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Epilepsy HELP
Based on 35,788 articles published since 2008

These are the 35788 published articles about Epilepsy that originated from Worldwide during 2008-2019.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline Introducing NASN's New Evidence-based Clinical Guideline: Students With Seizures and Epilepsy. 2018

Lepkowski, Angela M / Maughan, Erin D. ·Clinical Assistant Professor, Chicago, IL. · Director of Research, Silver Spring, MD. ·NASN Sch Nurse · Pubmed #30295151.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Guideline The role of EEG in the diagnosis and classification of the epilepsy syndromes: a tool for clinical practice by the ILAE Neurophysiology Task Force (Part 2). 2017

Koutroumanidis, Michalis / Arzimanoglou, Alexis / Caraballo, Roberto / Goyal, Sushma / Kaminska, Anna / Laoprasert, Pramote / Oguni, Hirokazu / Rubboli, Guido / Tatum, William / Thomas, Pierre / Trinka, Eugen / Vignatelli, Luca / Moshé, Solomon L. ·St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK. · University Hospitals of Lyon (HCL), Department of Paediatric Clinical Epileptology, Sleep Disorders and Functional Neurology, Member of the European Reference Centre EpiCARE, Lyon, France, Epilepsy Unit, Department of Paediatric Neurology, San Juan de Deu Hospital, Member of the European Reference Centre EpiCARE, Barcelona, Spain. · Hospital J P Garrahan, Neurology, Capital Federal, Buenos Aires, Argentina. · Evelina Hospital for Children, London, UK. · APHP, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Paris, France. · Children's Hospital, Neurology, Aurora, Colorado, 80045, USA. · Tokyo Women's Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan. · Danish Epilepsy Centre, Department of Neurology, Dianalund, Denmark. · Mayo Clinic, Neurology, Jacksonville, Florida, USA. · Hopital Pasteur, Neurology, Hôpital Pasteur 24C, Nice, France. · Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversitat, Salzburg, Austria. · IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. · Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Neurology, Neuroscience, and Pediatrics, Bronx, New York, USA. ·Epileptic Disord · Pubmed #29350182.

ABSTRACT: The concept of epilepsy syndromes, introduced in 1989, was defined as "clusters of signs and symptoms customarily occurring together". Definition of epilepsy syndromes based on electro-clinical features facilitated clinical practice and, whenever possible, clinical research in homogeneous groups of patients with epilepsies. Progress in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics made it rapidly clear that, although crucial, the electro-clinical description of epilepsy syndromes was not sufficient to allow much needed development of targeted therapies and a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of seizures. The 2017 ILAE position paper on Classification of the Epilepsies recognized that "as a critical tool for the practicing clinician, epilepsy classification must be relevant and dynamic to changes in thinking". The concept of "epilepsy syndromes" evolved, incorporating issues related to aetiologies and comorbidities. A comprehensive update (and revision where necessary) of the EEG diagnostic criteria in the light of the 2017 revised terminology and concepts was deemed necessary. Part 2 covers the neonatal and paediatric syndromes in accordance with the age of onset. [Published with educational EEG plates at www.epilepticdisorders.com].

3 Guideline Radiosurgery for epilepsy: Systematic review and International Stereotactic Radiosurgery Society (ISRS) practice guideline. 2017

