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Hearing Disorders: HELP
Articles by Bradley McPherson
Based on 28 articles published since 2010
(Why 28 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, B. McPherson wrote the following 28 articles about Hearing Disorders.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2
1 Review Hearing loss in children with otitis media with effusion: a systematic review. 2017

Cai, Ting / McPherson, Bradley. ·a Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education , The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong. ·Int J Audiol · Pubmed #27841699.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the presence of non-purulent inflammation in the middle ear. Hearing impairment is frequently associated with OME. Pure tone audiometry and speech audiometry are two of the most primarily utilised auditory assessments and provide valuable behavioural and functional estimation on hearing loss. This paper was designed to review and analyse the effects of the presence of OME on children's listening abilities. DESIGN: A systematic and descriptive review. STUDY SAMPLE: Twelve articles reporting frequency-specific pure tone thresholds and/or speech perception measures in children with OME were identified using PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar search platforms. RESULTS: The hearing loss related to OME averages 18-35 dB HL. The air conduction configuration is roughly flat with a slight elevation at 2000 Hz and a nadir at 8000 Hz. Both speech-in-quiet and speech-in-noise perception have been found to be impaired. CONCLUSIONS: OME imposes a series of disadvantages on hearing sensitivity and speech perception in children. Further studies investigating the full range of frequency-specific pure tone thresholds, and that adopt standardised speech test materials are advocated to evaluate hearing related disabilities with greater comprehensiveness, comparability and enhanced consideration of their real life implications.

2 Review Hearing assistive technologies in developing countries: background, achievements and challenges. 2014

McPherson, Bradley. ·Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , China. ·Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol · Pubmed #24702607.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The burden of hearing impairment and disability is substantial in the developing world. This review outlines the associated need for amplification devices in low and medium income countries and some of the initiatives that have been taken to improve access to such devices, particularly hearing aids. The main observed barriers to access are listed and possible ways to improve access are considered. METHODS: Prevalence estimates for disabling hearing impairment are reviewed and a number of national and international examples of initiatives to facilitate use of hearing assistive devices in low and medium income countries are provided. Technologies that are potentially appropriate for hearing instruments in developing countries are suggested, as well as fitting programs that are more likely to be maintained over the long term. RESULTS: Challenges to successful hearing instrument fitting in low and medium income countries are many. However, some programs point the way to improved access to such devices. Successful hearing aid fitting programs in developing countries have typically combined appropriate technology with a sustainable local support base. CONCLUSIONS: With a rising middle class in many developing countries, advances in technology, and ongoing training programs for those involved in amplification fitting, hearing device usage rates may eventually reach parity with those in developed economies. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION: The historical development of affordable hearing device fitting provision in low and middle income countries is outlined. Three key barriers to widespread access to hearing device provision in many low and middle income countries (LMICs) are identified: lack of trained personnel, the high cost of many existing devices marketed in LMICs and limited public awareness of the benefits of hearing assistive technologies. Examples of programs that have sought to overcome these barriers in LMICs are given and may influence the ways in which future hearing health care is provided.

3 Article Access to adults' hearing aids: policies and technologies used in eight countries. 2019

Yong, Michael / Willink, Amber / McMahon, Catherine / McPherson, Bradley / Nieman, Carrie L / Reed, Nicholas S / Lin, Frank R. ·Cochlear Center for Hearing and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2024 E Monument St. Suite 2-700 Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. · Macquarie University Research Centre H:EAR, Sydney, Australia. · Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. ·Bull World Health Organ · Pubmed #31656335.

ABSTRACT: As the proportion of older adults in the world's total population continues to grow, the adverse health outcomes of age-related hearing loss are becoming increasingly recognized. While research has shown that age-related hearing loss is the single greatest modifiable risk factor for dementia, use of hearing aids remains low worldwide, even in many middle- and high-income countries. Reasons for poor uptake of hearing aids are likely to involve a combination of factors, ranging from increasing costs of hearing aid technology to a widespread lack of insurance coverage. This article aims to identify the current state of access to hearing aids, focusing on eight middle- and high-income countries. We discuss how to facilitate greater access to hearing aids for patients by addressing changes in how devices are regulated, technological advancements in hearing devices, the need to adjust reimbursement schemes and the importance of adaptation among the community workforce for hearing-care.

4 Article Otitis media with effusion in children: Cross-frequency correlation in pure tone audiometry. 2019

Chow, Ann Hiu Ching / Cai, Ting / McPherson, Bradley / Yang, Feng. ·Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. · Department of Speech Therapy, Shenzhen Children's Hospital, Shenzhen, China. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #31437206.

