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Hearing Disorders: HELP
Articles by Claire A. M. Salloum
Based on 4 articles published since 2010
(Why 4 articles?)

Between 2010 and 2020, Claire Salloum wrote the following 4 articles about Hearing Disorders.
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Article Unilateral cochlear implant use promotes normal-like loudness perception in adolescents with childhood deafness. 2014

Steel, Morrison Mansour / Abbasalipour, Parvaneh / Salloum, Claire A M / Hasek, David / Papsin, Blake C / Gordon, Karen A. ·1Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 2Department of Otolaryngology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 3Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 4Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and 5Department of Communication Disorders, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ·Ear Hear · Pubmed #25072236.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Behavioral measures of cochlear implant (CI) device stimulation levels can be difficult to obtain in individuals with limited or no hearing experience. Loudness measures are particularly challenging. It would therefore be useful to have a battery of objective and behavioral measures to determine CI stimulation levels in listeners with childhood deafness. In the present study, the authors characterized loudness growth in 20 adolescents: 8 with normal hearing and 12 CI participants with pre/perilingual bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. They asked (1) do adolescent CI users with childhood deafness experience similar increases in loudness as their peers with normal hearing? and (2) can loudness be predicted by objective measures of auditory activity? The authors hypothesized that loudness perception would be significantly different between CI and normal-hearing groups and that it would correlate with objective measures. DESIGN: CI users were recruited from the Cochlear Implant Program at The Hospital for Sick Children and all had used unilateral Nucleus CIs for at least 2 years. The dynamic range for each participant was defined as the difference between the behavioral threshold and the electrically evoked stapedius reflex (ESR) threshold. Loudness growth was assessed within this range behaviorally on a continuous visual scale and objectively with physiological measures. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and ESRs were recorded in both groups and electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) of the auditory nerve were recorded in addition in CI listeners. The regression line slopes of ECAP and ABR amplitude growth functions were then calculated and compared with behavioral loudness growth slopes in the upper portion (40-100%) and lower portion (0-40%) of the dynamic range. Electrical pulse stimuli (in CI users) and acoustic clicks (in normal-hearing participants) were presented within each participant's dynamic range. RESULTS: The mean dynamic range in CI listeners was more variable than in normal-hearing individuals. Despite this difference, loudness at the ESR threshold was not significantly different in CI adolescents from their normal-hearing peers, and CI users exhibited normal-like loudness growth. There was a significantly positive correlation between ECAP amplitude growth and loudness growth in CI users in the upper portion of the dynamic range, while ABR wave V amplitude growth was not related to loudness growth in either group. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that the ESR threshold is a good measure of comfortably loud levels in adolescents with cochlear implants and their normal-hearing peers. Adolescents using CIs show normal-like rates of loudness growth on average, despite having highly variable dynamic ranges of hearing. Individual rates of loudness growth in the upper dynamic range in CI users can be predicted by the rate of amplitude growth of the ECAP. Thus, the rate of neural recruitment with increasing CI current is important for loudness perception in pre/perilingually deaf listeners and should be considered when programming their CIs.

2 Article Binaural interactions develop in the auditory brainstem of children who are deaf: effects of place and level of bilateral electrical stimulation. 2012

Gordon, Karen A / Salloum, Claire / Toor, Gurvinder S / van Hoesel, Richard / Papsin, Blake C. ·Archie's Cochlear Implant Laboratory, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. karen.gordon@utoronto.ca ·J Neurosci · Pubmed #22442083.

ABSTRACT: Bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) might promote development of binaural hearing required to localize sound sources and hear speech in noise for children who are deaf. These hearing skills improve in children implanted bilaterally but remain poorer than normal. We thus questioned whether the deaf and immature human auditory system is able to integrate input delivered from bilateral CIs. Using electrophysiological measures of brainstem activity that include the Binaural Difference (BD), a measure of binaural processing, we showed that a period of unilateral deprivation before bilateral CI use prolonged response latencies but that amplitudes were not significantly affected. Tonotopic organization was retained to some extent as evidenced by an elimination of the BD with large mismatches in place of stimulation between the two CIs. Smaller place mismatches did not affect BD latency or amplitude, indicating that the tonotopic organization of the auditory brainstem is underdeveloped and/or not well used by CI stimulation. Finally, BD amplitudes decreased when the intensity of bilateral stimulation became weighted to one side and this corresponded to a perceptual shift of sound away from midline toward the side of increased intensity. In summary, bilateral CI stimulation is processed by the developing human auditory brainstem leading to perceptual changes in sound location and potentially improving hearing for children who are deaf.

