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Epilepsy: HELP
Articles from University College London
Based on 943 articles published since 2009
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These are the 943 published articles about Epilepsy that originated from University College London during 2009-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline Practice guideline summary: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy incidence rates and risk factors: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. 2017

Harden, Cynthia / Tomson, Torbjörn / Gloss, David / Buchhalter, Jeffrey / Cross, J Helen / Donner, Elizabeth / French, Jacqueline A / Gil-Nagel, Anthony / Hesdorffer, Dale C / Smithson, W Henry / Spitz, Mark C / Walczak, Thaddeus S / Sander, Josemir W / Ryvlin, Philippe. ·From the Department of Neurology (C.H.), Mount Sinai Health System, New York, NY · Department of Clinical Neuroscience (T.T.), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden · Department of Neurology (D.G.), CAMC Physicians, Charleston, WV · Departments of Pediatrics and Clinical Neurosciences (J.B.), Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Canada · Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Child Health (J.H.C.), and Institute of Neurology (J.W.S.), University College London · Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust (J.H.C.), London, UK · Department of Paediatrics (E.D.), Division of Neurology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Canada · Department of Neurology (J.A.F.), New York University Langone Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, New York · Department of Neurology (A.G.-N.), Hospital Ruber Internacional, Madrid, Spain · Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center and Department of Epidemiology (D.C.H.), Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY · Department of General Practice (W.H.S.), University College Cork, Ireland · Anschutz Outpatient Pavilion (M.C.S.), University of Colorado Health, Aurora · Neurology Clinic (T.S.W.), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis · Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (SEIN) (J.W.S.), Heemstede, the Netherlands · and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences (P.R.), CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland. ·Neurology · Pubmed #28438841.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence rates of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in different epilepsy populations and address the question of whether risk factors for SUDEP have been identified. METHODS: Systematic review of evidence; modified Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation process for developing conclusions; recommendations developed by consensus. RESULTS: Findings for incidence rates based on 12 Class I studies include the following: SUDEP risk in children with epilepsy (aged 0-17 years) is 0.22/1,000 patient-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.31) (moderate confidence in evidence). SUDEP risk increases in adults to 1.2/1,000 patient-years (95% CI 0.64-2.32) (low confidence in evidence). The major risk factor for SUDEP is the occurrence of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS); the SUDEP risk increases in association with increasing frequency of GTCS occurrence (high confidence in evidence). RECOMMENDATIONS: Level B: Clinicians caring for young children with epilepsy should inform parents/guardians that in 1 year, SUDEP typically affects 1 in 4,500 children; therefore, 4,499 of 4,500 children will not be affected. Clinicians should inform adult patients with epilepsy that SUDEP typically affects 1 in 1,000 adults with epilepsy per year; therefore, annually 999 of 1,000 adults will not be affected. For persons with epilepsy who continue to experience GTCS, clinicians should continue to actively manage epilepsy therapies to reduce seizures and SUDEP risk while incorporating patient preferences and weighing the risks and benefits of any new approach. Clinicians should inform persons with epilepsy that seizure freedom, particularly freedom from GTCS, is strongly associated with decreased SUDEP risk.

2 Editorial A summary of data presented at the XIV conference on new antiepileptic drug and devices (EILAT XIV). 2019

Bialer, Meir / Johannessen, Svein I / Koepp, Matthias J / Levy, René H / Perucca, Emilio / Tomson, Torbjörn / White, H Steve. ·Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy and David R. Bloom Centre for Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address: meirb@ekmd.huji.ac.il. · The National Center for Epilepsy, Sandvika, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Department of Pharmacology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. · Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK. · Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. · Division of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy. · Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. · Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. ·Epilepsy Res · Pubmed #30910314.

ABSTRACT: The Fourteenth Eilat Conference on New Antiepileptic Drugs and Devices (EILAT XIV) took place in Madrid, Spain from May 13th to 16th 2018. Again, presentations on new medical devices and neuromodulation and discussions on device-related regulatory aspects were included in the programme. The virtual special issue on "neuromodulation" summarises the presentations focusing firstly, on the pre-clinical developments and the difficulties of clinical trial designs for neuromodulatory therapies, including vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and Brain-Responsive Neurostimulation (RNS), and the use of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) as a potential screening tool for determining the efficacy of neuromodulatory treatments in individual patients; secondly, on wearable devices for seizure monitoring through indices of peripheral sympathetic nervous activity, the use of such devices in combination with biofeedback for the treatment of epilepsy, and its potential for improving epilepsy specialist services, particularly in remote areas.

