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Hearing Disorders: HELP
Articles by Ellen Kvestad
Based on 6 articles published since 2009
(Why 6 articles?)

Between 2009 and 2019, Ellen Kvestad wrote the following 6 articles about Hearing Disorders.
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Panel 1: Epidemiology and Diagnosis. 2017

Homøe, Preben / Kværner, Kari / Casey, Janet R / Damoiseaux, Roger A M J / van Dongen, Thijs M A / Gunasekera, Hasantha / Jensen, Ramon G / Kvestad, Ellen / Morris, Peter S / Weinreich, Heather M. ·1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Køge, Denmark. · 2 Centre for Connected Care, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. · 3 BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway. · 4 Legacy Pediatrics, Rochester, New York, USA. · 5 Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands. · 6 Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. · 7 ENT Department, Oslo University Hospital and Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. · 8 Department of Paediatrics, Royal Darwin Hospital and Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Australia. · 9 Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. ·Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg · Pubmed #28372531.

ABSTRACT: Objective To create a literature review between 2011 and June 1, 2015, on advances in otitis media (OM) epidemiology and diagnosis (including relevant audiology studies). Data Sources Electronic search engines (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) with a predefined search strategy. Review Methods Articles with appropriate epidemiologic methodology for OM, including acute mastoiditis and eustachian tube dysfunction. Items included OM worldwide and in high-risk populations, OM-related hearing loss, news in OM diagnostics, prenatal risk factors and comorbidities, postnatal risk factors, genetics, microbiological epidemiology, guidelines, and quality of life. Conclusions Diagnostic evidence and genetic studies are increasing; guidelines are introduced worldwide; and there is evidence of benefit of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. New risk factors and comordities are identified in the study period, and quality of life is affected in children and their families. Implications for Practice Chronic suppurative OM occurs worldwide and contributes to lifelong hearing loss. Uniform definitions are still lacking and should be provided. An association between HIV and chronic suppurative OM has been found. Tympanometry is recommended for diagnosis, with or without pneumatic otoscopy. Video otoscopy, algorithms, and validated questionnaires may assist clinicians. Childhood obesity is associated with OM. Heritability accounts for 20% to 50% of OM diagnoses. OM-prone children seem to produce weaker immunologic responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Clinicians tend to individualize treatment without adhering to guidelines.

2 Article Association Between Childhood Hearing Disorders and Tinnitus in Adulthood. 2015

Aarhus, Lisa / Engdahl, Bo / Tambs, Kristian / Kvestad, Ellen / Hoffman, Howard J. ·Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. · Epidemiology and Statistics Program, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. ·JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg · Pubmed #26540147.

ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE: The association between childhood hearing disorders and adult tinnitus has not been examined in longitudinal cohort studies. OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between different types of childhood hearing loss and tinnitus in adulthood and evaluate whether tinnitus risk is mediated by adult hearing loss. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort study of 32 430 adults (aged 20-56 years) who underwent pure-tone audiometry and completed a tinnitus questionnaire in the Nord-Trøndelag Hearing Loss Study, which was a part of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT2). The study was conducted from January 1, 2014, to April 1, 2015. Data analysis was performed from April 1, 2014, to April 1, 2015. As children, the same individuals had undergone screening audiometry in a longitudinal primary school hearing investigation, including ear, nose, and throat examinations when indicated. INTERVENTIONS: Pure-tone audiometry, questionnaires, and ear, nose, and throat examinations. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Self-reported tinnitus (yes or no) in adulthood measured by questionnaires. RESULTS: Adults who had hearing loss at the time of the school investigation (n = 3026) reported more tinnitus, measured as odds ratio (95% CI), than did adults with normal childhood hearing (n = 29 404) (1.4 [1.3-1.6]). Childhood hearing disorders associated with tinnitus in adulthood included sensorineural hearing loss, chronic suppurative otitis media, and hearing loss associated with a history of recurrent acute otitis media (2.4 [1.9-3.0], 2.4 [1.5-3.9], and 1.6 [1.3-2.0], respectively). These estimates were adjusted for age, sex, and noise exposure in adulthood. After further analyses that included adjustment for adult hearing threshold, none of these childhood hearing disorders remained positively associated with tinnitus. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Childhood hearing disorders associated with tinnitus in adulthood include sensorineural hearing loss, chronic suppurative otitis media, and hearing loss associated with a history of recurrent acute otitis media. After adjustment for the adult hearing threshold, none of the childhood hearing disorders was positively associated with tinnitus. Hence, it appears that these significant associations are mediated or transmitted through adult hearing loss.