3 Article Toward a method for programming balanced bilateral cochlear implant stimulation levels in children. 2012

Gordon, Karen Ann / Chaikof, Michael Harry / Salloum, Claire / Goulding, Gina / Papsin, Blake. ·The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. karen.gordon@utoronto.ca ·Cochlear Implants Int · Pubmed #22325057.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we investigated differences in stimulation levels between bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) in children and compared these to previously recorded measures of balanced input. We hypothesized that differences in stimulation levels between two CI: (1) will be observed both in behavioral and objective measures, and (2) can help to provide bilateral stimulation levels that are perceived as balanced. METHOD: Participants were 19 children who received bilateral CIs sequentially. Behaviorally determined minimum and maximum stimulation levels from the first (CI-1) and second (CI-2) CIs at an apical electrode (#20) were compared with thresholds of the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) of the auditory nerve and electrically evoked stapedius reflex (ESR). RESULTS: All four measures were found to be greater when evoked from CI-1 than CI-2 and the dynamic range between behavioral measures was reduced in CI-2 relative to CI-1. Significant correlations were found between differences in behavioral and objective measures; as differences in T-levels between CI-1 and CI-2 increased, so did the differences in ECAP thresholds and a similarly positive relationship was found between C-level differences and ESR threshold differences. Differences in ECAP thresholds between CI-1 and CI-2 were significantly correlated with balanced bilateral levels. DISCUSSION: Children using two different Nucleus CIs often require different stimulation levels on either side. Although lower levels were needed on the side more recently implanted with newer technology, the dynamic range of input provided on the second side was reduced relative to the more experienced side. Differences in behavioral measures between CI-1 and CI-2 can be partially predicted by objective measures. ECAP thresholds show the best promise for helping to provide balanced bilateral CI input in children.

4 Article Lateralization of interimplant timing and level differences in children who use bilateral cochlear implants. 2010

Salloum, Claire A M / Valero, Jerome / Wong, Daniel D E / Papsin, Blake C / van Hoesel, Richard / Gordon, Karen A. ·Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Canada. ·Ear Hear · Pubmed #20489647.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Interaural level differences (ILD) and interaural timing differences (ITD) are important cues for locating sounds in space. Adult bilateral cochlear implant (CI) users use ILDs more effectively than ITDs. Few studies investigated the ability of children who use bilateral CIs to make use of these binaural cues. Our working hypothesis was that children using bilateral CIs are able to perceive changes in ITDs and ILDs similar to their normal-hearing (NH) peers. DESIGN: Participants were two groups of children; 19 bilateral implant users (CI) and nine NH children. The children in the CI group had received a second CI after 4.9 +/- 2.8 yrs of unilateral use. Children performed a four alternative forced-choice lateralization task in which they were asked to describe stimuli as coming from the left side, right side, middle of the head, or from both sides simultaneously. Stimuli were 500 msec trains of electrical pulses delivered to apical electrode no. 18 (CI group) or clicks (NH group) presented 11 times per second with either ITDs (0, 400, 1000, or 2000 microsec delay between sides) or level differences (0, 10, or 20 Current Units (CI group) or 0, 10, or 20 dB (NH group) difference between sides). ITDs were presented using current levels that were balanced using left and right electrically evoked brain stem responses. Stimulus levels evoking response amplitudes that were most similar were used. RESULTS: Responses from children in the CI group changed significantly with changes in ILD of bilateral stimuli, but not with changes in ITD. Responses from children in the CI group were significantly different from those in the NH group in three ways. Children in the CI group perceived bilaterally presented electrical pulses: (1) to come from the second implanted side more often than the first, (2) to rarely come from the middle, and (3) to come from both sides of the head simultaneously. Perceived changes in lateralization with ILD changes were correlated with differences in amplitudes of electrically evoked brain stem responses by the left versus right CI. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study illustrate that children who use bilateral CIs can lateralize stimuli on the basis of level cues, but have difficulty interpreting interimplant timing differences. Perceived lateralization of bilaterally presented stimuli to the second implanted side in many of the stimulus conditions may relate to the use of different device generations between sides. Further differences from normal lateralization responses could be due to abnormal binaural processing, possibly resulting from a period of unilateral hearing before the provision of a second implant or due to insufficiently matched interimplant stimuli. It may be possible to use objective measures such as electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses wave eV amplitudes to provide balanced levels of bilateral stimulation in children who have had no binaural hearing experience.