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Hearing Disorders: HELP
Articles by Birgit Mazurek
Based on 43 articles published since 2010
(Why 43 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, B. Mazurek wrote the following 43 articles about Hearing Disorders.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2
1 Editorial Special issues for the 55th Inner Ear Biology Workshop 06.-08.09.2018 in Berlin : Basic research and clinical aspects-translational aspects of hearing research. 2019

Mazurek, B / Knipper, M / Biesinger, E / Schulze, H. ·Tinnitus Center, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany. birgit.mazurek@charite.de. · Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Tübingen Hearing Research Centre (THRC), Molecular Physiology of Hearing, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. · ENT-Clinic Traunstein, Traunstein, Germany. · Experimental Otolaryngology, Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany. ·HNO · Pubmed #31197410.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Tinnitus-New challenge and therapeutic approaches. 2018

Mazurek, B. ·Campus Charité Mitte, Tinnitus Center, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany. birgit.mazurek@charite.de. ·HNO · Pubmed #29500501.

ABSTRACT:

3 Editorial [Tinnitus - New challenge and therapeutic approaches. German version]. 2018

Mazurek, B. ·Tinnituszentrum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Deutschland. birgit.mazurek@charite.de. ·HNO · Pubmed #29417190.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Review [The ICD-10 Symptom Rating questionnaire for assessment of psychological comorbidities in chronic tinnitus patients]. 2019

Brueggemann, P / Szczepek, A J / Seydel, C / Schaefer, C / Amarjargal, N / Boecking, B / Rose, M / Mazurek, B. ·Tinnituszentrum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Deutschland. · Klinik für Hals‑, Nasen‑, Ohrenheilkunde, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Deutschland. · Klinik für Innere Medizin m. Schwerpunkt Psychosomatik, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Deutschland. · Tinnituszentrum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Deutschland. birgit.mazurek@charite.de. ·HNO · Pubmed #30806717.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Psychological comorbidities are frequent in tinnitus patients and their diagnosis is important for both interventions as well as treatment success. The selection of suitable questionnaires is thus crucial. The present study aimed to investigate the ICD-10 Symptom Rating (ISR) questionnaire for the diagnosis of psychological comorbidities. METHODS: The current study investigated tinnitus burden and psychological comorbidities in a sample of n = 311 patients with chronic tinnitus. All participants completed an intensive 7‑day multimodal tinnitus-specific therapy. Tinnitus burden was measured using the German version of the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ). Psychological comorbidities were measured using the ISR (total score, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, somatoform disorder, and eating disorder), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ; total score, tension, worries, joy, and demands), and the General Depression Scale (Allgemeine Depressionsskala, ADS). RESULTS: Psychological comorbidities were suffered by 65% of participants. Treatment response comprised improvements in TQ, ISR, PSQ, and ADS. At baseline, tinnitus burden correlated with the ISR total, ISR obsessive-compulsive disorder, and PSQ tension scores. Post-treatment, the now reduced tinnitus burden was also predicted by the ISR depressive and eating disorder scores. CONCLUSION: The ISR is a useful tool for measuring psychological comorbidities in patients with chronic tinnitus as well as for assessing short-term treatment response. Therapeutic approaches for chronic tinnitus should also consider stress-related tension, depressive symptomatology, and coping strategies such as maladaptive eating behaviors.

5 Review [Tinnitus - Clinical Symptoms and Therapy]. 2017

Mazurek, Birgit / Szczepek, Agnieszka J / Brüggemann, Petra. ·Tinnituszentrum und HNO-Klinik, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin. ·Laryngorhinootologie · Pubmed #28192822.

ABSTRACT: Tinnitus is a phantom sound that can be a symptom of various disorders such as hearing loss, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, diabetes or tumors. Because of the inability to divert the auditory attention from tinnitus sound, patients suffer with insomnia, problems with concentration and other psychological conditions, in some extreme cases including major depression symptoms. The auditory character of tinnitus induces the patients to seek help predominantly at the otolaryngologist practice. The first aim of a physician is to establish the cause of tinnitus and to measure its audiological properties. The second aim is to estimate the tinnitus-induced distress and to grade its psychological severity. This manuscript is dedicated to describe the audiological as well as psychological properties of tinnitus, its contemporary classification and the therapeutic methods used in the field.

6 Review A multidisciplinary systematic review of the treatment for chronic idiopathic tinnitus. 2017

Zenner, Hans-Peter / Delb, Wolfgang / Kröner-Herwig, Birgit / Jäger, Burkhard / Peroz, Ingrid / Hesse, Gerhard / Mazurek, Birgit / Goebel, Gerhard / Gerloff, Christian / Trollmann, Regina / Biesinger, Eberhard / Seidler, Harald / Langguth, Berthold. ·Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Tübingen, Elfriede-Aulhorn-Str. 5, 72076, Tübingen, Germany. ut@hpzenner.de. · Otorhinolaryngology Centre, Kaiserslautern, Germany. · Department of Psychology, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany. · Mental Health Centre, Clinic for Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany. · Department for Dental Prosthetics, Geriatric Dentistry and Function, Charité Hospital, Medical School Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · Tinnitus Clinic, Bad Arolsen Hospital, Arolsen, Germany. · Charité Hospital, Medical School Berlin, University Otorhinolaryngology Clinic, Berlin, Germany. · Department of Behavioural Medicine, Psychosomatics, Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Schön Clinic in Roseneck, Prien am Chiemsee, Germany. · Clinic and Outpatient Clinic for Neurology, University Hospital of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. · Social Paediatric Centre, Neuropaediatrics and Epileptology, University Paediatric Clinic, Erlangen, Germany. · Otorhinolaryngology Centre, Traunstein, Germany. · MedClin Bosenberg Clinics, Saint Wendel, Germany. · Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany. ·Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol · Pubmed #27995315.

