removal of external ear canal exostoses by piezo surgery: a novel technique. 2018

Puttasiddaiah, P M / Browning, S T. ·Department of Otolaryngology,Morriston Hospital,Swansea,Wales,UK. ·J Laryngol Otol · Pubmed #30099978.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: External auditory canal exostoses are known to occur in patients who engage in cold-water sports. Although the majority of patients with exostosis remain asymptomatic, larger lesions can cause wax impaction, conductive hearing loss and predispose to recurrent otitis externa. OBJECTIVE: A novel technique is described of using a piezo saw to excise exostoses that are symptomatic. The piezo saw is used to perform various procedures, but its use in removing exostoses has not been described in the literature. CONCLUSION: Excision of exostoses of the ear canal using a piezo saw is a safe technique and patients have a speedy recovery. This paper describes a new technique for removing exostoses.

19 Article Qualitative, multimethod study of behavioural and attitudinal responses to cochlear implantation from the patient and healthcare professional perspective in Australia and the UK: study protocol. 2018

Rapport, Frances / Bierbaum, Mia / McMahon, Catherine / Boisvert, Isabelle / Lau, Annie / Braithwaite, Jeffrey / Hughes, Sarah. ·Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Macquarie University Centre for Implementation of Hearing Research, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · South Wales Cochlear Implant Programme, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board, Bridgend, UK. · Swansea University Medical School, Swansea, UK. ·BMJ Open · Pubmed #29844099.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The growing prevalence of adults with 'severe or greater' hearing loss globally is of great concern, with hearing loss leading to diminished communication, and impacting on an individual's quality of life (QoL). Cochlear implants (CI) are a recommended device for people with severe or greater, sensorineural hearing loss, who obtain limited benefits from conventional hearing aids (HA), and through improved speech perception, CIs can improve the QoL of recipients. Despite this, utilisation of CIs is low. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This qualitative, multiphase and multimethod dual-site study (Australia and the UK) explores patients' and healthcare professionals' behaviours and attitudes to cochlear implantation. Participants include general practitioners, audiologists and older adults with severe or greater hearing loss, who are HA users, CI users and CI candidates. Using purposive time frame sampling, participants will be recruited to take part in focus groups or individual interviews, and will each complete a demographic questionnaire and a qualitative proforma. The study aims to conduct 147 data capture events across a sample of 49 participants, or until data saturation occurs. Schema and thematic analysis with extensive group work will be used to analyse data alongside reporting of demographic and participant characteristics. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval for this study was granted by Macquarie University (HREC: 5201700539), and the study will abide by Australian National Health and Medical Research Council ethical guidelines. Study findings will be published through peer-reviewed journal articles, and disseminated through public and academic conference presentations, participant information sheets and a funders' final report.

20 Article Association between patient-reported hearing and visual impairments and functional, psychological, and cognitive status among older adults with cancer. 2018

Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique / Sun, Can-Lan / Tew, William P / Mohile, Supriya Gupta / Gajra, Ajeet / Klepin, Heidi D / Owusu, Cynthia / Gross, Cary Philip / Muss, Hyman B / Lichtman, Stuart M / Chapman, Andrew E / Cohen, Harvey Jay / Dale, William / Kim, Heeyoung / Fernandes, Simone / Katheria, Vani / Hurria, Arti. ·Cancer and Aging Research Program, City of Hope, Duarte, California. · Department of Geriatrics, Salvador Zubiran National Institute of Medical Science and Nutrition, Mexico City, Mexico. · Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. · Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York. · ICON Clinical Research, North Wales, Pennsylvania. · Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. · Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. · Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. · University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. · Jefferson Senior Adult Oncology Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. · Center for the Study of Aging & Human Development, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. · Department of Supportive Care Medicine, City of Hope, Duarte, California. ·Cancer · Pubmed #29797664.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hearing and visual impairments are common among community-dwelling older adults, and are associated with psychological, functional, and cognitive deficits. However, to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding their prevalence among older patients with cancer. METHODS: The current study was a secondary analysis combining 2 prospective cohorts of adults aged ≥65 years with solid tumors who were receiving chemotherapy. The authors assessed the association between patient-reported hearing and/or visual impairment (defined as fair/poor grading by self-report) and physical function, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), anxiety, depression, and cognition. Descriptive analyses were conducted to summarize patient and treatment characteristics. One-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests were conducted as appropriate to examine differences between patients with and without sensory impairments. Logistic regression was used to analyze associations between sensory impairments and outcomes. RESULTS: Among 750 patients with a median age of 72 years who had solid tumors (29% with breast/gynecological tumors, 28% with lung tumors, and 27% with gastrointestinal tumors), approximately 18% reported hearing impairment alone, 11% reported visual impairment alone, and 7% reported dual sensory impairment. Hearing impairment was associated with IADL dependence (odds ratio [OR], 1.9), depression (OR, 1.6), and anxiety (OR, 1.6). Visual impairment was associated with IADL dependence (OR, 1.9), poor physical function (OR, 1.9), and depression (OR, 2.5). Dual impairment was associated with IADL dependence (OR, 2.8), anxiety (OR, 2.3), depression (OR, 2.5), and cognitive impairment (OR, 3.2). CONCLUSIONS: Sensory impairment is common among older adults with cancer. Patients with sensory impairment are more likely to have functional, psychological, and cognitive deficits. Interventions aimed at improving the vision and hearing of older adults with cancer should be studied. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

21 Article Social Connectedness and Perceived Listening Effort in Adult Cochlear Implant Users: A Grounded Theory to Establish Content Validity for a New Patient-Reported Outcome Measure. 2018

Hughes, Sarah E / Hutchings, Hayley A / Rapport, Frances L / McMahon, Catherine M / Boisvert, Isabelle. ·South Wales Cochlear Implant Programme, Bridgend, United Kingdom. · Swansea University Medical School, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom. · The Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Department of Linguistics (Audiology Section), Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ·Ear Hear · Pubmed #29424766.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Individuals with hearing loss often report a need for increased effort when listening, particularly in challenging acoustic environments. Despite audiologists' recognition of the impact of listening effort on individuals' quality of life, there are currently no standardized clinical measures of listening effort, including patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). To generate items and content for a new PROM, this qualitative study explored the perceptions, understanding, and experiences of listening effort in adults with severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss before and after cochlear implantation. DESIGN: Three focus groups (1 to 3) were conducted. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 17 participants from a cochlear implant (CI) center in the United Kingdom. The participants included adults (n = 15, mean age = 64.1 years, range 42 to 84 years) with acquired severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss who satisfied the UK's national candidacy criteria for cochlear implantation and their normal-hearing significant others (n = 2). Participants were CI candidates who used hearing aids (HAs) and were awaiting CI surgery or CI recipients who used a unilateral CI or a CI and contralateral HA (CI + HA). Data from a pilot focus group conducted with 2 CI recipients were included in the analysis. The data, verbatim transcripts of the focus group proceedings, were analyzed qualitatively using constructivist grounded theory (GT) methodology. RESULTS: A GT of listening effort in cochlear implantation was developed from participants' accounts. The participants provided rich, nuanced descriptions of the complex and multidimensional nature of their listening effort. Interpreting and integrating these descriptions through GT methodology, listening effort was described as the mental energy required to attend to and process the auditory signal, as well as the effort required to adapt to, and compensate for, a hearing loss. Analyses also suggested that listening effort for most participants was motivated by a need to maintain a sense of social connectedness (i.e., the subjective awareness of being in touch with one's social world). Before implantation, low social connectedness in the presence of high listening effort encouraged self-alienating behaviors and resulted in social isolation with adverse effects for participant's well-being and quality of life. A CI moderated but did not remove the requirement for listening effort. Listening effort, in combination with the improved auditory signal supplied by the CI, enabled most participants to listen and communicate more effectively. These participants reported a restored sense of social connectedness and an acceptance of the continued need for listening effort. CONCLUSIONS: Social connectedness, effort-reward balance, and listening effort as a multidimensional phenomenon were the core constructs identified as important to participants' experiences and understanding of listening effort. The study's findings suggest: (1) perceived listening effort is related to social and psychological factors and (2) these factors may influence how individuals with hearing loss report on the actual cognitive processing demands of listening. These findings provide evidence in support of the Framework for Understanding Effortful Listening a heuristic that describes listening effort as a function of both motivation and demands on cognitive capacity. This GT will inform item development and establish the content validity for a new PROM for measuring listening effort.