3 Editorial New perspectives in epilepsy neuropathology. 2018

Thom, M. ·Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK. ·Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol · Pubmed #29360171.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Neuropsychological assessment in epilepsy. 2018

Baxendale, Sallie. ·Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK. ·Pract Neurol · Pubmed #29326240.

ABSTRACT: The role of the neuropsychological assessment in the management of people with epilepsy has evolved considerably over the past 25 years. This paper describes some of the most common applications of a neuropsychological assessment in the diagnosis, management and treatment of people with epilepsy. It describes the factors that influence the interpretation of neuropsychological test scores in this patient group and outlines the limitations of the investigation. It gives guidelines for the optimal timing of a referral, together with timelines and indications for reassessment, and provides a checklist to help the referring clinician get the most from a neuropsychological assessment for their patients with epilepsy.

5 Editorial Editorial. 2017

Walker, Matthew C. ·Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK. ·Curr Opin Neurol · Pubmed #28212176.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Temporary replacements for oral epilepsy treatments. 2017

Sisodiya, Sanjay M. ·Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, NIHR University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK s.sisodiya@ucl.ac.uk. ·Pract Neurol · Pubmed #28073924.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Editorial Genes cut across systems: Neurologists should think "heart" and cardiologists "brain". 2016

Nashef, Lina / Sander, Josemir W. ·From the Department of Neurology (L.N.), King's College Hospital · UCL Institute of Neurology (J.W.S.), London, UK · and Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (SEIN) (J.W.S.), Heemstede, the Netherlands. ·Neurology · Pubmed #27466466.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Editorial Epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders: Relatively related. 2016

Scott, Rod C / Tuchman, Roberto. ·From the Department of Neurological Sciences (R.C.S.), University of Vermont, Burlington · Neurosciences Unit (R.C.S.), UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK · and Department of Neurology (R.T.), Nicklaus Children's Hospital, Miami, FL. ·Neurology · Pubmed #27306638.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Editorial Making sense of ripples in generalized epilepsy. 2016

van Klink, N E C / Bauer, P R / Zijlmans, M. ·Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands. · Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (SEIN), Heemstede, The Netherlands; NIHR University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom. · Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands; Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (SEIN), Heemstede, The Netherlands. Electronic address: g.j.m.zijlmans@umcutrecht.nl. ·Clin Neurophysiol · Pubmed #26777056.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Editorial Cortical drive of low-frequency oscillations in the human nucleus accumbens during action selection. 2015

Stenner, Max-Philipp / Litvak, Vladimir / Rutledge, Robb B / Zaehle, Tino / Schmitt, Friedhelm C / Voges, Jürgen / Heinze, Hans-Jochen / Dolan, Raymond J. ·Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; max-philipp.stenner@med.ovgu.de. · Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom; · Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom; Max Planck University College London Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, London, United Kingdom. · Department of Neurology, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; · Department of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; Department of Behavioral Neurology, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Germany; and. · Department of Neurology, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; Department of Behavioral Neurology, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Germany; and. ·J Neurophysiol · Pubmed #25878159.

ABSTRACT: The nucleus accumbens is thought to contribute to action selection by integrating behaviorally relevant information from multiple regions, including prefrontal cortex. Studies in rodents suggest that information flow to the nucleus accumbens may be regulated via task-dependent oscillatory coupling between regions. During instrumental behavior, local field potentials (LFP) in the rat nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex are coupled at delta frequencies (Gruber AJ, Hussain RJ, O'Donnell P. PLoS One 4: e5062, 2009), possibly mediating suppression of afferent input from other areas and thereby supporting cortical control (Calhoon GG, O'Donnell P. Neuron 78: 181-190, 2013). In this report, we demonstrate low-frequency cortico-accumbens coupling in humans, both at rest and during a decision-making task. We recorded LFP from the nucleus accumbens in six epilepsy patients who underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. All patients showed significant coherence and phase-synchronization between LFP and surface EEG at delta and low theta frequencies. Although the direction of this coupling as indexed by Granger causality varied between subjects in the resting-state data, all patients showed a cortical drive of the nucleus accumbens during action selection in a decision-making task. In three patients this was accompanied by a significant coherence increase over baseline. Our results suggest that low-frequency cortico-accumbens coupling represents a highly conserved regulatory mechanism for action selection.