ABSTRACT: Different guidelines are adopted in clinics and countries to assess pure tone hearing sensitivity in children with otitis media with effusion (OME). Some guidelines specify a broad range of audiometric frequencies that must be tested and from which average thresholds determined, while others leave test frequencies unspecified. For guidelines that suggest specific frequencies there are various pure tone frequencies and frequency ranges given. The present study investigated whether (1) a full range of audiometric frequencies is required to evaluate hearing loss caused by OME in children, or if neighboring frequencies provide essentially the same threshold information, and (2) if different combinations of test frequency pure tone averaging calculations may affect decision criteria for surgical treatment. In a retrospective cohort study, right and left ear air conduction pure tone threshold data were obtained, from 125 Hz to 8 kHz, for 96 children with OME aged 4 to 12 years. Paired t-tests, correlation tests (Pearson's r, Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation) and absolute differences were used to examine the relationships among pure tone audiometric (PTA) frequencies for all ears with hearing loss. 168 ears were found to have OME-related hearing loss. Only the 125 Hz-250 Hz comparison showed no statistically significant difference between neighboring thresholds. However, only the 4 kHz and 8 kHz comparison showed a clinically significant mean difference of ≥ 10 dB. When viewing individual differences, comparison between 250 Hz and 500 Hz, 125 Hz and 500 Hz, and 4 kHz and 8 kHz, showed a large number of ears with clinically significant differences between test frequencies. Comparisons among low frequency 3 PTA average (500 Hz, 1 kHz, 2 kHz), high frequency 3 PTA average (1 kHz, 2 kHz, 4 kHz), and 4 frequency PTA average (500 Hz, 1 kHz, 2 kHz, 4 kHz) showed no statistically significant differences, with very strong correlations for all comparisons. In addition, for all the combinations of PTA averages, no clinically significant differences were found for the various comparisons or among individual results. Clinically, testing hearing sensitivity in the 125 Hz to 8 kHz range is worthwhile in evaluating hearing sensitivity in children with OME due to large individual variability across audiometric frequencies. However, frequencies tested for criterion averages for surgical treatments of children with OME may be restricted to 3 frequency PTA averages, either an average of 500 Hz, 1 kHz, 2 kHz or an average of 1 kHz, 2 kHz, 4 kHz, as no clinically significant differences were found using these or a 4 frequency averaging technique. For research purposes, 250 Hz can proxy for hearing thresholds at 125 Hz; and the low frequency 3 PTA average, high frequency 3 PTA average and 4 frequency PTA average may be used interchangeably, as no statistically significant differences were found among these measures.

5 Article Maternal knowledge and attitudes to universal newborn hearing screening: Reviewing an established program. 2018

Lam, Maggie Yee Yan / Wong, Eddie Chi Ming / Law, Chi Wai / Lee, Helena Hui Ling / McPherson, Bradley. ·Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address: myylam@connect.hku.hk. · Department of Ear, Nose and Throat, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 30 Gascoigne Road, Yau Ma Tei, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address: wongcm4@ha.org.hk. · Department of Paediatrics, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 30 Gascoigne Road, Yau Ma Tei, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address: cwlaw@ha.org.hk. · Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 30 Gascoigne Road, Yau Ma Tei, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address: lhl102@ha.org.hk. · Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address: dbmcpher@hku.hk. ·Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol · Pubmed #29447803.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To facilitate early diagnosis of infants with hearing loss, a universal newborn hearing screening program (UNHS) has been implemented in Hong Kong's public hospitals for over a decade. However, there have been no known studies investigating parent attitudes to, and satisfaction with, UNHS since its launch in Hong Kong. The present study aimed to investigate knowledge of UNHS as well as infant hearing development, and attitudes and satisfaction with UNHS, in Hong Kong mothers with newborns. The study was designed to help evaluate and improve an established UNHS public hospital program, based on the perspectives of service users. METHODS: A researcher-developed questionnaire was administered to 102 mothers whose newborn had received UNHS in the postnatal wards of a large public hospital in Hong Kong. The questionnaire considered parental knowledge of UNHS and infant hearing development, attitudes and satisfaction toward public hospital UNHS. In the knowledge dimension, parents' preferred time and location for pre-test information delivery, interpretation of screening results, and knowledge of hearing developmental milestones were surveyed. In addition, maternal attitudes to and satisfaction with UNHS screening services, the potential impact of UNHS on parent emotions and parent-baby bonding, attitudes toward informed consent, and willingness to comply with diagnostic assessment referral were also be surveyed. RESULTS: Mean participant scores on knowledge of infant hearing development were relatively low (M = 2.59/6.0, SD = 0.90). Many mothers also underestimated the potential ongoing risks of hearing impairment in babies. Around 80% of mothers thought an infant could not have hearing impairment after passing the screening. In addition, one-third of mothers thought a baby could not later develop hearing impairment in infancy or childhood. In terms of attitudes and satisfaction, participants gave somewhat negative ratings for questions regarding receiving sufficient information about the screening (M = 2.90/5.0, SD = 1.27), screening procedure (M = 2.20/5.0, SD = 1.08), and sufficiency of information about results (M = 2.87/5.0, SD = 1.14). Nonetheless, participants gave positive ratings concerning whether screening could lead to early diagnosis (M = 4.61/5.0, SD = 0.57) and over 95% of mothers supported UNHS despite potential for false positive results. Mothers reported a high willingness to bring their baby to follow-up assessments if required (M = 4.53/5.0, SD = 0.56). Participants gave positive ratings for their level of satisfaction with the time and location of first UNHS information provision (M = 4.34/5.0, SD = 0.80) and the way permission was asked for screening the baby (M = 4.04/5.0, SD = 0.97) but alternative procedures were also recommended. Most recommendations focused on providing more information about the test and a more detailed explanation of screening results. CONCLUSIONS: The survey results highlighted the need to provide more information to parents about infant hearing development to support home monitoring for signs of hearing loss after UNHS, as well as more detailed explanation and information regarding hearing screening and the implications of results to parents. Regardless of location, surveys of this type may provide valuable support for UNHS program quality assurance.

