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Hearing Disorders: HELP
Articles by Laurie S. Eisenberg
Based on 15 articles published since 2010
(Why 15 articles?)

Between 2010 and 2020, Laurie S. Eisenberg wrote the following 15 articles about Hearing Disorders.
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Clinical Trial Initial Results of a Safety and Feasibility Study of Auditory Brainstem Implantation in Congenitally Deaf Children. 2017

Wilkinson, Eric P / Eisenberg, Laurie S / Krieger, Mark D / Schwartz, Marc S / Winter, Margaret / Glater, Jamie L / Martinez, Amy S / Fisher, Laurel M / Shannon, Robert V / Anonymous7320888. ·*House Clinic/Huntington Medical Research Institutes †Caruso Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California ‡Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California. ·Otol Neurotol · Pubmed #27898605.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and feasibility of the auditory brainstem implant (ABI) in congenitally deaf children with cochlear aplasia and/or cochlear nerve deficiency. STUDY DESIGN: Phase I feasibility clinical trial of surgery in 10 children, ages 2 to 5 years, over a 3-year period. SETTING: Tertiary children's hospital and university-based pediatric speech/language/hearing center. INTERVENTION(S): ABI implantation and postsurgical programming. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The primary outcome measure is the number and type of adverse events during ABI surgery and postsurgical follow-up, including behavioral mapping of the device. The secondary outcome measure is access to and early integration of sound. RESULTS: To date, nine children are enrolled. Five children have successfully undergone ABI surgery and postoperative behavioral programming. Three children were screen failures, and one child is currently undergoing candidacy evaluation. Expected adverse events have been documented in three of the five children who received the ABI. One child experienced a cerebral spinal fluid leak, which resolved with lumbar drainage. One child demonstrated vestibular side effects during device programming, which resolved by deactivating one electrode. One child experienced postoperative vomiting resulting in an abdominal radiograph. Four children have completed their 1-year follow-up and have speech detection thresholds of 30 to 35 dB HL. Scores on the IT-MAIS/MAIS range from 8 to 31 (out of a total of 40), and the children are demonstrating some ability to discriminate between closed-sets words that differ by number of syllables (pattern perception). CONCLUSION: ABI surgery and device activation seem to be safe and feasible in this preliminary cohort.

2 Article Temporal Modulation Detection in Children and Adults With Cochlear Implants: Initial Results. 2019

Landsberger, David Mark / Stupak, Natalia / Green, Janet / Tona, Kaitlyn / Padilla, Monica / Martinez, Amy S / Eisenberg, Laurie S / Waltzman, Susan. ·Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York. · USC Tina and Rick Caruso Department of Otolaryngology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. ·Otol Neurotol · Pubmed #30741912.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The auditory experience of early deafened pediatric cochlear implant (CI) users is different from that of postlingually deafened adult CI users due to disparities in the developing auditory system. It is therefore expected that the auditory psychophysical capabilities between these two groups would differ. In this study, temporal resolving ability was investigated using a temporal modulation detection task to compare the performance outcomes between these two groups. DESIGN: The minimum detectable modulation depth of amplitude modulated broadband noise at 100 Hz was measured for 11 early deafened children with a CI and 16 postlingually deafened adult CI users. RESULTS: Amplitude modulation detection thresholds were significantly lower (i.e., better) for the pediatric CI users than for the adult CI users. Within each group, modulation detection thresholds were not significantly associated with chronologic age, age at implantation, or years of CI experience. CONCLUSIONS: Early implanted children whose auditory systems develop in response to electric stimulation demonstrate better temporal resolving abilities than postlingually deafened adult CI users. This finding provides evidence to suggest that early implanted children might benefit from sound coding strategies emphasizing temporal information.

3 Article Early Communication Development of Children with Auditory Brainstem Implants. 2018

Eisenberg, Laurie S / Hammes Ganguly, Dianne / Martinez, Amy S / Fisher, Laurel M / Winter, Margaret E / Glater, Jamie L / Schrader, Debra K / Loggins, Janice / Wilkinson, Eric P / Anonymous4000945. ·Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California. ·J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ · Pubmed #29718280.