11 Editorial Epilepsy in childhood and quality of life. 2015

O'Callaghan, Finbar J K. ·UCL - Institute of Child Health, UK. Electronic address: finbar@me.com. ·Eur J Paediatr Neurol · Pubmed #25800878.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

12 Editorial The importance of theory of mind in epilepsy. 2014

Thompson, Pam. ·Department of Clinical & Experimental Epilepsy, Institute of Neurology, UCL Queen Square, London UK; Epilepsy Society, Chalfont St. Peter, Buckinghamshire, UK. Electronic address: pamela.thompson@ucl.ac.uk. ·Epilepsy Behav · Pubmed #25092409.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

13 Editorial When epilepsy surgery fails. 2014

Baxendale, Sallie. ·Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, Institute of Neurology UCL, Queen Square, London, UK; Epilepsy Society, Chalfont St Peter, Buckinghamshire, UK. Electronic address: s.baxendale@ucl.ac.uk. ·Epilepsy Behav · Pubmed #24614521.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

14 Editorial Temporal trends in epilepsy surgery. 2014

Neligan, A. ·Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, NIHR University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, London, UK. a.neligan@ucl.ac.uk. ·Eur J Neurol · Pubmed #24461032.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

15 Editorial Epilepsy as a pathology of consciousness. 2014

Cavanna, Andrea E. ·Michael Trimble Neuropsychiatry Research Group, BSMHFT, Birmingham, UK; University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK; Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK. Electronic address: A.Cavanna@ion.ucl.ac.uk. ·Epilepsy Behav · Pubmed #24140517.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

16 Review Epilepsy in adults. 2019

Thijs, Roland D / Surges, Rainer / O'Brien, Terence J / Sander, Josemir W. ·Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (SEIN), Heemstede, Netherlands; Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, Netherlands; NIHR University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK. · Section of Epileptology, Department of Neurology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Germany. · Melbourne Brain Centre, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Departments of Neuroscience and Neurology, Central Clinical School, Monash University, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. · Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (SEIN), Heemstede, Netherlands; NIHR University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK; Chalfont Centre for Epilepsy, Chalfont St Peter, UK. Electronic address: l.sander@ucl.ac.uk. ·Lancet · Pubmed #30686584.

ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is one of the most common serious brain conditions, affecting over 70 million people worldwide. Its incidence has a bimodal distribution with the highest risk in infants and older age groups. Progress in genomic technology is exposing the complex genetic architecture of the common types of epilepsy, and is driving a paradigm shift. Epilepsy is a symptom complex with multiple risk factors and a strong genetic predisposition rather than a condition with a single expression and cause. These advances have resulted in the new classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsies. A detailed clinical history and a reliable eyewitness account of a seizure are the cornerstones of the diagnosis. Ancillary investigations can help to determine cause and prognosis. Advances in brain imaging are helping to identify the structural and functional causes and consequences of the epilepsies. Comorbidities are increasingly recognised as important aetiological and prognostic markers. Antiseizure medication might suppress seizures in up to two-thirds of all individuals but do not alter long-term prognosis. Epilepsy surgery is the most effective way to achieve long-term seizure freedom in selected individuals with drug-resistant focal epilepsy, but it is probably not used enough. With improved understanding of the gradual development of epilepsy, epigenetic determinants, and pharmacogenomics comes the hope for better, disease-modifying, or even curative, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment strategies. Other developments are clinical implementation of seizure detection devices and new neuromodulation techniques, including responsive neural stimulation.

17 Review Current and emerging drug therapies for the treatment of depression in adults with epilepsy. 2019

Mula, Marco / Sander, Josemir W. ·a Institute of Medical and Biomedical Education , St George's University of London , London , UK. · b Atkinson Morley Regional Neuroscience Centre , St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust , London , UK. · c NIHR UCL Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre , UCL Institute of Neurology , London , UK. · d Chalfont Centre for Epilepsy , Chalfont St Peter , UK. · e Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland - SEIN , Heemstede , Netherlands. ·Expert Opin Pharmacother · Pubmed #30428279.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Depression is the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity among people with epilepsy. It can impact on quality of life and increases the risk of morbidity and premature mortality. AREAS COVERED: The authors review the available data on current and emerging drug treatments for depression in epilepsy. Sources have been identified through Medline/PubMed searches while ongoing clinical trials have been identified through a ClinicalTrials.gov search EXPERT OPINION: SSRIs are the drug class with the largest amount of data. Though promising, the level of evidence provided by these studies is still low as the majority have relevant methodological limitations. Antiepileptic drugs under development have the unique opportunity to be of multi-use in the treatment of epilepsy and depression. The serotoninergic system has already been identified as a potential area of interest, but new targets are still needed in epilepsy and depression. For this reason, it is important that basic scientists working on these two conditions develop collaborative projects and integrate findings.