6 Article Hearing Loss in Children With Otitis Media With Effusion: Actual and Simulated Effects on Speech Perception. 2018

Cai, Ting / McPherson, Bradley / Li, Caiwei / Yang, Feng. ·Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. · Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Shenzhen Children's Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. · Department of Speech Therapy, Shenzhen Children's Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. ·Ear Hear · Pubmed #29176394.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Conductive hearing loss simulations have attempted to estimate the speech-understanding difficulties of children with otitis media with effusion (OME). However, the validity of this approach has not been evaluated. The research aim of the present study was to investigate whether a simple, frequency-specific, attenuation-based simulation of OME-related hearing loss was able to reflect the actual effects of conductive hearing loss on speech perception. DESIGN: Forty-one school-age children with OME-related hearing loss were recruited. Each child with OME was matched with a same sex and age counterpart with normal hearing to make a participant pair. Pure-tone threshold differences at octave frequencies from 125 to 8000 Hz for every participant pair were used as the simulation attenuation levels for the normal-hearing children. Another group of 41 school-age otologically normal children were recruited as a control group without actual or simulated hearing loss. The Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test was utilized, and sentence recall accuracy at four signal to noise ratios (SNR) considered representative of classroom-listening conditions were derived, as well as reception thresholds for sentences (RTS) in quiet and in noise using adaptive protocols. RESULTS: The speech perception in quiet and in noise of children with simulated OME-related hearing loss was significantly poorer than that of otologically normal children. Analysis showed that RTS in quiet of children with OME-related hearing loss and of children with simulated OME-related hearing loss was significantly correlated and comparable. A repeated-measures analysis suggested that sentence recall accuracy obtained at 5-dB SNR, 0-dB SNR, and -5-dB SNR was similar between children with actual and simulated OME-related hearing loss. However, RTS in noise in children with OME was significantly better than that for children with simulated OME-related hearing loss. CONCLUSIONS: The present frequency-specific, attenuation-based simulation method reflected the effects of OME-related hearing loss on speech perception impairment in quiet environments. In noisy environments, the simulation method could only approximately estimate the effects of OME-related hearing loss on speech perception in typical classroom noise levels. Children with OME-related hearing loss may develop compensatory strategies to reduce the effects of hearing loss in adverse listening environments.

7 Article ABO Blood Group and Cochlear Status: Otoacoustic Emission Markers. 2018

Chen, Welen Weilu / Chow, Kin Tsun / McPherson, Bradley. ·Centre for Communication Disorders, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. ·Ear Hear · Pubmed #29112533.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: There are an increasing number of research studies examining the effects of ABO blood group on susceptibility to disease. However, little is known regarding the potential relationship between blood group and hearing. Higher risk of noise-induced hearing loss was linked to blood group O in several occupational health studies. Based on this finding, a recent study of cochlear status was conducted with normal-hearing female participants representing equal numbers of the four blood groups in the ABO blood group system. ABO blood group was associated with cochlear characteristics, including the prevalence of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) and the amplitudes of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Females with blood group O showed significantly lower amplitudes of DPOAEs at some frequencies and lower prevalence of SOAEs compared with participants with blood group B. There was a general trend of reduced TEOAE and DPOAE amplitudes in blood group O individuals compared with participants with non-O blood groups. Following from this finding, and based on known sex differences in otoacoustic emission characteristics, the present study examined the possible effects of blood group on otoacoustic emission status in males. DESIGN: Sixty clinically normal-hearing males aged between 18 and 26 years, with equal numbers of participants in each of the ABO blood groups, were recruited by purposive sampling. SOAE, DPOAE, and linear and nonlinear TEOAE recordings were collected from all participants, as well as tympanometric data related to external and middle ear characteristics. RESULTS: The male blood group O participants exhibited significantly lower SOAE prevalence and reduced amplitudes of DPOAEs on average, and in the midfrequency range, than participants with blood group B, and lower nonlinear and linear TEOAE amplitudes at a number of frequencies when compared with participants with blood groups A and B. A consistent trend of lower TEOAE and DPOAE response amplitudes was observed in participants with blood group O. No significant difference was noted among blood groups for outer or middle ear characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: These results were consistent with previous findings of reduced otoacoustic emission responses in female blood group O individuals. Results support the hypothesis that blood group O individuals may be at increased risk of cochlear damage from noise exposure. Further investigation on the potential link between ABO blood group and auditory status, including potentially differential effects of noise exposure on cochlear function, is needed. The possible effects of ABO blood group on other aspects of audition, such as hearing sensitivity, speech understanding, and auditory processing, should be evaluated.