ABSTRACT: The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) is an auditory sensory device that is surgically placed on the cochlear nucleus of the brainstem for individuals who are deaf but unable to benefit from a cochlear implant (CI) due to anatomical abnormalities of the cochlea and/or eighth nerve, specific disease processes, or temporal bone fractures. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has authorized a Phase I clinical trial to determine safety and feasibility of the ABI in up to 10 eligible young children who are deaf and either derived no benefit from the CI or were anatomically unable to receive a CI. In this paper, we describe the study protocol and the children who have enrolled in the study thus far. In addition, we report the scores on speech perception, speech production, and language (spoken and signed) for five children with 1-3 years of assessment post-ABI activation. To date, the results indicate that spoken communication skills are slow to develop and that visual communication remains essential for post-ABI intervention.

4 Article Assessing the Benefit-Risk Profile for Pediatric Implantable Auditory Prostheses. 2018

Fisher, Laurel M / Martinez, Amy S / Richmond, Frances J / Krieger, Mark D / Wilkinson, Eric P / Eisenberg, Laurie S. ·1 Tina and Rick Caruso Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · 2 Department of Regulatory Science, School of Pharmacy, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · 3 Neurosurgery, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · 4 Huntington Medical Research Institute, Pasadena, CA, USA. ·Ther Innov Regul Sci · Pubmed #29714549.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/AIMS: Children with congenital cochleovestibular abnormalities associated with profound hearing loss have few treatment options if cochlear implantation does not yield benefit. An alternative is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI). Regulatory authority device approvals currently include a structured benefit-risk assessment. Such an assessment, for regulatory purposes or to guide clinical decision making, has not been published, to our knowledge, for the ABI and may lead to the design of a research program that incorporates regulatory authority, family, and professional input. METHODS: Much structured benefit-risk research has been conducted in the context of drug trials; here we apply this approach to device studies. A qualitative framework organized benefit (speech recognition, parent self-report measures) and risk (surgery- and device-related) information to guide the selection of candidates thought to have potential benefit from ABI. RESULTS: Children with cochleovestibular anatomical abnormalities are challenging for appropriate assessment of candidacy for a cochlear implant or an ABI. While the research is still preliminary, children with an ABI appear to slowly obtain benefit over time. A team of professionals, including audiological, occupational, and educational therapy, affords maximum opportunity for benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients who have abnormal anatomy and are candidates for an implantable auditory prosthetic require an individualized, multisystems review. The qualitative benefit-risk assessment used here to characterize the condition, the medical need, potential benefits, risks, and risk management strategies has revealed the complex factors involved. After implantation, continued team support for the family during extensive postimplant therapy is needed to develop maximum auditory skill benefit.

5 Article Spectral-Temporal Modulated Ripple Discrimination by Children With Cochlear Implants. 2018

Landsberger, David M / Padilla, Monica / Martinez, Amy S / Eisenberg, Laurie S. ·Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA. ·Ear Hear · Pubmed #28682810.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: A postlingually implanted adult typically develops hearing with an intact auditory system, followed by periods of deafness (or near deafness) and adaptation to the implant. For an early implanted child whose brain is highly plastic, the auditory system matures with consistent input from a cochlear implant. It is likely that the auditory system of early implanted cochlear implant users is fundamentally different than postlingually implanted adults. The purpose of this study is to compare the basic psychophysical capabilities and limitations of these two populations on a spectral resolution task to determine potential effects of early deprivation and plasticity. DESIGN: Performance on a spectral resolution task (Spectral-temporally Modulated Ripple Test [SMRT]) was measured for 20 bilaterally implanted, prelingually deafened children (between 5 and 13 years of age) and 20 hearing children within the same age range. Additionally, 15 bilaterally implanted, postlingually deafened adults, and 10 hearing adults were tested on the same task. Cochlear implant users (adults and children) were tested bilaterally, and with each ear alone. Hearing listeners (adults and children) were tested with the unprocessed SMRT and with a vocoded version that simulates an 8-channel cochlear implant. RESULTS: For children with normal hearing, a positive correlation was found between age and SMRT score for both the unprocessed and vocoded versions. Older hearing children performed similarly to hearing adults in both the unprocessed and vocoded test conditions. However, for children with cochlear implants, no significant relationship was found between SMRT score and chronological age, age at implantation, or years of implant experience. Performance by children with cochlear implants was poorer than performance by cochlear implanted adults. It was also found that children implanted sequentially tended to have better scores with the first implant compared with the second implant. This difference was not observed for adults. An additional finding was that SMRT score was negatively correlated with age for adults with implants. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study suggest that basic psychophysical capabilities of early implanted children and postlingually implanted adults differ when assessed in the sound field using their personal implant processors. Because spectral resolution does not improve with age for early implanted children, it seems likely that the sparse representation of the signal provided by a cochlear implant limits spectral resolution development. These results are supported by the finding that postlingually implanted adults, whose auditory systems matured before the onset of hearing loss, perform significantly better than early implanted children on the spectral resolution test.