18 Review Neurocysticercosis as a probable risk factor for hippocampal sclerosis. 2018

Singh, Gagandeep / Sander, Josemir W. ·Dayanand Medical College, Department of Neurology, Ludhiana, India. · NIHR University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom. · Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (SEIN), Achterweg 5, Heemstede, Netherlands. ·Arq Neuropsiquiatr · Pubmed #30570023.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Neurocysticercosis is one of the most common risk factors for epilepsy but its association with drug-resistant epilepsy remains uncertain. Conjectures of an association with drug-resistant epilepsy have been fueled by reports of an association between calcific neurocysticercosis lesions (CNL) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) from specialized epilepsy centers in Taenia solium-endemic regions. METHODS: The debate arising from these reports is whether the association is causal. Evidence for the association is not high quality but sufficiently persuasive to merit further investigation with longitudinal imaging studies in population-based samples from geographically-diverse regions. The other controversial point is the choice of a surgical approach for drug-resistant epilepsy associated with CNL-HS. RESULTS: Three approaches have been described: standard anteromesial temporal lobectomy, lesionectomy involving a CNL alone and lesionectomy with anteromesial temporal lobectomy (for dual pathology); reports of the latter two approaches are limited. CONCLUSIONS: Presurgical evaluation should consider possibilities of delineating the epileptogenic zone/s in accordance with all three approaches.

19 Review Circadian rhythm and epilepsy. 2018

Khan, Sofia / Nobili, Lino / Khatami, Ramin / Loddenkemper, Tobias / Cajochen, Christian / Dijk, Derk-Jan / Eriksson, Sofia H. ·Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK; Surrey Sleep Research Centre, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK. · Centre of Sleep Medicine, Centre for Epilepsy Surgery C Munari, Niguarda Hospital, Milan, Italy; Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, IRCCS Giannina Gaslini Pediatric Institute, DINOGMI, University of Genoa, Italy. · Centre for Sleep Research, Sleep Medicine and Epileptology, Klinik Barmelweid AG, Switzerland; Department of Neurology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Switzerland. · Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Transfaculty Research Platform Molecular and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. · Surrey Sleep Research Centre, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK. · Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK. Electronic address: sofia.eriksson@ucl.ac.uk. ·Lancet Neurol · Pubmed #30366868.

ABSTRACT: Advances in diagnostic technology, including chronic intracranial EEG recordings, have confirmed the clinical observation of different temporal patterns of epileptic activity and seizure occurrence over a 24-h period. The rhythmic patterns in epileptic activity and seizure occurrence are probably related to vigilance states and circadian variation in excitatory and inhibitory balance. Core circadian genes BMAL1 and CLOCK, which code for transcription factors, have been shown to influence excitability and seizure threshold. Despite uncertainties about the relative contribution of vigilance states versus circadian rhythmicity, including circadian factors such as seizure timing improves sensitivity of seizure prediction algorithms in individual patients. Improved prediction of seizure occurrence opens the possibility for personalised antiepileptic drug-dosing regimens timed to particular phases of the circadian cycle to improve seizure control and to reduce side-effects and risks associated with seizures. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathways through which rhythmic patterns of epileptic activity are generated, because this might also inform future treatment options.

20 Review A web-based diagnostic reference centre for the European Reference Network "EpiCare": recommendations of the eNeuropathology working group. 2018

Kölble, Konrad / Cross, J Helen / Becker, Albert / Blümcke, Ingmar. ·Neuropathologisches Institut, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany. · UCL-Institute of Child Health, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London & Young Epilepsy, Lingfield, UK. · Neuropathologisches Institut, Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Sigmund-Freud Str. 25, D-53105 Bonn, Germany. ·Epileptic Disord · Pubmed #30361181.

ABSTRACT: Epilepsy surgery is a valuable treatment strategy for a selected group of patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. While reliable disease classification is essential for the optimal management of patients in general and crucial for the development of more personalized therapies in the future, arriving at a precise diagnosis often poses considerable difficulties due to the broad and variant-rich spectrum of epilepsy-associated brain lesions. Given the scarcity of European institutions diagnostically focusing on the histopathology of epilepsy surgery cases, the provision of subspecialty expertise as well as training opportunities remains logistically and financially challenging. To improve this situation, the European Reference Network's (ERN) epilepsy care program (EpiCare, http://epi-care.eu) has set out to develop a web-based microscopy referral and teaching framework. This paper reviews the aspects of digital microscopy, data storage, and image analysis technology relevant to the practice of neuropathology. Cognizant of the European data security requirements and regulations, we propose a collaborative, diagnostic network initiative (the eNeuropathology reference centre) and delineate a roadmap for its implementation favouring open-source, vendor-independent browser platforms.