ABSTRACT: The majority of tinnitus patients are affected by chronic idiopathic tinnitus, and almost 60 different treatment modalities have been reported. The present study is a multidisciplinary systematic analysis of the evidence for the different forms of treatment for chronic tinnitus. The results are used to form the basis of an S3 guideline. A systematic search was carried out in PubMed and the Cochrane Library. The basis for presenting the level of evidence was the evidence classification of the Oxford Centre of Evidence-based Medicine. Whenever available, randomised controlled trials were given preference for discussing therapeutic issues. All systematic reviews and meta-analyses were assessed for their methodological quality, and effect size was taken into account. As the need for patient counselling is self-evident, specific tinnitus counselling should be performed. Due to the high level of evidence, validated tinnitus-specific, cognitive behavioural therapy is strongly recommended. In addition, auditory therapeutic measures can be recommended for the treatment of concomitant hearing loss and comorbidities; those should also be treated with drugs whenever appropriate. In particular, depression should be treated, with pharmacological support if necessary. If needed, psychiatric treatment should also be given on a case-by-case basis. With simultaneous deafness or hearing loss bordering on deafness, a CI can also be indicated. For auditory therapeutic measures, transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation and specific forms of acoustic stimulation (noiser/masker, retraining therapy, music, and coordinated reset) for the treatment of chronic tinnitus the currently available evidence is not yet sufficient for supporting their recommendation.

7 Review Systematic review of outcome domains and instruments used in clinical trials of tinnitus treatments in adults. 2016

Hall, Deborah A / Haider, Haula / Szczepek, Agnieszka J / Lau, Pia / Rabau, Sarah / Jones-Diette, Julie / Londero, Alain / Edvall, Niklas K / Cederroth, Christopher R / Mielczarek, Marzena / Fuller, Thomas / Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel / Brueggemen, Petra / Thompson, Dean M / Norena, Arnaud / Cima, Rilana F F / Mehta, Rajnikant L / Mazurek, Birgit. ·National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit, Ropewalk House, 113 The Ropewalk, Nottingham, NG1 5DU, UK. deborah.hall@nottingham.ac.uk. · Otology and Hearing Group, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK. deborah.hall@nottingham.ac.uk. · ENT Department of Hospital Cuf Infante Santo - Nova Medical School, Travessa do Castro 3, 1350-070, Lisbon, Portugal. · Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Charite University Hospital, Chariteplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany. · Institute of Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University Hospital Münster, Malmedyweg 15, 48149, Münster, Germany. · Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem, Belgium. · National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit, Ropewalk House, 113 The Ropewalk, Nottingham, NG1 5DU, UK. · Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, UK. · Service ORL et CCF, Consultation Acouphène et Hyperacousie, Hôpital Européen G. Pompidou, 20, rue Leblanc, 75015, Paris, France. · Experimental Audiology, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Von Eulers väg 8, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden. · Department of Otolaryngology, Laryngological Oncology, Audiology and Phoniatrics, |Medical University of Lodz, 90-549 Lodz, 113 Zeromskiego Street, Lodz, Poland. · Clinical Psychological Science, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Universiteitssingel 40, PO Box 616, 6200, MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands. · Adelante, Centre of Expertise in Rehabilitation and Audiology, Zandbergsweg 111, 6432 CC, Hoensbroek, The Netherlands. · Department of Otorhinolaryngology, IBSAL, University Hospital of Salamanca, Paseo San Vicente 58-182, 37007, Salamanca, Spain. · Tinnitus Center, Charite University Hospital, Chariteplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany. · Otology and Hearing Group, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK. · Laboratory of Adaptive and Integrative Neuroscience, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Fédération de Recherche 3C, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France. ·Trials · Pubmed #27250987.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is no evidence-based guidance to facilitate design decisions for confirmatory trials or systematic reviews investigating treatment efficacy for adults with tinnitus. This systematic review therefore seeks to ascertain the current status of trial designs by identifying and evaluating the reporting of outcome domains and instruments in the treatment of adults with tinnitus. METHODS: Records were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE CINAHL, EBSCO, and CENTRAL clinical trial registries (ClinicalTrials.gov, ISRCTN, ICTRP) and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Eligible records were those published from 1 July 2006 to 12 March 2015. Included studies were those reporting adults aged 18 years or older who reported tinnitus as a primary complaint, and who were enrolled into a randomised controlled trial, a before and after study, a non-randomised controlled trial, a case-controlled study or a cohort study, and written in English. Studies with fewer than 20 participants were excluded. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-eight studies were included. Thirty-five different primary outcome domains were identified spanning seven categories (tinnitus percept, impact of tinnitus, co-occurring complaints, quality of life, body structures and function, treatment-related outcomes and unclear or not specified). Over half the studies (55 %) did not clearly define the complaint of interest. Tinnitus loudness was the domain most often reported (14 %), followed by tinnitus distress (7 %). Seventy-eight different primary outcome instruments were identified. Instruments assessing multiple attributes of the impact of tinnitus were most common (34 %). Overall, 24 different patient-reported tools were used, predominantly the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (15 %). Loudness was measured in diverse ways including a numerical rating scale (8 %), loudness matching (4 %), minimum masking level (1 %) and loudness discomfort level (1 %). Ten percent of studies did not clearly report the instrument used. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate poor appreciation of the basic principles of good trial design, particularly the importance of specifying what aspect of therapeutic benefit is the main outcome. No single outcome was reported in all studies and there was a broad diversity of outcome instruments. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: The systematic review protocol is registered on PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews): CRD42015017525 . Registered on 12 March 2015 revised on 15 March 2016.