6 Article A Longitudinal Investigation of the Home Literacy Environment and Shared Book Reading in Young Children With Hearing Loss. 2017

DesJardin, Jean L / Stika, Carren J / Eisenberg, Laurie S / Johnson, Karen C / Hammes Ganguly, Dianne M / Henning, Shirley C / Colson, Bethany G. ·1Department of Education, Moravian College, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA; 2School of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA; 3Caruso Family Center for Childhood Communication, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA; and 4Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. ·Ear Hear · Pubmed #28234669.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The principle goal of this longitudinal study was to examine parent perceptions of home literacy environment (e.g., frequency of book reading, ease of book reading with child) and observed behaviors during shared book reading (SBR) interactions between parents and their children with hearing loss (HL) as compared with parents and their children with normal hearing (NH) across 3 time points (12, 24, and 36 months old). Relationships were also explored among home literacy environment factors and SBR behaviors and later language outcomes, across all three time points for parents of children with and without HL. DESIGN: Participants were a group of parents and their children with HL (N = 17) and typically developing children with NH (N = 34). Parent perceptions about the home literacy environment were captured through a questionnaire. Observed parent behaviors and their use of facilitative language techniques were coded during videotaped SBR interactions. Children's oral language skills were assessed using a standardized language measure at each time point. RESULTS: No significant differences emerged between groups of parents (HL and NH) in terms of perceived home literacy environment at 12 and 36 months. However, significant group differences were evident for parent perceived ease of reading to their child at 24 months. Group differences also emerged for parental SBR behaviors for literacy strategies and interactive reading at 12 months and for engagement and interactive reading at 36 months, with parents of children with HL scoring lower in all factors. No significant relationships emerged between early home literacy factors and SBR behaviors at 12 months and oral language skills at 36 months for parents of children with NH. However, significant positive relationships were evident between early home literacy environment factors at 12 months and oral language skills at 36 months for parents and their children with HL. CONCLUSIONS: Although both groups of parents increased their frequency of SBR behaviors over time, parents of children with HL may need additional support to optimize SBR experiences to better guide their toddlers' and preschoolers' language skills. Early intervention efforts that focus on SBR interactions that are mutually enjoyed and incorporate specific ways to encourage parent-child conversations will be essential as children with HL acquire language.

7 Article Developmental outcomes of early-identified children who are hard of hearing at 12 to 18 months of age. 2015

Stika, Carren J / Eisenberg, Laurie S / Johnson, Karen C / Henning, Shirley C / Colson, Bethany G / Ganguly, Dianne Hammes / DesJardin, Jean L. ·San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, United States. Electronic address: cstika@mail.sdsu.edu. · University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States. · Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States. · Moravian College, Bethlehem, PA, United States. ·Early Hum Dev · Pubmed #25460257.

ABSTRACT: AIMS: To examine the developmental outcomes of early-identified children who are hard of hearing, at 12 to 18 months of age, compared to those for children of similar age with normal hearing; and to investigate parent and child factors that are associated with these developmental outcomes. METHODS: As part of a prospective study, 28 children with mild to severe hearing loss between the ages of 12 and 18 months and 42 children with normal hearing of similar age completed a comprehensive assessment battery. All children with hearing loss were identified by newborn hearing screening and amplified, on average, by 5 months of age. Outcome measures included: Mullen Scales of Early Learning; Preschool Language Scale-4th Ed; MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory; Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment; Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition; Parenting Stress Index-Short Form; and Maternal Self-Efficacy Scale. RESULTS: Children with hearing loss scored comparably to children with normal hearing on select outcome measures, with mean scores for both groups falling within normal limits. Greater maternal self-efficacy was associated with children's better language skills, adaptive behavior, social-emotional competence, and fewer problem behaviors. CONCLUSION: Very young children with mild to severe hearing loss, who are identified early and provided prompt intervention that includes amplification, can demonstrate age appropriate development in multiple domains. Results also underscore the significance of parenting factors, especially perceived maternal self-efficacy, in relation to positive developmental outcomes for these children early in life.