21 Review A cross-species approach to disorders affecting brain and behaviour. 2018

Devinsky, Orrin / Boesch, Jordyn M / Cerda-Gonzalez, Sofia / Coffey, Barbara / Davis, Kathryn / Friedman, Daniel / Hainline, Brian / Houpt, Katherine / Lieberman, Daniel / Perry, Pamela / Prüss, Harald / Samuels, Martin A / Small, Gary W / Volk, Holger / Summerfield, Artur / Vite, Charles / Wisniewski, Thomas / Natterson-Horowitz, Barbara. ·Department of Neurology, New York University (NYU) Langone Medical Center and NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. od4@nyu.edu. · College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. · Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA. · Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · Department of Neurology, New York University (NYU) Langone Medical Center and NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. · Department of Neurology with Experimental Neurology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany, and German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Berlin, Germany. · Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. · University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) Brain Research Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Veterinary Neurology and Neurosurgery, The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, UK. · Institute of Virology and Immunology and Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. · School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ·Nat Rev Neurol · Pubmed #30287906.

ABSTRACT: Structural and functional elements of biological systems are highly conserved across vertebrates. Many neurological and psychiatric conditions affect both humans and animals. A cross-species approach to the study of brain and behaviour can advance our understanding of human disorders via the identification of unrecognized natural models of spontaneous disorders, thus revealing novel factors that increase vulnerability or resilience, and via the assessment of potential therapies. Moreover, diagnostic and therapeutic advances in human neurology and psychiatry can often be adapted for veterinary patients. However, clinical and research collaborations between physicians and veterinarians remain limited, leaving this wealth of comparative information largely untapped. Here, we review pain, cognitive decline syndromes, epilepsy, anxiety and compulsions, autoimmune and infectious encephalitides and mismatch disorders across a range of animal species, looking for novel insights with translational potential. This comparative perspective can help generate novel hypotheses, expand and improve clinical trials and identify natural animal models of disease resistance and vulnerability.

22 Review Pharmacotherapy in patients with epilepsy and psychosis. 2018

de Toffol, Bertrand / Trimble, Michael / Hesdorffer, Dale C / Taylor, Lauren / Sachdev, Perminder / Clancy, Maurice / Adachi, Naoto / Bragatti, José Augusto / Mula, Marco / Kanemoto, Kousuke. ·Service de Neurologie & Neurophysiologie Clinique, CHU Bretonneau, Tours, France, Service de Neurologie Hôpital de Cayenne, Guyane France et UMR 1253, iBrain, Université de Tours, Inserm, France. Electronic address: bertrand.detoffol@univ-tours.fr. · Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom. · Gertrude H.K Sergievsky Center and Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, USA. · Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CHeBA), School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia. · Department of Liaison Psychiatry, University Hospital Waterford, Ireland. · Adachi Clinic, Japan. · Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Division of Neurology, Porto Alegre, Brazil. · Atkinson Morley Regional Neuroscience Centre, St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Medical and Biomedical Education, St. George's University of London, United Kingdom. · Aichi Medical University, Neuropsychiatric Department, Nagakute, Japan. ·Epilepsy Behav · Pubmed #30241054.

ABSTRACT: The recognition and treatment of psychosis in persons with epilepsy (PWE) is recommended with the apparent dilemma between treating psychosis and opening the possibility of exacerbating seizures. The pooled prevalence estimate of psychosis in PWE is 5.6%. It has been proposed that a 'two hit' model, requiring both aberrant limbic activity and impaired frontal control, may account for the wide range of clinical phenotypes. The role of antiepileptic drugs in psychosis in PWE remains unclear. Alternating psychosis, the clinical phenomenon of a reciprocal relationship between psychosis and seizures, is unlikely to be an exclusively antiepileptic drug-specific phenomenon but rather, linked to the neurobiological mechanisms underlying seizure control. Reevaluation of antiepileptic treatment, including the agent/s being used and degree of epileptic seizure control is recommended. The authors found very few controlled studies to inform evidence-based treatment of psychosis in PWE. However, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines are recommended as the symptomatic clinical treatments of choice for postictal and brief interictal psychoses. The general principle of early symptomatic treatment of psychotic symptoms applies in epilepsy-related psychoses, as for primary psychotic disorders. In the authors' experience, low doses of antipsychotic medications do not significantly increase clinical risk of seizures in PWE being concurrently treated with an efficacious antiepileptic regimen.