8 Guideline [On the interdisciplinary S3 guidelines for the treatment of chronic idiopathic tinnitus]. 2015

Zenner, H-P / Delb, W / Kröner-Herwig, B / Jäger, B / Peroz, I / Hesse, G / Mazurek, B / Goebel, G / Gerloff, C / Trollmann, R / Biesinger, E / Seidler, H / Langguth, B. ·Universitätsklinik für HNO-Heilkunde, Elfriede-Aulhorn-Str. 5, 72076, Tübingen, Deutschland, Hans-Peter.Zenner@med.uni-tuebingen.de. ·HNO · Pubmed #26054729.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is a frequent symptom, which, particularly in combination with comorbidities, can result in a severe disease-related burden. Chronic idiopathic tinnitus (CIT) is the most frequent type of tinnitus. A considerable number of treatment strategies are used to treat CIT-for many of which there is no evidence of efficacy. In order to enable scientific evidence-based treatment of CIT, German interdisciplinary S3 guidelines have recently been constructed for the first time. Here we present a short form of these S3 guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The guidelines were constructed based on a meta-analysis of the treatment of chronic tinnitus performed by the authors. Additionally, a systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases. Furthermore, a systematic search for international guidelines was performed in Google, as well as in the Guidelines International Network and National Guideline Clearinghouse (USA) database. Evidence was classified according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine system. RESULTS: According to the guidelines, alongside counselling, manualized structured tinnitus-specific cognitive behavioral therapy (tCBT) with a validated treatment manual is available as evidence-based therapy. In addition, the guidelines recommend concurrent treatment of comorbidities, including drug-based treatment, where appropriate. Particularly important is treatment of anxiety and depression. Where a psychic or psychiatric comorbidity is suspected, further diagnosis and treatment should be performed by an appropriately qualified specialist (psychiatrist, neurologist, psychosomatic medicine consultant) or psychological psychotherapist. In cases accompanied by deafness or hearing loss bordering on deafness, cochlear implants may be indicated. CONCLUSION: No recommendations can be made for drug-based treatment of CIT, audiotherapy, transcranial magnetic or electrical stimulation, specific forms of acoustic stimulation or music therapy; or such recommendations must remain open due to the lack of available evidence. Polypragmatic tinnitus treatment with therapeutic strategies for which there is no evidence of efficacy from controlled studies is to be refused.

9 Article ICD-10 Symptom Rating questionnaire for assessment of psychological comorbidities in patients with chronic tinnitus. 2019

Brueggemann, P / Seydel, C / Schaefer, C / Szczepek, A J / Amarjargal, N / Boecking, B / Rose, M / Mazurek, B. ·Tinnitus Center, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany. · Department of ORL, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · Department of Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · Tinnitus Center, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany. birgit.mazurek@charite.de. ·HNO · Pubmed #30927015.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tinnitus frequently occurs alongside psychological comorbidities whose assessment is important for treatment planning and -success. The selection of suitable questionnaires is thus crucial. The present study aims to investigate the ICD-10 Symptom Rating (ISR) to this regard. METHODS: The current study investigated tinnitus burden and psychological comorbidities in a sample of N = 311 patients with chronic tinnitus. All participants completed an intensive 7‑day multimodal tinnitus-specific therapy. Tinnitus burden was measured using the German version of the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ). Psychological comorbidities were measured using the ISR (total score, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, somatoform disorder, and eating disorder), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ; total score, tension, worries, joy, and demands), and the General Depression Scale (Allgemeine Depressionsskala, ADS). RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of participants suffered from psychological comorbidities. Treatment response comprised improvements in the TQ, ISQ, PSQ and ADS. At baseline, tinnitus-burden correlated with the ISR-total, ISR-obsessive-compulsive disorder and PSQ-tension scores. Post treatment, the-now reduced-tinnitus burden was additionally predicted by ISR-depressive and eating disorder scores. CONCLUSION: The ISR is a useful tool for measuring psychological comorbidities in patients with chronic tinnitus as well as short-term treatment response. Therapeutic approaches for chronic tinnitus should address stress-related tension, depressive symptomatology and coping strategies such as maladaptive eating behaviours.

