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Hearing Disorders: HELP
Articles by Gary Morgan
Based on 8 articles published since 2010
(Why 8 articles?)

Between 2010 and 2020, G. Morgan wrote the following 8 articles about Hearing Disorders.
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Article Semantic fluency in deaf children who use spoken and signed language in comparison with hearing peers. 2018

Marshall, C R / Jones, A / Fastelli, A / Atkinson, J / Botting, N / Morgan, G. ·UCL Institute of Education, University College London, London, UK. · UCL Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre, University College London, London, UK. · University of Padua, Padua, Italy. · Language and Communication Science, School of Health Sciences, City University of London, London, UK. ·Int J Lang Commun Disord · Pubmed #28691260.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Deafness has an adverse impact on children's ability to acquire spoken languages. Signed languages offer a more accessible input for deaf children, but because the vast majority are born to hearing parents who do not sign, their early exposure to sign language is limited. Deaf children as a whole are therefore at high risk of language delays. AIMS: We compared deaf and hearing children's performance on a semantic fluency task. Optimal performance on this task requires a systematic search of the mental lexicon, the retrieval of words within a subcategory and, when that subcategory is exhausted, switching to a new subcategory. We compared retrieval patterns between groups, and also compared the responses of deaf children who used British Sign Language (BSL) with those who used spoken English. We investigated how semantic fluency performance related to children's expressive vocabulary and executive function skills, and also retested semantic fluency in the majority of the children nearly 2 years later, in order to investigate how much progress they had made in that time. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Participants were deaf children aged 6-11 years (N = 106, comprising 69 users of spoken English, 29 users of BSL and eight users of Sign Supported English-SSE) compared with hearing children (N = 120) of the same age who used spoken English. Semantic fluency was tested for the category 'animals'. We coded for errors, clusters (e.g., 'pets', 'farm animals') and switches. Participants also completed the Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test and a battery of six non-verbal executive function tasks. In addition, we collected follow-up semantic fluency data for 70 deaf and 74 hearing children, nearly 2 years after they were first tested. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Deaf children, whether using spoken or signed language, produced fewer items in the semantic fluency task than hearing children, but they showed similar patterns of responses for items most commonly produced, clustering of items into subcategories and switching between subcategories. Both vocabulary and executive function scores predicted the number of correct items produced. Follow-up data from deaf participants showed continuing delays relative to hearing children 2 years later. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: We conclude that semantic fluency can be used experimentally to investigate lexical organization in deaf children, and that it potentially has clinical utility across the heterogeneous deaf population. We present normative data to aid clinicians who wish to use this task with deaf children.

2 Article Nonverbal Executive Function is Mediated by Language: A Study of Deaf and Hearing Children. 2017

Botting, Nicola / Jones, Anna / Marshall, Chloe / Denmark, Tanya / Atkinson, Joanna / Morgan, Gary. ·City University of London. · University College London. ·Child Dev · Pubmed #27859007.

ABSTRACT: Studies have suggested that language and executive function (EF) are strongly associated. Indeed, the two are difficult to separate, and it is particularly difficult to determine whether one skill is more dependent on the other. Deafness provides a unique opportunity to disentangle these skills because in this case, language difficulties have a sensory not cognitive basis. In this study, deaf (n = 108) and hearing (n = 125) children (age 8 years) were assessed on language and a wide range of nonverbal EF tasks. Deaf children performed significantly less well on EF tasks, even controlling for nonverbal intelligence and speed of processing. Language mediated EF skill, but the reverse pattern was not evident. Findings suggest that language is key to EF performance rather than vice versa.

3 Article Narrative skills in deaf children who use spoken English: Dissociations between macro and microstructural devices. 2016

Jones, -A C / Toscano, E / Botting, N / Marshall, C-R / Atkinson, J R / Denmark, T / Herman, -R / Morgan, G. ·Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre, University College London, UK. Electronic address: a.c.jones@ucl.ac.uk. · University of Trento, Italy. · City University, London UK. · Institute of Education, University College London, UK. · Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre, University College London, UK. · Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre, University College London, UK; City University, London UK. ·Res Dev Disabil · Pubmed #27664562.

ABSTRACT: Previous research has highlighted that deaf children acquiring spoken English have difficulties in narrative development relative to their hearing peers both in terms of macro-structure and with micro-structural devices. The majority of previous research focused on narrative tasks designed for hearing children that depend on good receptive language skills. The current study compared narratives of 6 to 11-year-old deaf children who use spoken English (N=59) with matched for age and non-verbal intelligence hearing peers. To examine the role of general language abilities, single word vocabulary was also assessed. Narratives were elicited by the retelling of a story presented non-verbally in video format. Results showed that deaf and hearing children had equivalent macro-structure skills, but the deaf group showed poorer performance on micro-structural components. Furthermore, the deaf group gave less detailed responses to inferencing probe questions indicating poorer understanding of the story's underlying message. For deaf children, micro-level devices most strongly correlated with the vocabulary measure. These findings suggest that deaf children, despite spoken language delays, are able to convey the main elements of content and structure in narrative but have greater difficulty in using grammatical devices more dependent on finer linguistic and pragmatic skills.

4 Article The impact of input quality on early sign development in native and non-native language learners. 2016

Lu, Jenny / Jones, Anna / Morgan, Gary. ·Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre,University College LondonandDepartment of Psychology,University of Chicago. · Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre,University College London. · Department of Language and Communication Science,City University London. ·J Child Lang · Pubmed #26922911.