8 Article Age-dependent cost-utility of pediatric cochlear implantation. 2013

Semenov, Yevgeniy R / Yeh, Susan T / Seshamani, Meena / Wang, Nae-Yuh / Tobey, Emily A / Eisenberg, Laurie S / Quittner, Alexandra L / Frick, Kevin D / Niparko, John K / Anonymous6250754. ·Department of Otolaryngology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. ·Ear Hear · Pubmed #23558665.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Cochlear implantation (CI) has become the mainstay of treatment for children with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Yet, despite mounting evidence of the clinical benefits of early implantation, little data are available on the long-term societal benefits and comparative effectiveness of this procedure across various ages of implantation-a choice parameter for parents and clinicians with high prognostic value for clinical outcome. As such, the aim of the present study is to evaluate a model of the consequences of the timing of this intervention from a societal economic perspective. Average cost utility of pediatric CI by age at intervention will be analyzed. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal assessment of health utility and educational placement outcomes in 175 children recruited from six U.S. centers between November 2002 and December 2004, who had severe-to-profound SNHL onset within 1 year of age, underwent CI before 5 years of age, and had up to 6 years of postimplant follow-up that ended in November 2008 to December 2011. Costs of care were collected retrospectively and stratified by preoperative, operative, and postoperative expenditures. Incremental costs and benefits of implantation were compared among the three age groups and relative to a nonimplantation baseline. RESULTS: Children implanted at <18 months of age gained an average of 10.7 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) over their projected lifetime as compared with 9.0 and 8.4 QALYs for those implanted between 18 and 36 months and at >36 months of age, respectively. Medical and surgical complication rates were not significantly different among the three age groups. In addition, mean lifetime costs of implantation were similar among the three groups, at approximately $2000/child/year (77.5-year life expectancy), yielding costs of $14,996, $17,849, and $19,173 per QALY for the youngest, middle, and oldest implant age groups, respectively. Full mainstream classroom integration rate was significantly higher in the youngest group at 81% as compared with 57 and 63% for the middle and oldest groups, respectively (p < 0.05) after 6 years of follow-up. After incorporating lifetime educational cost savings, CI led to net societal savings of $31,252, $10,217, and $6,680 for the youngest, middle, and oldest groups at CI, respectively, over the child's projected lifetime. CONCLUSIONS: Even without considering improvements in lifetime earnings, the overall cost-utility results indicate highly favorable ratios. Early (<18 months) intervention with CI was associated with greater and longer quality-of-life improvements, similar direct costs of implantation, and economically valuable improved classroom placement, without a greater incidence of medical and surgical complications when compared to CI at older ages.

9 Article Influence of implantation age on school-age language performance in pediatric cochlear implant users. 2013

Tobey, Emily A / Thal, Donna / Niparko, John K / Eisenberg, Laurie S / Quittner, Alexandra L / Wang, Nae-Yuh / Anonymous4710751. ·Dallas Cochlear Implant Program, University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas, USA. etobey@utdallas.edu ·Int J Audiol · Pubmed #23448124.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study examined specific spoken language abilities of 160 children with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss followed prospectively 4, 5, or 6 years after cochlear implantation. STUDY SAMPLE: Ninety-eight children received implants before 2.5 years, and 62 children received implants between 2.5 and 5 years of age. DESIGN: Language was assessed using four subtests of the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL). Standard scores were evaluated by contrasting age of implantation and follow-up test time. RESULTS: Children implanted under 2.5 years of age achieved higher standard scores than children with older ages of implantation for expressive vocabulary, expressive syntax, and pragmatic judgments. However, in both groups, some children performed more than two standard deviations below the standardization group mean, while some scored at or well above the mean. CONCLUSIONS: Younger ages of implantation are associated with higher levels of performance, while later ages of implantation are associated with higher probabilities of continued language delays, particularly within subdomains of grammar and pragmatics. Longitudinal data from this cohort study demonstrate that after 6 years of implant experience, there is large variability in language outcomes associated with modifiers of rates of language learning that differ as children with implants age.