8 Article Deafness and hearing aids in low- and middle-income countries. 2018

McPherson, Bradley. ·a Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education , University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , China. ·Paediatr Int Child Health · Pubmed #28805146.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Article The Participation Scale: psychometric properties of a South Indian translation with hearing-impaired respondents. 2018

Thammaiah, Spoorthi / Manchaiah, Vinaya / Easwar, Vijayalakshmi / Krishna, Rajalakshmi / McPherson, Bradley. ·a Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences , Lamar University , Beaumont , TX , USA. · b Audiology India , Mysore , Karnataka , India. · c Department of Behavioral Science and Learning, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research , Linköping University , Linköping , Sweden. · d Department of Speech and Hearing, School of Allied Health Sciences , Manipal University , Manipal , Karnataka , India. · e National Centre for Audiology Western University , London , ON , Canada. · f All India Institute of Speech and Hearing , University of Mysore , Mysore , Karnataka , India. · g Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education , The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , China. ·Disabil Rehabil · Pubmed #28687058.

ABSTRACT: AIMS: The Participation Scale (P-Scale) is a widely used generic self-report measure designed to assess an individual's participation restriction consequent to any disease condition. The present study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of a south Indian (Kannada language) version of the P-Scale for use with adults with hearing loss. This study is a part of an ongoing research program on the assessment of outcomes of hearing health rehabilitation with hearing aids involving Indian client groups. METHODS: One hundred and three adults with hearing loss completed the original English and the newly translated-adapted Kannada P-Scale questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants completed repeat testing of the Kannada version 15 days after the initial assessment. Along with the P-Scale, Kannada versions of the Hearing Handicap Questionnaire (HHQ) and the Assessment of Quality of Life - 4 Dimensions Questionnaire (AQoL-4D) were also administered. Based on predefined quality criteria, five different psychometric properties of the P-Scale were evaluated, together with an analysis of the Kannada P-Scale's factor structure. The psychometric properties assessed included internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and floor-ceiling effects. RESULTS: Principal component analysis indicated a four-factor complex structure, which explained 69.78% of the variance in the Kannada P-Scale. High internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.90) and test-retest reliability (internal consistency coefficient  >0.90) were obtained. Comparisons with the HHQ (ρ = 0.52) and AQoL-4 D (ρ = 0.76) indicated good convergent validity. Discriminant validity among the P-Scale questions was acceptable (inter-item correlation  <0.60). Floor and ceiling effects were not evident in the Kannada P-Scale. CONCLUSIONS: The psychometric characteristics of the Kannada P-scale were found to be sufficient for use with the participant group (literate, Kannada-speaking adults with hearing loss) who were assessed in this study. Further research is required to determine generalizability of the Kannada P-Scale among other Kannada-speaking communities. Implications for Rehabilitation The Kannada version of the Participation Scale (P-Scale) can be validly used with Kannada speaking adults with hearing loss. The Kannada P-Scale can be used for clinical/research purposes to assess outcome (specifically, change in participation restriction) before, during, and after the hearing rehabilitation process. However, education and socioeconomic status may have an effect of the Kannada P-Scale results and these factors need to be further investigated prior to wider clinical use.

10 Article Pure tone hearing profiles in children with otitis media with effusion. 2018

Cai, Ting / McPherson, Bradley / Li, Caiwei / Yang, Feng. ·a Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education , The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , China. · b Department of Otorhinolaryngology , Shenzhen Children's Hospital , Shenzhen , China. · c Department of Speech Therapy , Shenzhen Children's Hospital , Shenzhen , China. ·Disabil Rehabil · Pubmed #28637148.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a common middle ear disease in children. The associated conductive hearing loss is a major concern for hearing health professionals. The aim of the present study was to describe the configuration of pure tone audiograms of children with OME and to design a statistical stratification algorithm to facilitate hearing loss profiling in children with OME. METHODS: School age children with OME were recruited. Bone and air conduction thresholds were obtained using standard procedures. Hierarchical cluster analysis was employed to determine audiometric profile groups. The Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test was used to measure sentence perception in children for cluster analysis validity assessment. RESULTS: Ninety-seven children (164 ears) aged between 72 months and 153 months were examined. Air conduction thresholds averaged for 500 Hz, 1000 Hz and 2000 Hz were in the range of 8.3-53.3 dB HL with a mean of 26.8 dB HL. Bone conduction thresholds were found to be influenced by middle ear pathology with a maximal elevation at 2000 Hz of 25 dB HL. Four audiometric profiles were identified. Cluster 1 contained 54 ears (32.9%) with normal or near normal hearing, Clusters 2 contained 37 ears (22.6%) with mild hearing loss, Cluster 3 included 48 ears (29.3%) and Cluster 4 included 25 ears (15.2%) with moderate hearing loss. Stability and validity of the four-cluster profiling procedure was examined and established with satisfactory results. CONCLUSIONS: OME in children is associated with pure tone hearing thresholds ranging from normal to moderate hearing loss. The hierarchical clustering algorithm proved useful as a novel means of profiling hearing loss in children with OME and may assist in identifying affected children at greater risk of auditory disadvantage. Implications for rehabilitation A hierarchical cluster analysis method can be used to determine audiometric profiles in children with OME. This algorithm assists to identify children at greater risk of auditory disadvantage. Cluster groups with more elevated pure tone thresholds may be targeted for priority in clinical surveillance and medical/surgical intervention.