10 Article Intermittent tinnitus-an empirical description. 2019

Burkart, M / Brueggemann, P / Szczepek, A J / Frank, D / Mazurek, B. ·Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. KG, Bunsenstr. 6-10, 76275, Ettlingen, Germany. · Tinnituszentrum, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Luisenstr. 13, 10117, Berlin, Germany. · HNO Forschungslabor, Klinik für Hals‑, Nasen‑, Ohrenheilkunde, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · ISM Global Dynamics GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany. · Tinnituszentrum, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Luisenstr. 13, 10117, Berlin, Germany. birgit.mazurek@charite.de. ·HNO · Pubmed #30927014.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is often classified into acute or chronic persistent forms. However, epidemiologic studies have shown that intermittent tinnitus (IT), which does not clearly belong to either category, is the most common form. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to further characterize IT empirically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional interview study among 320 subjects with tinnitus. Sociodemographic and tinnitus characteristics, concomitant complaints, perceived triggers, and help-seeking behavior were assessed. Subjects were classified into continuous (CT), IT, or single-episode tinnitus (SET) if they had experienced tinnitus "continuously," "temporarily time and again," or "only once but for several days," respectively, during the past 12 months. RESULTS: Of the sample, 62% reported IT, 23% SET, and 16% CT. Mean time since onset was 36 (CT), 28 (IT), and 19 months (SET), respectively. Most subjects with IT experienced episodes lasting a few days, whereas in 25%, episodes lasted 1-4 weeks. Mean duration was 1.6 weeks. The frequency of IT episodes ranged from every few days to half-yearly; mean frequency was every 7 weeks. Leading triggers were occupational and private stress. Asthenia, depression, social isolation, psychiatric disorders, and inner ear disorders were more prevalent among CT than IT subjects. Help-seeking behavior was comparable between CT and IT. CONCLUSION: IT is associated with emotional reactions and situational impairment severe enough to trigger multiple treatment attempts, but usually does not result in severe impairment. Inner ear disorders and psychological changes are less frequent than in CT; therefore, treatment response and prognosis might be better. We suggest classification of tinnitus into acute single-episode (<3 months), intermittent, or chronic persistent (>3 months) forms.

11 Article A multidisciplinary European guideline for tinnitus: diagnostics, assessment, and treatment. 2019

Cima, R F F / Mazurek, B / Haider, H / Kikidis, D / Lapira, A / Noreña, A / Hoare, D J. ·Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of clinical Psychological Science, Experimental Health Psychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. r.cima@maastrichtuniversity.nl. · Adelante Centre of Expertise in Rehabilitation and Audiology, Hoensbroek, The Netherlands. r.cima@maastrichtuniversity.nl. · Tinnituscenter, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · ENT department, Hospital Cuf Infante Santo, Lisbon, Portugal. · 1st Department of Otolaryngology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. · Malta University, Valetta, Malta. · Sensory systems and neuroplasticity, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France. · National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Ropewalk House, University of Nottingham, 113 The Ropewalk, NG1 5DU, Nottingham, United Kingdom. · Otology and Hearing Group, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, NG7 2UH, Berlin, Germany. ·HNO · Pubmed #30847513.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

12 Article One Size Does Not Fit All: Developing Common Standards for Outcomes in Early-Phase Clinical Trials of Sound-, Psychology-, and Pharmacology-Based Interventions for Chronic Subjective Tinnitus in Adults. 2019

Hall, Deborah A / Hibbert, Alice / Smith, Harriet / Haider, Haúla F / Londero, Alain / Mazurek, Birgit / Fackrell, Kathryn / Anonymous440981. ·1 National Institute for Health Research Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Ropewalk House, UK. · 2 Hearing Sciences, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, UK. · 3 Nottingham University Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Queens Medical Centre, UK. · 4 University of Nottingham Malaysia, Semeniyh, Malaysia. · 5 ENT Department, Hospital Cuf Infante Santo - Nova Medical School, Lisbon, Portugal. · 6 Service ORL et CCF, Consultation Acouphène et Hyperacousie, Hôpital Européen G. Pompidou, Paris, France. · 7 Tinnitus Center, Charite University Hospital, Berlin, Germany. ·Trends Hear · Pubmed #30803389.

ABSTRACT: Good practice in clinical trials advocates common standards for assessing and reporting condition-specific complaints ("outcome domains"). For tinnitus, there is no common standard. The Core Outcome Measures in Tinnitus International Delphi (COMiT'ID) study created recommendations that are relevant to the most common intervention approaches for chronic subjective tinnitus in adults using consensus methods. Here, the objectives were to examine why it is important to tailor outcome domain selection to the tinnitus intervention that is being evaluated in the clinical trial and to demonstrate that the COMiT'ID recommendations are robust. The COMiT'ID study used an online three-round Delphi method with three separate surveys for sound-, psychology-, and pharmacology-based interventions. Survey data were analyzed to assess quality and confidence in the consensus achieved across surveys and stakeholder groups and between survey rounds. Results found participants were highly discriminatory in their decision-making. Of the 34 outcome domains reaching the prespecified consensus definition in the final round, 17 (50%) were unique to one intervention, while only 12 (35%) were common to all three. Robustness was demonstrated by an acceptable level of agreement across and within stakeholder groups, across survey rounds, across medical specialties (for the health-care practitioners), and across health-care users with varying tinnitus duration. There were few dissenting voices, and results showed no attrition bias. In conclusion, there is compelling evidence that one set of outcomes does not fit all therapeutic aims. Our analyses evidence robust decisions by the electronic Delphi process, leading to recommendations for three unique intervention-specific outcome domain sets. This provides an important starting point for standardization.