3 Article Childhood Otitis Media: A Cohort Study With 30-Year Follow-Up of Hearing (The HUNT Study). 2015

Aarhus, Lisa / Tambs, Kristian / Kvestad, Ellen / Engdahl, Bo. ·Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Mental Health, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway. ·Ear Hear · Pubmed #25401378.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To study the extent to which otitis media (OM) in childhood is associated with adult hearing thresholds. Furthermore, to study whether the effects of OM on adult hearing thresholds are moderated by age or noise exposure. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study of 32,786 participants who had their hearing tested by pure-tone audiometry in primary school and again at ages ranging from 20 to 56 years. Three thousand sixty-six children were diagnosed with hearing loss; the remaining sample had normal childhood hearing. RESULTS: Compared with participants with normal childhood hearing, those diagnosed with childhood hearing loss caused by otitis media with effusion (n = 1255), chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM; n = 108), or hearing loss after recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM; n = 613) had significantly increased adult hearing thresholds in the whole frequency range (2 dB/17-20 dB/7-10 dB, respectively). The effects were adjusted for age, sex, and noise exposure. Children diagnosed with hearing loss after rAOM had somewhat improved hearing thresholds as adults. The effects of CSOM and hearing loss after rAOM on adult hearing thresholds were larger in participants tested in middle adulthood (ages 40 to 56 years) than in those tested in young adulthood (ages 20 to 40 years). Eardrum pathology added a marginally increased risk of adult hearing loss (1-3 dB) in children with otitis media with effusion or hearing loss after rAOM. The study could not reveal significant differences in the effect of self-reported noise exposure on adult hearing thresholds between the groups with OM and the group with normal childhood hearing. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort study indicates that CSOM and rAOM in childhood are associated with adult hearing loss, underlining the importance of optimal treatment in these conditions. It appears that ears with a subsequent hearing loss after OM in childhood age at a faster rate than those without; however this should be confirmed by studies with several follow-up tests through adulthood.

4 Article Sensorineural hearing loss in children: the association with Apgar score. A registry-based study of 392,371 children in Norway. 2014

Kvestad, Ellen / Lie, Kari Kveim / Eskild, Anne / Engdahl, Bo. ·Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0403 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: ellen.kvestad@fhi.no. · Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0403 Oslo, Norway. · Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, 1478 Lørenskog, Norway; Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0403 Oslo, Norway. · Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0403 Oslo, Norway. ·Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol · Pubmed #25216808.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The causes of congenital permanent hearing loss in children are insufficiently understood. We studied the association of Apgar score 5 min after birth with sensorineural hearing loss diagnosed before the age of 5 years. METHODS: We performed an epidemiological cohort study with data obtained by linkage between The Medical Birth Registry of Norway and the Norwegian County Registry of Children with Hearing Loss. Cases were 327 children born in Norway during the period 1978-1998 with sensorineural hearing loss. Controls were all children in Norway without sensorineural hearing loss born in the same counties and during the same period as the cases (n=392,044). The associations of Apgar score 5 min after birth with sensorineural hearing loss were estimated as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) by applying logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Among children with sensorineural hearing loss 0.9% (3/327) had Apgar score<3, whereas that was true for 0.1% (304/392044) of children without hearing loss (p=0.001, chi square test). The aOR for sensorineural hearing loss was 7.5 [95% CI 2.3-, 24.2] comparing Apgar score<3 to Apgar score 10, after adjustment for birthweight and concurrent birth defects. Most children with sensorineural hearing loss (90%) had Apgar score>8 five minutes after birth. CONCLUSIONS: Low Apgar score was associated with childhood sensorineural hearing loss. However, most children with sensorineural hearing loss, had Apgar score>8.

5 Article Heritability of hearing loss. 2012

Kvestad, Ellen / Czajkowski, Nikolai / Krog, Norun Hjertager / Engdahl, Bo / Tambs, Kristian. ·Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. ellen.kvestad@fhi.no ·Epidemiology · Pubmed #22249243.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hearing impairment is one of the most common permanent disabilities in the western world. Although hearing ability normally declines with age, there is great individual variation in age of onset, progression, and severity, indicating that individual susceptibility plays a role. The aim of the present study was to explore the relative importance of genetic and environmental effects in the etiology of impaired hearing. METHODS: From August 1995 to June 1997, the total adult population of Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, was invited to take part in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. The survey included as an integrated project the Nord-Trøndelag Hearing Loss Study with pure-tone audiometry assessment of the standard frequencies 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz on 51,574 participants aged 20 to 101 years. We obtained information from Statistics Norway identifying 11,263 sibling pairs. After age stratification, we assessed similarity in hearing thresholds between siblings using polychoric correlations. The contribution of genetic effects in hearing ability was calculated. RESULTS: The upper limit of the heritability of hearing loss was 0.36. We found little evidence for sex differences in the relative importance of genetic effects. CONCLUSIONS: There is a substantial genetic contribution to individual variation in hearing thresholds.

6 Article Low heritability of tinnitus: results from the second Nord-Trøndelag health study. 2010

Kvestad, Ellen / Czajkowski, Nikolai / Engdahl, Bo / Hoffman, Howard J / Tambs, Kristian. ·Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. ellen.kvestad@fhi.no ·Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg · Pubmed #20157066.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To estimate the heritability of tinnitus. DESIGN: Self-report questionnaire data collected from August 1, 1995, through June 30, 1997, from individuals in the Nord-Trøndelag Hearing Loss Study (an integrated part of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) were used. The study also included information on first-degree family relationships, and age-corrected polychoric correlations of relatives' tinnitus status were calculated. A structural equation model was fit to the data, and the relative contributions of genes and unique environmental effects were estimated. Models that included sex-specific effects were also tested. SETTING: Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. PATIENTS: A population-based sample of 12 940 spouses, 27 607 parent-offspring, and 11 498 siblings was used. A total of 28 066 respondents were tested twice, yielding a test-retest correlation of 0.65 for the report of tinnitus. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Heritability of tinnitus. RESULTS: Correlations for parent-offspring ranged from 0.01 to 0.07 for the various sex combinations, sibling correlation ranged from 0.06 to 0.14, and the spouse correlation was 0.04. This family correlation pattern implies an upper limit for heritability of 0.11 with no sex differences in the heritability estimates. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large population-based family study, to our knowledge, to report on the heritability of tinnitus. In contrast to previous speculations in the literature, this low heritability indicates that additive genetic effects explain only a small proportion of the variance of tinnitus in the population.