11 Article Psychometric properties of the hearing handicap questionnaire: a Kannada (South-Indian) translation. 2017

Thammaiah, Spoorthi / Manchaiah, Vinaya / Easwar, Vijayalakshmi / Krishna, Rajalakshmi / McPherson, Bradley. ·a Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences , Lamar University , Beaumont , TX , USA. · b Audiology India , Mysore , Karnataka , India. · c Department of Behavioral Science and Learning, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University , Linköping , Sweden. · d Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders , Western University , Ontario , Canada. · e All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, University of Mysore , Mysore , India , and. · f Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences , The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , China. ·Int J Audiol · Pubmed #27809619.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of the Hearing Handicap Questionnaire (HHQ) in Kannada (a South-Indian language) among adults with hearing loss. DESIGN: The study involved a cross-sectional survey design. Participants provided demographic details and completed the Kannada and English (original) version of the HHQ questionnaire. To evaluate test-retest reliability, ∼50% of the participants completed the Kannada version for the second time after 15 days. STUDY SAMPLE: The sample comprised 103 adults with hearing loss recruited from local audiology clinics. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis indicated a one-factor structure, which explained 71% of the variance in Kannada-HHQ scores. The internal consistency measured with Cronbach's alpha was 0.96. The test-retest reliability correlations of the Kannada version with the English and with the same Kannada version re-administered after 15 days were 0.96 and 0.91, respectively. Convergent validity of the scale was confirmed by significant correlations with the Participation Scale and the Assessment of Quality of Life scales. Discriminant validity was found to be low as all the Kannada-HHQ questions were highly correlated with each other (r> 0.60). No floor and ceiling effects were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The psychometric properties of the Kannada-HHQ scale are considered to be adequate for clinical or research use.

12 Article Chinese children with nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate: Factors associated with hearing disorder. 2016

Ma, Xiaoran / Li, Yue Wing / Ma, Lian / McPherson, Bradley. ·Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address: maxiaoran1986@gmail.com. · Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address: isabelli@connect.hku.hk. · Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing, China. Electronic address: lamaiana@163.com. · Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address: dbmcpher@hku.hk. ·Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol · Pubmed #27497398.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This study examined the auditory status of Chinese children with nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate (NSCL/P), investigated factors associated with peripheral hearing loss and compared results with earlier studies in western countries. METHODS: Case history profiles and audiological data from 148 Chinese children with NSCL/P, aged between 6 and 15 years, who attended the Cleft Lip and Palate Clinic Center in a major Chinese urban hospital from July 2012 to September 2013 were acquired. The audiological status of the participants was reviewed, based on the results of their pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and acoustic reflex thresholds assessments. Factors including age, gender, cleft type, residential locality and school achievement were examined in relation to auditory status. RESULTS: Findings revealed that 17% of the Chinese children with NSCL/P had hearing impairment at the time of assessment. Unilateral hearing loss was noted in 12% of children and in 5% of cases bilateral hearing loss was noted. In the majority of cases the hearing loss was slight and conductive in nature. Age, gender, residential locality and school achievement were found to have no relationship with severity of hearing loss. Children with cleft lip showed a lower degree of hearing impairment than children with cleft palate or cleft lip and palate. CONCLUSION: Similar to studies for western children, Chinese children with CL/P associated with no known syndrome are at risk of peripheral hearing loss, generally of conductive type. However, the prevalence of peripheral hearing loss appears to be less than in western children with NSCL/P. Ethnic/racial factors may be a major contributing factor accounting for the discrepancies between the current results and western studies.

13 Article Over-the-Counter Hearing Aids: A Lost Decade for Change. 2015

Chan, Zoe Yee Ting / McPherson, Bradley. ·Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. ·Biomed Res Int · Pubmed #26557701.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hearing aids sold directly to consumers in retail stores or through the internet, without individual prescription by audiological professionals, are termed over-the-counter (OTC) devices. This study aimed to determine whether there was any change in the electroacoustic characteristics of OTC devices compared to research carried out a decade earlier. The previous results indicated that most OTC devices were low-frequency-emphasis devices and were unsuitable for elderly people with presbycusis, who were likely to be the major consumers of these products. METHODS: Ten OTC devices were selected and their electroacoustic performance was measured. Appropriate clients for the OTC devices were derived, using four linear prescription formulae, and OTC suitability for elderly persons with presbycusis was investigated. RESULTS: OTC electroacoustic characteristics were similar to those in the earlier study. Most OTC devices were not acoustically appropriate for potential consumers with presbycusis. Although several of the devices could match prescriptive targets for individuals with presbycusis, their poor electroacoustic performance--including ineffective volume control function, high equivalent input noise, and irregular frequency response--may override their potential benefit. CONCLUSION: The low-cost OTC devices were generally not suitable for the main consumers of these products, and there has been little improvement in the appropriateness of these devices over the past decade.