22 Article Cochlear implant simulator with independent representation of the full spiral ganglion. 2017

Grange, Jacques A / Culling, John F / Harris, Naomi S L / Bergfeld, Sven. ·School of Psychology, Cardiff University, CF103AT, Cardiff, United Kingdom grangeja@cardiff.ac.uk, cullingj@cardiff.ac.uk, naomislharris@gmail.com. · Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany svenbergfeld@posteo.de. ·J Acoust Soc Am · Pubmed #29195445.

ABSTRACT: In cochlear implant simulation with vocoders, narrow-band carriers deliver the envelopes from each analysis band to the cochlear positions of the simulated electrodes. However, this approach does not faithfully represent the continuous nature of the spiral ganglion. The proposed "SPIRAL" vocoder simulates current spread by mixing all envelopes across many tonal carriers. SPIRAL demonstrated that the classic finding of reduced speech-intelligibility benefit with additional electrodes could be due to current spread. SPIRAL produced lower speech reception thresholds than an equivalent noise vocoder. These thresholds are stable for between 20 and 160 carriers.

23 Article Logistic regression analysis of factors influencing the effectiveness of intensive sound masking therapy in patients with tinnitus. 2017

Cai, Yuexin / Zhou, Qian / Yang, Haidi / Jiang, Jiajia / Zhao, Fei / Huang, Xiayin / Mo, Hanjie / Chen, Xiaoting / Xiong, Hao / Chen, Suijun / Zhang, Xueyuan / Zheng, Yiqing. ·Department of Otolaryngology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. · Institute of Hearing and Speech-Language Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. · Clinical Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. · Department of Speech Language Therapy and Hearing Science, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Wales, UK. · Department of Hearing and Speech Science, Xinhua College, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China. ·BMJ Open · Pubmed #29146645.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To investigate factors influencing the effectiveness of intensive sound masking therapy on tinnitus using logistic regression analysis. DESIGN: The study used a retrospective cross-section analysis. PARTICIPANTS: 102 patients with tinnitus were recruited at the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, China. INTERVENTION: Intensive sound masking therapy was used as an intervention approach for patients with tinnitus. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants underwent audiological investigations and tinnitus pitch and loudness matching measurements, followed by intensive sound masking therapy. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was used as the outcome measure pre and post treatment. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate the association of demographic and audiological factors with effective therapy. RESULTS: According to the THI score changes pre and post sound masking intervention, 51 participants were categorised into an effective group, the remaining 51 participants were placed in a non-effective group. Those in the effective group were significantly younger than those in the non-effective group (P=0.012). Significantly more participants had flat audiogram configurations in the effective group (P=0.04). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR=0.96, 95% CI 0.93 to 0.99, P=0.007), audiometric configuration (P=0.027) and THI score pre treatment (OR=1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07, P<0.001) were significantly associated with therapeutic effectiveness. Further analysis showed that patients with flat audiometric configurations were 5.45 times more likely to respond to intervention than those with high-frequency steeply sloping audiograms (OR=5.45, 95% CI 1.67 to 17.86, P=0.005). CONCLUSION: Audiometric configuration, age and THI scores appear to be predictive of the effectiveness of sound masking treatment. Gender, tinnitus characteristics and hearing threshold measures do not seem to be related to treatment effectiveness. A further randomised control study is needed to provide evidence of the effectiveness of prognostic factors in tinnitus interventions.