13 Article [Intermittent tinnitus-an empirical description. German version]. 2019

Burkart, M / Brueggemann, P / Szczepek, A J / Frank, D / Mazurek, B. ·Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. KG, Ettlingen, Deutschland. · Tinnituszentrum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte, Luisenstraße 13, 10117, Berlin, Deutschland. · HNO-Forschungslabor, Klinik für Hals‑, Nasen‑, Ohrenheilkunde, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte, Berlin, Deutschland. · ISM Global Dynamics GmbH, Bad Homburg, Deutschland. · Tinnituszentrum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte, Luisenstraße 13, 10117, Berlin, Deutschland. Birgit.Mazurek@charite.de. ·HNO · Pubmed #30796499.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is often classified into acute or chronic persistent forms. However, epidemiologic studies have shown that intermittent tinnitus (IT), which does not clearly belong to either category, is the most common form. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to further characterize IT empirically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional interview study among 320 subjects with tinnitus. Sociodemographic and tinnitus characteristics, concomitant complaints, perceived triggers, and help-seeking behavior were assessed. Subjects were classified into continuous (CT), IT, or single-episode tinnitus (SET) if they had experienced tinnitus "continuously," "temporarily time and again," or "only once but for several days," respectively, during the past 12 months. RESULTS: Of the sample, 62% reported IT, 23% SET, and 16% CT. Mean time since onset was 36 (CT), 28 (IT), and 19 months (SET), respectively. Most subjects with IT experienced episodes lasting a few days, whereas in 25%, episodes lasted 1-4 weeks. Mean duration was 1.6 weeks. The frequency of IT episodes ranged from every few days to half-yearly; mean frequency was every 7 weeks. Leading triggers were occupational and private stress. Asthenia, depression, social isolation, psychiatric disorders, and inner ear disorders were more prevalent among CT than IT subjects. Help-seeking behavior was comparable between CT and IT. CONCLUSION: IT is associated with emotional reactions and situational impairment severe enough to trigger multiple treatment attempts, but usually does not result in severe impairment. Inner ear disorders and psychological changes are less frequent than in CT; therefore, treatment response and prognosis might be better. We suggest classification of tinnitus into acute single-episode (<3 months), intermittent, or chronic persistent (>3 months) forms.

14 Article [Tinnitus: psychosomatic aspects]. 2019

Boecking, B / Brueggemann, P / Mazurek, B. ·Tinnituszentrum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Karlplatz 7, 10117, Berlin, Deutschland. benjamin.boecking@charite.de. · Tinnituszentrum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Karlplatz 7, 10117, Berlin, Deutschland. ·HNO · Pubmed #30694350.

ABSTRACT: Tinnitus is a common symptom of unclear origin that can be multifactorially caused and maintained. It is frequently, but not inevitably, associated with hearing loss. Emotional distress and maladaptive coping strategies - that are associated with or amplified by the tinnitus percept - pose key targets for psychological interventions. Once somatic contributors are identified and treated as applicable, psychological approaches comprise normalizing psychoeducational and psychotherapeutic interventions. Measures to improve hearing perception (e. g., hearing aids or cochlear implants) can also contribute to tinnitus habituation through direct (improvement of hearing perception) or indirect (improvement of emotional wellbeing or quality of life) effects.

15 Article The COMiT'ID Study: Developing Core Outcome Domains Sets for Clinical Trials of Sound-, Psychology-, and Pharmacology-Based Interventions for Chronic Subjective Tinnitus in Adults. 2018

Hall, Deborah A / Smith, Harriet / Hibbert, Alice / Colley, Veronica / Haider, Haúla F / Horobin, Adele / Londero, Alain / Mazurek, Birgit / Thacker, Brian / Fackrell, Kathryn / Anonymous4810970. ·1 National Institute for Health Research Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Ropewalk House, UK. · 2 Hearing Sciences, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, UK. · 3 Nottingham University Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Queens Medical Centre, UK. · 4 University of Nottingham Malaysia, Semeniyh, Malaysia. · 5 ENT Department, Hospital Cuf Infante Santo-Nova Medical School, Lisbon, Portugal. · 6 Service ORL et CCF, Consultation Acouphène et Hyperacousie, Hôpital Européen G. Pompidou, Paris, France. · 7 Tinnitus Center, Charite University Hospital, Berlin, Germany. ·Trends Hear · Pubmed #30488765.

ABSTRACT: Subjective tinnitus is a chronic heterogeneous condition that is typically managed using intervention approaches based on sound devices, psychologically informed therapies, or pharmaceutical products. For clinical trials, there are currently no common standards for assessing or reporting intervention efficacy. This article reports on the first of two steps to establish a common standard, which identifies what specific tinnitus-related complaints ("outcome domains") are critical and important to assess in all clinical trials to determine whether an intervention has worked. Using purposive sampling, 719 international health-care users with tinnitus, health-care professionals, clinical researchers, commercial representatives, and funders were recruited. Eligibility was primarily determined by experience of one of the three interventions of interest. Following recommended procedures for gaining consensus, three intervention-specific, three-round, Delphi surveys were delivered online. Each Delphi survey was followed by an in-person consensus meeting. Viewpoints and votes involved all stakeholder groups, with approximately a 1:1 ratio of health-care users to professionals. "Tinnitus intrusiveness" was voted in for all three interventions. For sound-based interventions, the minimum set included "ability to ignore," "concentration," "quality of sleep," and "sense of control." For psychology-based interventions, the minimum set included "acceptance of tinnitus," "mood," "negative thoughts and beliefs," and "sense of control." For pharmacology-based interventions, "tinnitus loudness" was the only additional core outcome domain. The second step will next identify how those outcome domains should best be measured. The uptake of these intervention-specific standards in clinical trials will improve research quality, enhance clinical decision-making, and facilitate meta-analysis in systematic reviews.