14 Article Improving newborn hearing screening: Are automated auditory brainstem response ear inserts an effective option? 2015

Chan, Kit Tsui-Yan / Wong, Eddie Chi Ming / Law, Chi Wai / Chong, Hou Ming / McPherson, Bradley. ·Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. · Ear, Nose and Throat Department, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China. · Department of Paediatrics, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China. · Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address: dbmcpher@hku.hk. ·Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol · Pubmed #26412459.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Universal newborn hearing screening is an established practice among Hong Kong public hospitals using a 2-stage automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) screening protocol. To enhance overall efficiency without sacrificing program accuracy, cost reduction in terms of replacing the initial ear coupler-based screening with a more economical ear insert-based screening procedure was considered. This study examined the utility of an insert-based AABR initial screening approach and the projected cost-effectiveness of a combined probe-based plus follow-up ear coupler AABR screening procedure. METHODS: Following prenatal maternal consent, newborn hearing screening was conducted with 167 healthy neonates using a cross-sectional, repeated measures study design. The neonates were screened with AABR sequentially; using ear coupler and ear probe (insert) procedures, in both ears, with two different but comparable AABR instruments. Testing took place in the antenatal ward of a department of obstetrics and gynaecology, at a large public hospital. RESULTS: With the specific combination of instruments deployed for this study insert-based AABR screening generated a five-fold higher rescreen rate and took an additional 50% screening time compared to coupler-based AABR screening. Although the cost of consumables used in a 2-stage AABR screening protocol would reduce by 9.87% if the combined procedure was implemented, the findings indicated AABR screening when conducted with an ear probe has reduced utility compared with conventional ear coupler screening. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences may occur in screening outcomes when changes are made to coupler method. Initiating a 2-stage AABR screening protocol with an ear insert technique may be impracticable in newborn nurseries given the greater number of false positive cases generated by this approach in the present study and the increased time required to carry out an insert-based procedure.

15 Article Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents. 2013

Fuente, Adrian / McPherson, Bradley / Hormazabal, Ximena. ·School of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. afuente@med.uchile.cl ·Rev Saude Publica · Pubmed #23703134.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz), to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

16 Article Reading strategies of Chinese students with severe to profound hearing loss. 2013

Cheung, Ka Yan / Leung, Man Tak / McPherson, Bradley. ·Centre for Communication Disorders, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, 5/F Prince Philip Dental Hospital, 34 Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong. kayanchocheung@gmail.com ·J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ · Pubmed #23476071.

ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the significance of auditory discrimination and the use of phonological and orthographic codes during the course of reading development in Chinese students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). In this study, the reading behaviors of D/HH students in 2 tasks-a task on auditory perception of onset rime and a synonym decision task-were compared with those of their chronological age-matched and reading level (RL)-matched controls. Cross-group comparison of the performances of participants in the task on auditory perception suggests that poor auditory discrimination ability may be a possible cause of reading problems for D/HH students. In addition, results of the synonym decision task reveal that D/HH students with poor reading ability demonstrate a significantly greater preference for orthographic rather than phonological information, when compared with the D/HH students with good reading ability and their RL-matched controls. Implications for future studies and educational planning are discussed.

17 Article The effect of rTMS on auditory processing in adults with chronic, bilateral tinnitus: a placebo-controlled pilot study. 2013

Barwood, Caroline H S / Wilson, Wayne J / Malicka, Alicja N / McPherson, Bradley / Lloyd, David / Munt, Katherine / Murdoch, Bruce E. ·School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. Electronic address: c.barwood@uq.edu.au. ·Brain Stimul · Pubmed #23453932.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: On the basis that tinnitus may result from neural hyperactivity in the auditory cortex, researchers have investigated the use of low frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a potential modulator of this hyperactivity. While these investigations show promise, investigations to date have neglected to consider the possible effect of 1 Hz rTMS on other functions of the auditory cortex of these individuals, such as auditory processing. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: This placebo-controlled pilot study aimed to determine whether 1 Hz rTMS applied to the primary auditory cortex (PAC), specifically Brodmann Area 41 (BA41), of adults with chronic, bilateral tinnitus would influence their auditory processing abilities. METHODS: Eight participants with bilateral, chronic tinnitus were randomized to receive a 10-day course of neuronavigationally guided active rTMS (n = 4) or placebo rTMS (n = 4) treatment applied to a focal region of the left PAC (BA41). Participants' auditory processing was measured using Time Compressed Reverberant Speech and three-pair Dichotic Digits (DD). Their tinnitus was measured using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and a psychoacoustic measure of tinnitus perception. All outcome measures were administered at baseline (1 week prior to rTMS), 1 week, 1, 2 and 3 months post-rTMS. RESULTS: All four participants in the active rTMS (A) group, and none of the participants in the sham (placebo) rTMS (S) group, showed improved auditory processing scores at multiple assessment points post-stimulation, with the group differences in median normalized gain scores reaching significance at the 5% level from 1 week or 1 month post-stimulation onwards. Three of the four participants in the active rTMS (A) group, and none of the participants in the sham rTMS (S) group, showed improved tinnitus scores at multiple assessment points post-stimulation, with some of the group differences in median normalized gain scores reaching significance at the 5% level. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this preliminary study suggest that 1 Hz rTMS applied to the PAC (BA41) has the capacity to improve both auditory processing and tinnitus perception in some adults with chronic, bilateral tinnitus.