24 Article Visual Processing Recruits the Auditory Cortices in Prelingually Deaf Children and Influences Cochlear Implant Outcomes. 2017

Liang, Maojin / Chen, Yuebo / Zhao, Fei / Zhang, Junpeng / Liu, Jiahao / Zhang, Xueyuan / Cai, Yuexin / Chen, Suijun / Li, Xianghui / Chen, Ling / Zheng, Yiqing. ·*Department of Otolaryngology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, and Institute of Hearing and Speech-Language Science, Sun Yat-Sen University †Department of Hearing and Speech Science, Xin Hua College of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China ‡Centre for Speech and Language Therapy and Hearing Science, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Wales §Department of Biomedical Information Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering and Information, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. ·Otol Neurotol · Pubmed #28727651.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Although visual processing recruitment of the auditory cortices has been reported previously in prelingually deaf children who have a rapidly developing brain and no auditory processing, the visual processing recruitment of auditory cortices might be different in processing different visual stimuli and may affect cochlear implant (CI) outcomes. METHODS: Ten prelingually deaf children, 4 to 6 years old, were recruited for the study. Twenty prelingually deaf subjects, 4 to 6 years old with CIs for 1 year, were also recruited; 10 with well-performing CIs, 10 with poorly performing CIs. Ten age and sex-matched normal-hearing children were recruited as controls. Visual ("sound" photo [photograph with imaginative sound] and "nonsound" photo [photograph without imaginative sound]) evoked potentials were measured in all subjects. P1 at Oz and N1 at the bilateral temporal-frontal areas (FC3 and FC4) were compared. RESULTS: N1 amplitudes were strongest in the deaf children, followed by those with poorly performing CIs, controls and those with well-performing CIs. There was no significant difference between controls and those with well-performing CIs. "Sound" photo stimuli evoked a stronger N1 than "nonsound" photo stimuli. Further analysis showed that only at FC4 in deaf subjects and those with poorly performing CIs were the N1 responses to "sound" photo stimuli stronger than those to "nonsound" photo stimuli. No significant difference was found for the FC3 and FC4 areas. No significant difference was found in N1 latencies and P1 amplitudes or latencies. CONCLUSION: The results indicate enhanced visual recruitment of the auditory cortices in prelingually deaf children. Additionally, the decrement in visual recruitment of auditory cortices was related to good CI outcomes.

25 Article Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for assessing perceived listening effort in hearing loss: protocol for a systematic review. 2017

Hughes, Sarah E / Rapport, Frances L / Boisvert, Isabelle / McMahon, Catherine M / Hutchings, Hayley A. ·Swansea University Medical School, Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, UK. · South Wales Cochlear Implant Programme, Princess of Wales Hospital, Bridgend, UK. · Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, New South Wales, Australia. · The HEARing CRC, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Department of Linguistics (Audiology Section), Macquarie University, New South Wales, Australia. ·BMJ Open · Pubmed #28592576.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: In the UK, it is estimated that a disabling hearing loss (HL) affects 1 in 6 people. HL has functional, economic and social-emotional consequences for affected individuals. Intervention for HL focuses on improving access to the auditory signal using hearing aids or cochlear implants. However, even if sounds are audible and speech is understood, individuals with HL often report increased effort when listening.Listening effort (LE) may be measured using self-reported measures such as patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). PROMs are validated questionnaires completed by patients to measure their perceptions of their own functional status and well-being. When selecting a PROM for use in research or clinical practice, it is necessary to appraise the evidence of a PROM's acceptability to patients, validity, responsiveness and reliability. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review of studies evaluating the measurement properties of PROMs available to measure LE in HL will be undertaken. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and Web of Science will be searched electronically. Reference lists of included studies, key journals and the grey literature will be hand-searched to identify further studies for inclusion. Two reviewers will independently complete title, abstract and full-text screening to determine study eligibility. Data on the characteristics of each study and each PROM will be extracted. Methodological quality of the included studies will be appraised using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, the quality of included PROMs appraised and the credibility of the evidence assessed. A narrative synthesis will summarise extracted data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical permission is not required, as this study uses data from published research. Dissemination will be through publication in peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and the lead author's doctoral dissertation. Findings may inform the selection of PROMs used to measure LE in HL.

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