10 Article Effects of maternal sensitivity and cognitive and linguistic stimulation on cochlear implant users' language development over four years. 2013

Quittner, Alexandra L / Cruz, Ivette / Barker, David H / Tobey, Emily / Eisenberg, Laurie S / Niparko, John K / Anonymous870737. ·Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA. aquittner@miami.edu ·J Pediatr · Pubmed #22985723.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of observed maternal sensitivity (MS), cognitive stimulation (CS), and linguistic stimulation on the 4-year growth of oral language in young, deaf children receiving a cochlear implant. Previous studies of cochlear implants have not considered the effects of parental behaviors on language outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective, multisite study, we evaluated parent-child interactions during structured and unstructured play tasks and their effects on oral language development in 188 deaf children receiving a cochlear implant and 97 normal-hearing children as controls. Parent-child interactions were rated on a 7-point scale using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Early Childcare Study codes, which have well-established psychometric properties. Language was assessed using the MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventories, the Reynell Developmental Language Scales, and the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language. RESULTS: We used mixed longitudinal modeling to test our hypotheses. After accounting for early hearing experience and child and family demographics, MS and CS predicted significant increases in the growth of oral language. Linguistic stimulation was related to language growth only in the context of high MS. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of effects of MS and CS on the growth of language was similar to that found for age at cochlear implantation, suggesting that addressing parenting behaviors is a critical target for early language learning after implantation.

11 Article Assessing spoken word recognition in children who are deaf or hard of hearing: a translational approach. 2012

Kirk, Karen Iler / Prusick, Lindsay / French, Brian / Gotch, Chad / Eisenberg, Laurie S / Young, Nancy. ·Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. karen-kirk@uiowa.edu ·J Am Acad Audiol · Pubmed #22668766.

ABSTRACT: Under natural conditions, listeners use both auditory and visual speech cues to extract meaning from speech signals containing many sources of variability. However, traditional clinical tests of spoken word recognition routinely employ isolated words or sentences produced by a single talker in an auditory-only presentation format. The more central cognitive processes used during multimodal integration, perceptual normalization, and lexical discrimination that may contribute to individual variation in spoken word recognition performance are not assessed in conventional tests of this kind. In this article, we review our past and current research activities aimed at developing a series of new assessment tools designed to evaluate spoken word recognition in children who are deaf or hard of hearing. These measures are theoretically motivated by a current model of spoken word recognition and also incorporate "real-world" stimulus variability in the form of multiple talkers and presentation formats. The goal of this research is to enhance our ability to estimate real-world listening skills and to predict benefit from sensory aid use in children with varying degrees of hearing loss.

12 Article Studies in pediatric hearing loss at the House Research Institute. 2012

Eisenberg, Laurie S / Johnson, Karen C / Martinez, Amy S / Visser-Dumont, Leslie / Ganguly, Dianne Hammes / Still, Jennifer F. ·House Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90057, USA. leisenberg@hei.org ·J Am Acad Audiol · Pubmed #22668762.

ABSTRACT: Three clinical research projects are described that are relevant to pediatric hearing loss. The three projects fall into two distinct areas. The first area emphasizes clinical studies that track developmental outcomes in children with hearing loss; one project is specific to cochlear implants and the other to hearing aids. The second area addresses speech perception test development for very young children with hearing loss. Although these two lines of research are treated as separate areas, they begin to merge as new behavioral tests become useful in developing protocols for contemporary studies that address longitudinal follow-up of children with hearing loss.