ABSTRACT: There is debate about how input variation influences child language. Most deaf children are exposed to a sign language from their non-fluent hearing parents and experience a delay in exposure to accessible language. A small number of children receive language input from their deaf parents who are fluent signers. Thus it is possible to document the impact of quality of input on early sign acquisition. The current study explores the outcomes of differential input in two groups of children aged two to five years: deaf children of hearing parents (DCHP) and deaf children of deaf parents (DCDP). Analysis of child sign language revealed DCDP had a more developed vocabulary and more phonological handshape types compared with DCHP. In naturalistic conversations deaf parents used more sign tokens and more phonological types than hearing parents. Results are discussed in terms of the effects of early input on subsequent language abilities.

5 Article Child Modifiability as a Predictor of Language Abilities in Deaf Children Who Use American Sign Language. 2015

Mann, Wolfgang / Peña, Elizabeth D / Morgan, Gary. · ·Am J Speech Lang Pathol · Pubmed #25763863.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This research explored the use of dynamic assessment (DA) for language-learning abilities in signing deaf children from deaf and hearing families. METHOD: Thirty-seven deaf children, aged 6 to 11 years, were identified as either stronger (n = 26) or weaker (n = 11) language learners according to teacher or speech-language pathologist report. All children received 2 scripted, mediated learning experience sessions targeting vocabulary knowledge—specifically, the use of semantic categories that were carried out in American Sign Language. Participant responses to learning were measured in terms of an index of child modifiability. This index was determined separately at the end of the 2 individual sessions. It combined ratings reflecting each child's learning abilities and responses to mediation, including social-emotional behavior, cognitive arousal, and cognitive elaboration. RESULTS: Group results showed that modifiability ratings were significantly better for stronger language learners than for weaker language learners. The strongest predictors of language ability were cognitive arousal and cognitive elaboration. CONCLUSION: Mediator ratings of child modifiability (i.e., combined score of social-emotional factors and cognitive factors) are highly sensitive to language-learning abilities in deaf children who use sign language as their primary mode of communication. This method can be used to design targeted interventions.

6 Article Deficits in narrative abilities in child British Sign Language users with specific language impairment. 2014

Herman, Ros / Rowley, Katherine / Mason, Kathryn / Morgan, Gary. ·City University London, Northampton Square, London, United Kingdom. ·Int J Lang Commun Disord · Pubmed #24617640.

ABSTRACT: This study details the first ever investigation of narrative skills in a group of 17 deaf signing children who have been diagnosed with disorders in their British Sign Language development compared with a control group of 17 deaf child signers matched for age, gender, education, quantity, and quality of language exposure and non-verbal intelligence. Children were asked to generate a narrative based on events in a language free video. Narratives were analysed for global structure, information content and local level grammatical devices, especially verb morphology. The language-impaired group produced shorter, less structured and grammatically simpler narratives than controls, with verb morphology particularly impaired. Despite major differences in how sign and spoken languages are articulated, narrative is shown to be a reliable marker of language impairment across the modality boundaries.

7 Article Belief attribution in deaf and hearing infants. 2012

Meristo, Marek / Morgan, Gary / Geraci, Alessandra / Iozzi, Laura / Hjelmquist, Erland / Surian, Luca / Siegal, Michael. ·Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. marek.meristo@psy.gu.se ·Dev Sci · Pubmed #22925511.

ABSTRACT: Based on anticipatory looking and reactions to violations of expected events, infants have been credited with 'theory of mind' (ToM) knowledge that a person's search behaviour for an object will be guided by true or false beliefs about the object's location. However, little is known about the preconditions for looking patterns consistent with belief attribution in infants. In this study, we compared the performance of 17- to 26-month-olds on anticipatory looking in ToM tasks. The infants were either hearing or were deaf from hearing families and thus delayed in communicative experience gained from access to language and conversational input. Hearing infants significantly outperformed their deaf counterparts in anticipating the search actions of a cartoon character that held a false belief about a target-object location. By contrast, the performance of the two groups in a true belief condition did not differ significantly. These findings suggest for the first time that access to language and conversational input contributes to early ToM reasoning.

8 Article Identifying specific language impairment in deaf children acquiring British Sign Language: implications for theory and practice. 2010

Mason, Kathryn / Rowley, Katherine / Marshall, Chloe R / Atkinson, Joanna R / Herman, Rosalind / Woll, Bencie / Morgan, Gary. ·Language and Communication Science, City University London, UK. kathryn.mason.I@city.ac.uk ·Br J Dev Psychol · Pubmed #20306624.

ABSTRACT: This paper presents the first ever group study of specific language impairment (SLI) in users of sign language. A group of 50 children were referred to the study by teachers and speech and language therapists. Individuals who fitted pre-determined criteria for SLI were then systematically assessed. Here, we describe in detail the performance of 13 signing deaf children aged 5-14 years on normed tests of British Sign Language (BSL) sentence comprehension, repetition of nonsense signs, expressive grammar and narrative skills, alongside tests of non-verbal intelligence and fine motor control. Results show these children to have a significant language delay compared to their peers matched for age and language experience. This impaired development cannot be explained by poor exposure to BSL, or by lower general cognitive, social, or motor abilities. As is the case for SLI in spoken languages, we find heterogeneity within the group in terms of which aspects of language are affected and the severity of the impairment. We discuss the implications of the existence of language impairments in a sign language for theories of SLI and clinical practice.