18 Article Auditory dysfunction associated with solvent exposure. 2013

Fuente, Adrian / McPherson, Bradley / Hickson, Louise. ·School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Room 825, Level 8, Therapies Building (No 84A), St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia. a.fuente@uq.edu.au ·BMC Public Health · Pubmed #23324255.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A number of studies have demonstrated that solvents may induce auditory dysfunction. However, there is still little knowledge regarding the main signs and symptoms of solvent-induced hearing loss (SIHL). The aim of this research was to investigate the association between solvent exposure and adverse effects on peripheral and central auditory functioning with a comprehensive audiological test battery. METHODS: Seventy-two solvent-exposed workers and 72 non-exposed workers were selected to participate in the study. The test battery comprised pure-tone audiometry (PTA), transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), Random Gap Detection (RGD) and Hearing-in-Noise test (HINT). RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects presented with poorer mean test results than non-exposed subjects. A bivariate and multivariate linear regression model analysis was performed. One model for each auditory outcome (PTA, TEOAE, RGD and HINT) was independently constructed. For all of the models solvent exposure was significantly associated with the auditory outcome. Age also appeared significantly associated with some auditory outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further evidence of the possible adverse effect of solvents on the peripheral and central auditory functioning. A discussion of these effects and the utility of selected hearing tests to assess SIHL is addressed.

19 Article Hearing loss associated with xylene exposure in a laboratory worker. 2012

Fuente, Adrian / McPherson, Bradley / Hood, Linda J. ·School of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. afuente@med.uchile.cl ·J Am Acad Audiol · Pubmed #23169198.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Xylene is an organic solvent, widely used in histology laboratories and other occupational settings. Research in animals has demonstrated that xylene induces outer hair cell damage. Evidence regarding the effects of xylene in humans is only available from studies investigating workers exposed to mixtures of solvents containing xylene. These data indicate that mixtures of solvents containing xylene may induce hearing loss and central auditory dysfunction. PURPOSE: To comprehensively evaluate the peripheral and central auditory system of a histology laboratory worker exposed to xylene, who had presented with bilateral mild sensorineural hearing loss at an initial assessment. RESEARCH DESIGN: A case report of a male histology laboratory worker who has been exposed to xylene for over 20 yr. RESULTS: A diagnosis of bilateral mild sensorineural hearing loss of cochlear origin was made on the basis of otological, neuroimaging, and audiological examinations. Results indicating the absence of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, and auditory brainstem responses as expected for a mild cochlear hearing loss, were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: The observed bilateral mild sensorineural hearing loss was considered to have been induced by xylene exposure, due to the absence of any other etiological factors related to the onset of hearing loss. The results found in this patient are in agreement with animal data indicating xylene-induced ototoxicity. Xylene-exposed individuals should be audiologically monitored on a regular basis.

20 Article Evaluation of an auditory assessment protocol for Chinese infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate. 2012

Yang, Frank F / McPherson, Bradley / Shu, Huang. ·Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Hong Kong, 5F, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, 34 Hospital Road, Hong Kong, China. hkufrank@gmail.com ·Cleft Palate Craniofac J · Pubmed #23030790.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To objectively investigate the auditory status of mainland Chinese infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate and to evaluate an auditory assessment protocol for this group. DESIGN: Prospective cohort case review. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 42 Chinese infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate aged 6 to 24 months. INTERVENTION: The hearing profiles of participants were acquired using otoscopy, tympanometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, and auditory brainstem response estimated hearing threshold. The efficiency of the current audiological test battery was analyzed also. RESULTS: Sixty-four (64.2) percent of infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (55.9% of ears) were suspected to have middle ear disorder, and 85.7% of all subjects (83.3% of ears) were found to have hearing loss. Of those with confirmed loss, the overall mean auditory brainstem response estimated air-conduction hearing threshold was 53.5 ± 13.6 decibel normal hearing level [db nHL]. Using auditory brainstem response thresholds as a reference standard, the diagnostic agreement with the other assessment tools for normal/abnormal results was otoscopy, 69% (κ  =  .57); tympanometry, 66.7% (κ  =  .53); and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, 80% (κ  =  .64). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of middle ear disease and hearing loss in mainland Chinese infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate in this study was in contrast to previous studies of older age groups of Chinese children conducted in Hong Kong and Singapore. The audiological assessment protocol used in our study could provide useful information; although, modifications may be necessary to ensure a complete diagnostic overview for children with craniofacial clefts.