16 Article [Long-term changes in multimodal intensive tinnitus therapy : A 5‑year follow-up. German version]. 2018

Brüggemann, P / Otto, J / Lorenz, N / Schorsch, S / Szczepek, A J / Böcking, B / Mazurek, B. ·Tinnituszentrum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Deutschland. · HNO-Klinik Forschungslabor, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte, Berlin, Deutschland. · Tinnituszentrum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Deutschland. birgit.mazurek@charite.de. ·HNO · Pubmed #29484461.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We present 5‑year follow-up data for tinnitus-specific and comorbid depressive symptoms as well as stress-related outcome variables of an intensive multimodal 7‑day tinnitus therapy. METHOD: Tinnitus burden (Tinnitus Questionnaire), stress (Perceived Stress Questionnaire), and depressive symptomatology (General Depression Scale) were measured at the 5‑year follow-up after a multimodal intensive 7‑day intervention. In all, 94 patients participated in the study. RESULTS: All outcome variables showed significant improvement at the end of the 7‑day intensive treatment. These effects remained significant after 5 years. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study support the effectiveness of the 7‑day multimodal intensive therapy for tinnitus. Posttreatment improvements were related to both tinnitus burden as well as stress and depressive symptoms and were maintained at the 5‑year follow-up.

17 Article Long-term changes in multimodal intensive tinnitus therapy : A 5‑year follow-up. 2018

Brüggemann, P / Otto, J / Lorenz, N / Schorsch, S / Szczepek, A J / Böcking, B / Mazurek, B. ·Tinnituszentrum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany. · Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte, Berlin, Germany. · Tinnituszentrum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany. birgit.mazurek@charite.de. ·HNO · Pubmed #29350237.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We present 5‑year follow-up data for tinnitus-specific and comorbid depressive symptoms as well as stress-related outcome variables of an intensive multimodal 7‑day tinnitus therapy. METHOD: Tinnitus burden (Tinnitus Questionnaire), stress (Perceived Stress Questionnaire), and depressive symptomatology (General Depression Scale) were measured at the 5‑year follow-up after a multimodal intensive 7‑day intervention. In all, 94 patients participated in the study. RESULTS: All outcome variables showed significant improvement at the end of the 7‑day intensive treatment. These effects remained significant after 5 years. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study support the effectiveness of the 7‑day multimodal intensive therapy for tinnitus. Posttreatment improvements were related to both tinnitus burden as well as stress and depressive symptoms and were maintained at the 5‑year follow-up.

18 Article Core Outcome Domains for early phase clinical trials of sound-, psychology-, and pharmacology-based interventions to manage chronic subjective tinnitus in adults: the COMIT'ID study protocol for using a Delphi process and face-to-face meetings to establish consensus. 2017

Fackrell, Kathryn / Smith, Harriet / Colley, Veronica / Thacker, Brian / Horobin, Adele / Haider, Haúla F / Londero, Alain / Mazurek, Birgit / Hall, Deborah A. ·NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Centre, Ropewalk House, 113 The Ropewalk, Nottingham, NG1 5DU, UK. · Otology and Hearing Group, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK. · Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Queen's Medical Centre, Derby Road, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK. · ENT Department of Hospital Cuf Infante Santo, Nova Medical School, Travessa do Castro, 3, 1350-070, Lisbon, Portugal. · Service ORL et CCF, Consultation Acouphène et Hyperacousie, Hôpital Européen G. Pompidou, 20, rue Leblanc, 75015, Paris, France. · Tinnitus Center, Charite University Hospital, Chariteplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany. · NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Centre, Ropewalk House, 113 The Ropewalk, Nottingham, NG1 5DU, UK. deborah.hall@nottingham.ac.uk. · Otology and Hearing Group, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK. deborah.hall@nottingham.ac.uk. ·Trials · Pubmed #28835261.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The reporting of outcomes in clinical trials of subjective tinnitus indicates that many different tinnitus-related complaints are of interest to investigators, from perceptual attributes of the sound (e.g. loudness) to psychosocial impacts (e.g. quality of life). Even when considering one type of intervention strategy for subjective tinnitus, there is no agreement about what is critically important for deciding whether a treatment is effective. The main purpose of this observational study is, therefore to, develop Core Outcome Domain Sets for the three different intervention strategies (sound, psychological, and pharmacological) for adults with chronic subjective tinnitus that should be measured and reported in every clinical trial of these interventions. Secondary objectives are to identify the strengths and limitations of our study design for recruiting and reducing attrition of participants, and to explore uptake of the core outcomes. METHODS: The 'Core Outcome Measures in Tinnitus: International Delphi' (COMIT'ID) study will use a mixed-methods approach that incorporates input from health care users at the pre-Delphi stage, a modified three-round Delphi survey and final consensus meetings (one for each intervention). The meetings will generate recommendations by stakeholder representatives on agreed Core Outcome Domain Sets specific to each intervention. A subsequent step will establish a common cross-cutting Core Outcome Domain Set by identifying the common outcome domains included in all three intervention-specific Core Outcome Domain Sets. To address the secondary objectives, we will gather feedback from participants about their experience of taking part in the Delphi process. We aspire to conduct an observational cohort study to evaluate uptake of the core outcomes in published studies at 7 years following Core Outcome Set publication. DISCUSSION: The COMIT'ID study aims to develop a Core Outcome Domain Set that is agreed as critically important for deciding whether a treatment for subjective tinnitus is effective. Such a recommendation would help to standardise future clinical trials worldwide and so we will determine if participation increases use of the Core Outcome Set in the long term. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This project has been registered (November 2014) in the database of the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) initiative.