23 Review Anti-epileptics and pregnancy: an update. 2018

Al-Ansari, A / Robertson, N P. ·Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XN, UK. · Department of Neurology, Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF14 4XW, UK. robertsonnp@cardiff.ac.uk. ·J Neurol · Pubmed #30238267.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

24 Review Marriage in people with epilepsy: A compelling theme for psycho-behavioral research. 2018

Singh, Gagandeep / K Ganguly, Kalyan / Banerji, Manjistha / Addlakha, Renu / Shah, Urvashi / Tripathi, Manjari / Saxena, Vinod / Vohra, Hitant / Wakankar, Yashoda / Sharma, Meenakshi / Radhakrishnan, Kurupath. ·Department of Neurology, Dayanand Medical College, Ludhiana, India; Department of Clinical & Experimental Epilepsy, UCL-Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK. · Socio-Behavioral Research Unit, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India. · School of Educational Studies, Ambedkar University, New Delhi, India. · Centre for Women's Development Studies, New Delhi, India. · Department of Neurology, KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India. · Department of Neurology, Neurosciences Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. · Indian Epilepsy Association, Gurgaon, India. · Department of Anatomy, Dayanand Medical College, Ludhiana, India. · Sanvedana Foundation (Epilepsy Support Group), Pune, India. · Non-communicable Research Division, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India. · Department of Neurology, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Cochin, 682041, Kerala, India. Electronic address: kurupath.radhakrishnan@gmail.com. ·Seizure · Pubmed #30122424.

ABSTRACT: People with epilepsy frequently experience problems in marriage including reduced marital prospects, poor marital outcomes and diminished quality of married life. Conversely, marriage might impact epilepsy self-management and quality of life in people with epilepsy. There is little in published literature on marriage and epilepsy, so there is a need for psycho-behavioral research. Here, we focus on arranged marriages which, although now rare in western cultures, are widely prevalent in South Asian communities. Arranged marriages, in which families rather than individuals choose marital partners, are particularly problematic because epilepsy is frequently hidden during marital negotiations as well as later. From the psycho-behavioral perspective, marital prospects, outcomes and satisfaction should be examined in relation to the type of marriage (arranged vs. love) and whether or not epilepsy is hidden. Additionally, culturally-relevant tools to appraise marital quality and epilepsy self-management within marriage should be developed. The main objective should be to develop a multi-sectorial action plan with interventions at several different levels involving different stakeholders to mitigate stigma associated with epilepsy in matrimony.

25 Review Exposure to antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy: The need for a family factor framework. 2018

Huber-Mollema, Yfke / van Iterson, Loretta / Sander, Josemir W / Oort, Frans J / Lindhout, Dick / Rodenburg, Roos. ·Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (SEIN), Heemstede, the Netherlands; Research Institute of Child Development and Education, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (SEIN), Heemstede, the Netherlands. · Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (SEIN), Heemstede, the Netherlands; NIHR University College London Hospitals, Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK; Chalfont Centre for Epilepsy, Chalfont St Peter, UK. · Research Institute of Child Development and Education, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (SEIN), Heemstede, the Netherlands; Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands. · Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (SEIN), Heemstede, the Netherlands; Research Institute of Child Development and Education, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address: H.R.Rodenburg@uva.nl. ·Epilepsy Behav · Pubmed #30030084.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Children exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in utero are at risk for developmental problems. Maternal epilepsy, its impact on the family system, and other family factors may also contribute. We reviewed the possible associations between family factors and developmental outcome in children who had been exposed to AED during pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a narrative review and searched MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and PsycINFO on the following terms: in utero exposure, pregnancy outcome, and AEDs. A family factor framework (the ABCX model) served as the basis to review distinct family factors in children who were exposed to AEDs in pregnancy. RESULTS: Few studies have investigated these factors. Mothers with epilepsy have problems caring for themselves and for the child and experience more parenting stress. There is a paucity of studies of the possible impact of family factors on the neurocognitive and behavioral development of children of mothers with epilepsy. DISCUSSION: Further work is required to ascertain which family factors are associated with child development in addition to the effects of AED exposure and their potential interaction. As epilepsy may have considerable impact on intrafamily factors and as children are especially vulnerable to such effects, study designs incorporating family factors should be encouraged.

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