21 Article Adaptation of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap into Spanish. 2012

Fuente, Adrian / McPherson, Bradley / Kramer, Sophia E / Hormazábal, Ximena / Hickson, Louise. ·School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. cate.stephens@hotmail.co.uk ·Disabil Rehabil · Pubmed #22510206.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Self-report questionnaires have been suggested as valuable assessment tools in audiology, especially when investigating the effect of hearing impairment on the everyday lives of adults. Many self-report questionnaires have been developed for English-speaking populations; however, there is a lack of this type of questionnaire for Spanish-speaking patients. The aim of the present research was to adapt the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH) into Spanish. METHODS: The AIADH consists of 30 questions that deal with real-life listening situations. Each question is accompanied by a picture representing the situation being addressed. Six Spanish-English bilingual speakers and one Spanish-English bilingual speaker participated in the translations and back translations of the English version of the AIADH. Once the adaptation was finalized, 189 normal-hearing and hearing-impaired Spanish-speaking participants completed the Spanish version of the AIADH (S-AIADH). RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed a high Cronbach's alpha coefficient, indicating good internal reliability. Test-retest scores were highly correlated. Also, the S-AIADH showed good criterion validity. Statistically significant differences for all questionnaire item responses were observed between normal-hearing and hearing-impaired respondents. CONCLUSIONS: The AIADH has been adapted into Spanish. Normative data in percentiles have been obtained for clinical use with Spanish-speaking populations, to explore self-reported performance for the hearing functions proposed by the ICF. [Box: see text].

22 Article Newborn hearing screening in developing countries: needs & new directions. 2012

McPherson, Bradley. ·Centre for Communication Disorders, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. dbmcpher@hkucc.hku.hk ·Indian J Med Res · Pubmed #22446854.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

23 Article Central auditory nervous system dysfunction in infants with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate. 2012

Yang, Frank F / McPherson, Bradley / Shu, Huang / Xiao, Yuhan. ·Center for Communication Disorders, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. hkufrank@hotmail.com ·Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol · Pubmed #22079239.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Peripheral hearing loss has been commonly reported in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) but few studies have provided information about central auditory nervous system (CANS) functioning for this group. The main objective of this study was to explore CANS functioning in infants with NSCLP through analysis of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). METHODS: AEPs including auditory brainstem response (ABR), middle latency response (MLR), and mismatch negativity (MMN) recordings were conducted in 34 infants of Chinese ethnicity with NSCLP and an equivalent number of normal controls. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in ABR (all measurements, including wave I, III, V latencies, I-V inter-wave latency, and wave V amplitude), or MLR (recordable components, Na, Pa latencies, and Na-Pa amplitude) findings between the two groups. However, infants with NSCLP had a significantly smaller MMN response than their normal controls, using MMN strength as the measurement. CONCLUSIONS: Significant abnormal auditory evoked potential findings at the cortical level suggest that infants with NSCLP may be at risk of central auditory discrimination dysfunction. Further effort is needed to determine auditory processing abilities in infants with NSCLP.

24 Article "I know you can hear me": neural correlates of feigned hearing loss. 2012

McPherson, Bradley / McMahon, Katie / Wilson, Wayne / Copland, David. ·Centre for Communication Disorders, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, China. dbmcpher@hkucc.hku.hk ·Hum Brain Mapp · Pubmed #21761506.

ABSTRACT: In the assessment of human hearing, it is often important to determine whether hearing loss is organic or nonorganic in nature. Nonorganic, or functional, hearing loss is often associated with deceptive intention on the part of the listener. Over the past decade, functional neuroimaging has been used to study the neural correlates of deception, and studies have consistently highlighted the contribution of the prefrontal cortex in such behaviors. Can patterns of brain activity be similarly used to detect when an individual is feigning a hearing loss? To answer this question, 15 adult participants were requested to respond to pure tones and simple words correctly, incorrectly, randomly, or with the intent to feign a hearing loss. As predicted, more activity was observed in the prefrontal cortices (as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging), and delayed behavioral reaction times were noted, when the participants feigned a hearing loss or responded randomly versus when they responded correctly or incorrectly. The results suggest that cortical imaging techniques could play a role in identifying individuals who are feigning hearing loss.

25 Article Innovative technology in hearing instruments: matching needs in the developing world. 2011

McPherson, Bradley. ·Centre for Communication Disorders, University of Hong Kong, 5/F Prince Philip Dental Hospital, 34 Hospital Road, Hong Kong, China. dbmcpher@hkucc.hku.hk ·Trends Amplif · Pubmed #22068223.

ABSTRACT: Hearing instrument technology research is almost entirely focused on the projected needs of the consumer market in the developed world. However, two thirds of the world's population with hearing impairment live in developing countries and this proportion will increase in future, given present demographic trends. In developing regions, amplification and other hearing health needs may differ from those in industrialized nations, for cultural, health, or economic reasons. World Health Organization estimates indicate that at present only a small percentage of individuals in developing countries who are in need of amplification have access to hearing aid provision. New technologies, such as trainable hearing aids, advanced noise reduction algorithms, feedback reduction circuitry, nano coatings for hearing aid components, and innovative power options, may offer considerable potential benefits, both for individuals with hearing impairment in developing countries and for those who provide hearing health care services in these regions. This article considers the possible supporting role of innovative hearing instrument technologies in the provision of affordable hearing health care services in developing countries and highlights the need for research that considers the requirements of the majority of the world population in need of hearing instrument provision.

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