19 Article [Validation of the German Version of Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI)]. 2017

Brüggemann, Petra / Szczepek, Agnieszka J / Kleinjung, Tobias / Ojo, Michael / Mazurek, Birgit. ·Tinnituszentrum, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin. · HNO Forschungslabor, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin. · ENT, UniversitätsSpital Zürich, Zürich, Schweiz. ·Laryngorhinootologie · Pubmed #28499301.

ABSTRACT: Tinnitus belongs to seriously debilitating auditory conditions and is often complicated by comorbidities such as insomnia, difficulties with concentration, depression, frustration and irritability. To facilitate the grading of symptoms and the effects of therapeutic strategies, we validated a German-version Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) in 229 subjects suffering from chronic tinnitus. Outcome validity was assessed using the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ, German adaptation by Goebel u. Hiller [1998]). Construct validity was assessed using the "Hamburger Allgemeine Depressionsskala" (HADS). The German TFI featured excellent internal consistency (total score Cronbach's α=0.93). Factor analysis disclosed eight TFI subscales as proposed earlier by Meikle et al. [2012]. Intercorrelations were strong both between the TFI and the TQ (r=0.83), and between the TFI and the HADS (depression r=0.49, anxiety r=0.51). The German-version TFI qualifies as a rapid and statistically robust tool for grading the impact of tinnitus on daily living and for the measurements of therapeutic effects. Regarding depressive symptomatology, sensitivity of the TFI was comparable to that of the TQ.

20 Article Genetic susceptibility to bilateral tinnitus in a Swedish twin cohort. 2017

Maas, Iris Lianne / Brüggemann, Petra / Requena, Teresa / Bulla, Jan / Edvall, Niklas K / Hjelmborg, Jacob V B / Szczepek, Agnieszka J / Canlon, Barbara / Mazurek, Birgit / Lopez-Escamez, Jose A / Cederroth, Christopher R. ·Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Center for Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · Tinnitus Center, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · Otology & Neurotology Group CTS495, Department of Genomic Medicine, GENYO - Center for Genomics and Oncological Research-Pfizer, University of Granada, Junta de Andalucía, PTS, Granada, Spain. · Department of Mathematics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. · Experimental Audiology, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. · Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Biodemography, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. · Department of ORL, Head and Neck Surgery, Research Laboratory, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · Department of Otolaryngology, Complejo Hospitalario Universidad de Granada (CHUGRA), ibs.granada, Granada, Spain. ·Genet Med · Pubmed #28333916.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Genetic contributions to tinnitus have been difficult to determine due to the heterogeneity of the condition and its broad etiology. Here, we evaluated the genetic and nongenetic influences on self-reported tinnitus from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the STR was obtained. Casewise concordance rates (the risk of one twin being affected given that his/her twin partner has tinnitus) were compared for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (N = 10,464 concordant and discordant twin pairs) and heritability coefficients (the proportion of the total variance attributable to genetic factors) were calculated using biometrical model fitting procedures. RESULTS: Stratification of tinnitus cases into subtypes according to laterality (unilateral versus bilateral) revealed that heritability of bilateral tinnitus was 0.56; however, it was 0.27 for unilateral tinnitus. Heritability was greater in men (0.68) than in women (0.41). However, when female pairs younger than 40 years of age were selected, heritability of 0.62 was achieved with negligible effects of shared environment. CONCLUSION: Unlike unilateral tinnitus, bilateral tinnitus is influenced by genetic factors and might constitute a genetic subtype. Overall, our study provides the initial evidence for a tinnitus phenotype with a genetic influence.Genet Med advance online publication 23 March 2017.

21 Article Impact of cochlear implantation on quality of life and mental comorbidity in patients aged 80 years. 2016

Knopke, Steffen / Gräbel, Stefan / Förster-Ruhrmann, Ulrike / Mazurek, Birgit / Szczepek, Agnieszka J / Olze, Heidi. ·Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité-University Medical Center Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · Tinnitus Center, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité-University Medical Center Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Charité-University Medical Center Berlin, Berlin, Germany. ·Laryngoscope · Pubmed #27075602.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of cochlear implantation in elderly patients (80 or older) with progressive bilateral deafening. The measured outcomes included the quality of life, speech understanding, tinnitus distress, stress level, anxiety, and depressiveness. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Seventeen 80+ years (mean 82.9 ± 2.7 years) patients with progressive, postlingual, bilateral deafness were unilaterally implanted with multichannel cochlear implants. Data about their health-related quality of life (Nijmegen Cochlear Implantation Questionnaire) and their comorbidities were collected using specific validated questionnaires (tinnitus questionnaire, General Anxiety Disorder-7, Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire). The speech understanding was assessed with the Freiburg Monosyllabic Test, whereas the subjective hearing was evaluated with the Oldenburg Inventory. RESULTS: After the surgery, not only the subjective hearing but also health-related quality of life, speech understanding, and tinnitus distress of the implanted patients improved significantly. The perceived stress, general anxiety, and depressiveness were low or normal prior and after surgery. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a significant improvement in the quality of life and speech understanding in a group of elderly patients who underwent cochlear implantation. An additional positive indicator of a promising hearing rehabilitation was a significant improvement of the tinnitus distress. Perceived stress level, general anxiety, and the depressiveness of implanted patients were low and remained unaffected. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2811-2816, 2016.