13 Article Timing of cochlear implantation and parents' global ratings of children's health and development. 2012

Clark, James H / Wang, Nae-Yuh / Riley, Anne W / Carson, Christine M / Meserole, Rachel L / Lin, Frank R / Eisenberg, Laurie S / Tobey, Emily A / Quittner, Alexandra L / Francis, Howard W / Anonymous1690726 / Niparko, John K. ·Department of Otolaryngology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. ·Otol Neurotol · Pubmed #22588232.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess children's health-related quality of life (HRQL) and development after cochlear implant (CI) surgery and compare improvements between different age of implantation categories. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal study comparing outcomes of deaf children post-CI with hearing controls. SETTING: Six US CI centers. PATIENTS: Deaf children who received CI (n = 188) and hearing children of comparable ages (n = 97). INTERVENTION: CI before 5 years of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Parental ratings of global HRQL and development, as assessed over the first 4 years of follow-up using visual analog scales. Development scores assess parental views of children's growth and development, motor skills, ability to express themselves and communicate with others, and learning abilities. Associations of baseline child and family characteristics with post-CI HRQL and development were investigated using multivariable analysis, controlling for factors that influence post-CI language learning. RESULTS: Baseline deficits of CI candidates relative to hearing controls were larger in development than HRQL. Development scores improved significantly by 4 years after CI, particularly in the youngest CI recipients. Developmental deficits of older CI recipients with early, extended hearing aid use were only partially remediated by CI. Overall, no significant health deficits were observed in CI children after 4 years. Cognition and speech recognition were positively associated with both HRQL and development. CONCLUSION: Parental perspectives on quality of their child's life and development provide practical insight into the optimal timing of interventions for early-onset deafness. Validity of parental global assessments is supported by clinical measures of speech perception and language learning and comparison with a well-validated health status instrument.

14 Article Phonological awareness and print knowledge of preschool children with cochlear implants. 2012

Ambrose, Sophie E / Fey, Marc E / Eisenberg, Laurie S. ·House Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA. sophie.e.ambrose@gmail.com ·J Speech Lang Hear Res · Pubmed #22223887.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. METHOD: The sample comprised 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36 to 60 months. Children's print knowledge, phonological awareness, language, speech production, and speech perception abilities were assessed. RESULTS: For phonological awareness, the CI group's mean score fell within one standard deviation of the Test of Preschool Early Literacy's (Lonigan, Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 2007) normative sample mean but was more than one standard deviation below the NH group mean. The CI group's performance did not differ significantly from that of the NH group for print knowledge. For the CI group, phonological awareness and print knowledge were significantly correlated with language, speech production, and speech perception. Together these predictor variables accounted for 34% of variance in the CI group's phonological awareness but no significant variance in their print knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: Children with CIs have the potential to develop age-appropriate early literacy skills by preschool age but are likely to lag behind their NH peers in phonological awareness. Intervention programs serving these children should target these skills with instruction and by facilitating speech and language development.

15 Article Spoken language development in children following cochlear implantation. 2010

Niparko, John K / Tobey, Emily A / Thal, Donna J / Eisenberg, Laurie S / Wang, Nae-Yuh / Quittner, Alexandra L / Fink, Nancy E / Anonymous5180658. ·Department of Otolaryngology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. jnipark1@jhmi.edu ·JAMA · Pubmed #20407059.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Cochlear implantation is a surgical alternative to traditional amplification (hearing aids) that can facilitate spoken language development in young children with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess spoken language acquisition following cochlear implantation in young children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective, longitudinal, and multidimensional assessment of spoken language development over a 3-year period in children who underwent cochlear implantation before 5 years of age (n = 188) from 6 US centers and hearing children of similar ages (n = 97) from 2 preschools recruited between November 2002 and December 2004. Follow-up completed between November 2005 and May 2008. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Performance on measures of spoken language comprehension and expression (Reynell Developmental Language Scales). RESULTS: Children undergoing cochlear implantation showed greater improvement in spoken language performance (10.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.6-11.2 points per year in comprehension; 8.4; 95% CI, 7.8-9.0 in expression) than would be predicted by their preimplantation baseline scores (5.4; 95% CI, 4.1-6.7, comprehension; 5.8; 95% CI, 4.6-7.0, expression), although mean scores were not restored to age-appropriate levels after 3 years. Younger age at cochlear implantation was associated with significantly steeper rate increases in comprehension (1.1; 95% CI, 0.5-1.7 points per year younger) and expression (1.0; 95% CI, 0.6-1.5 points per year younger). Similarly, each 1-year shorter history of hearing deficit was associated with steeper rate increases in comprehension (0.8; 95% CI, 0.2-1.2 points per year shorter) and expression (0.6; 95% CI, 0.2-1.0 points per year shorter). In multivariable analyses, greater residual hearing prior to cochlear implantation, higher ratings of parent-child interactions, and higher socioeconomic status were associated with greater rates of improvement in comprehension and expression. CONCLUSION: The use of cochlear implants in young children was associated with better spoken language learning than would be predicted from their preimplantation scores.