22 Article Cerebral Processing of Emotionally Loaded Acoustic Signals by Tinnitus Patients. 2016

Georgiewa, Petra / Szczepek, Agnieszka J / Rose, Matthias / Klapp, Burghard F / Mazurek, Birgit. ·Tinnitus Center, Charitx00E9; - Universitx00E4;tsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. ·Audiol Neurootol · Pubmed #26918795.

ABSTRACT: This exploratory study determined the activation pattern in nonauditory brain areas in response to acoustic, emotionally positive, negative or neutral stimuli presented to tinnitus patients and control subjects. Ten patients with chronic tinnitus and without measurable hearing loss and 13 matched control subjects were included in the study and subjected to fMRI with a 1.5-tesla scanner. During the scanning procedure, acoustic stimuli of different emotional value were presented to the subjects. Statistical analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99). The activation pattern induced by emotionally loaded acoustic stimuli differed significantly within and between both groups tested, depending on the kind of stimuli used. Within-group differences included the limbic system, prefrontal regions, temporal association cortices and striatal regions. Tinnitus patients had a pronounced involvement of limbic regions involved in the processing of chimes (positive stimulus) and neutral words (neutral stimulus), strongly suggesting improperly functioning inhibitory mechanisms that were functioning well in the control subjects. This study supports the hypothesis about the existence of a tinnitus-specific brain network. Such a network could respond to any acoustic stimuli by activating limbic areas involved in stress reactivity and emotional processing and by reducing activation of areas responsible for attention and acoustic filtering (thalamus, frontal regions), possibly reinforcing negative effects of tinnitus.

23 Article Toward a Global Consensus on Outcome Measures for Clinical Trials in Tinnitus: Report From the First International Meeting of the COMiT Initiative, November 14, 2014, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 2015

Hall, Deborah A / Haider, Haúla / Kikidis, Dimitris / Mielczarek, Marzena / Mazurek, Birgit / Szczepek, Agnieszka J / Cederroth, Christopher R. ·Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Nottingham, UK deborah.hall@nottingham.ac.uk. · ENT Department of Hospital Cuf Infante Santo, Nova Medical School, Lisbon, Portugal. · 1st Department of Otolaryngology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. · Department of Otolaryngology, Laryngological Oncology, Audiology and Phoniatrics, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland. · Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · Department of Otolaryngology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Otology and Hearing Group, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. ·Trends Hear · Pubmed #25910505.

ABSTRACT: In Europe alone, over 70 million people experience tinnitus; for seven million people, it creates a debilitating condition. Despite its enormous socioeconomic relevance, progress in successfully treating the condition is somewhat limited. The European Union has approved funding to create a pan-European tinnitus research collaboration network (2014-2018). The goal of one working group is to establish an international standard for outcome measurements in clinical trials of tinnitus. Importantly, this would enhance tinnitus research by informing sample-size calculations, enabling meta-analyses, and facilitating the identification of tinnitus subtypes, ultimately leading to improved treatments. The first meeting followed a workshop on "Agreed Standards for Measurement: An International Perspective" with invited talks on clinimetrics and existing international initiatives to define core sets for outcome measurements in hearing loss (International classification of functioning, disability, and health core sets for hearing loss) and eczema (Harmonizing outcome measures for eczema). Both initiatives have taken an approach that clearly distinguishes the specification of what to measure from that of how to measure it. Meeting delegates agreed on taking a step-wise roadmap for which the first output would be a consensus on what outcome domains are essential for all trials. The working group seeks to embrace inclusivity and brings together clinicians, tinnitus researchers, experts on clinical research methodology, statisticians, and representatives of the health industry. People who experience tinnitus are another important participant group. This meeting report is a call to those stakeholders across the globe to actively participate in the initiative.

24 Article Stress and tinnitus. 2015

Mazurek, B / Szczepek, A J / Hebert, S. ·Tinnitus Center, Charité Universitätsmedizin- Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany, birgit.mazurek@charite.de. ·HNO · Pubmed #25862619.

ABSTRACT: Emotional stress is a constant companion of tinnitus patients, since this phantom sound can unfortunately be a very effective stressor. However, the mechanism of stress contribution to the onset or progression of tinnitus remains unknown. Here, we review the pathways induced by emotional stress and the outcome of their induction: corticosteroid-dependent changes in gene expression, epigenetic modulations, and impact of stress on neuronal plasticity and neurotransmission. Using clinical examples, we demonstrate the presence of emotional stress among tinnitus patients and we present methods to measure the degree of stress. The evidence causally linking emotional stress with tinnitus is still indirect-the main difficulty lies in the inaccessibility of human auditory tissues and the inability to directly measure tinnitus-induced psychological distress in animal models. However, we believe that translational research is the future way of filling this gap, finding the answers, and thereby improving both the diagnosis and treatment of tinnitus patients.

25 Article [Tinnitus: Ringing in the ears often associated with depression, anxiety and stress]. 2015

Marek, A / Mazurek, Birgit / Brüggemann, Petra. · ·Laryngorhinootologie · Pubmed #25811049.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

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