McGonigal, Aileen / Sahgal, Arjun / De Salles, Antonio / Hayashi, Motohiro / Levivier, Marc / Ma, Lijun / Martinez, Roberto / Paddick, Ian / Ryu, Samuel / Slotman, Ben J / Régis, Jean. ·Aix Marseille Univ, Inserm, INS, Institut de Neurosciences des Systèmes and CHU Timone, Service de Neurophysiologie Clinique, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille 13005, France. Electronic address: aileen.mcgonigal@univ-amu.fr. · Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada. · Department of Neurosurgery, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; HCor Neuroscience, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. · Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Toyko, Japan. · Neurosurgery Service and Gamma Knife Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland. · Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. · Department Neurosurgery, Ruber Internacional Hospital, Madrid, Spain. · Queen Square Radiosurgery Centre, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK. · Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA. · Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Aix Marseille Univ, Inserm, INS, Institut de Neurosciences des Systèmes & CHU Timone Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille 13005, France. ·Epilepsy Res · Pubmed #28939289.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: While there are many reports of radiosurgery for treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy, a literature review is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to summarize current literature on the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (RS) for treatment of epilepsy. METHODS: Literature search was performed using various combinations of the search terms "radiosurgery", "stereotactic radiosurgery", "Gamma Knife", "epilepsy" and "seizure", from 1990 until October 2015. Level of evidence was assessed according to the PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: Fifty-five articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. Level 2 evidence (prospective studies) was available for the clinical indications of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) treated by Gamma Knife (GK) RS. For remaining indications including corpus callosotomy as palliative treatment, epilepsy related to cavernous malformation and extra-temporal epilepsy, only Level 4 data was available (case report, prospective observational study, or retrospective case series). No Level 1 evidence was available. CONCLUSION: Based on level 2 evidence, RS is an efficacious treatment to control seizures in MTLE, possibly resulting in superior neuropsychological outcomes and quality of life metrics in selected subjects compared to microsurgery. RS has a better risk-benefit ratio for small hypothalamic hamartomas compared to surgical methods Delayed therapeutic effect resulting in ongoing seizures is associated with morbidity and mortality risk. Lack of level 1 evidence precludes the formation of guidelines at present.

4 Guideline Epilepsy: Transition from pediatric to adult care. Recommendations of the Ontario epilepsy implementation task force. 2017

Andrade, Danielle M / Bassett, Anne S / Bercovici, Eduard / Borlot, Felippe / Bui, Esther / Camfield, Peter / Clozza, Guida Quaglia / Cohen, Eyal / Gofine, Timothy / Graves, Lisa / Greenaway, Jon / Guttman, Beverly / Guttman-Slater, Maya / Hassan, Ayman / Henze, Megan / Kaufman, Miriam / Lawless, Bernard / Lee, Hannah / Lindzon, Lezlee / Lomax, Lysa Boissé / McAndrews, Mary Pat / Menna-Dack, Dolly / Minassian, Berge A / Mulligan, Janice / Nabbout, Rima / Nejm, Tracy / Secco, Mary / Sellers, Laurene / Shapiro, Michelle / Slegr, Marie / Smith, Rosie / Szatmari, Peter / Tao, Leeping / Vogt, Anastasia / Whiting, Sharon / Carter Snead, O. ·Division of Neurology, Epilepsy Transition Program and Epilepsy Genetics Program, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Department of Neurology, Clinical Neurosciences Center University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A. · Division of Pediatric Neurology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. · Parent Representative, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Division of Pediatric Medicine, University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Ontario Shores, Whitby, Ontario, Canada. · Family Physician, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. · Erin Oak Kids, Centre for Treatment and Development, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Provincial Council for Maternal and Child Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Patient Representative, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. · Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Epilepsy Program, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Division of Neurology, Queens University, Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. · Division of Neuropsychology, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · LIFEspan Service, Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Pediatric Epileptologist, Division of Pediatric Neurology, University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Pediatric Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern and Dallas Children's Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, U.S.A. · Pediatric Neurologist, Centre of Reference Epilepsies Rares, Hospital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France. · Parent Representative, London, Ontario, Canada. · Strategic Initiatives, Epilepsy Support Centre, London, Ontario, Canada. · Family Physician, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Division of Neurology, McMaster University, Hamilton Health Sciences Centre, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. · Neurologist, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Adult Services, Epilepsy Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Child and Youth Mental Health Collaborative, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Surrey Place Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Critical Care Services, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Division of Pediatric Neurology, University of Ottawa, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. · Division of Pediatric Neurology, University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ·Epilepsia · Pubmed #28681381.

ABSTRACT: The transition from a pediatric to adult health care system is challenging for many youths with epilepsy and their families. Recently, the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care of the Province of Ontario, Canada, created a transition working group (TWG) to develop recommendations for the transition process for patients with epilepsy in the Province of Ontario. Herein we present an executive summary of this work. The TWG was composed of a multidisciplinary group of pediatric and adult epileptologists, psychiatrists, and family doctors from academia and from the community; neurologists from the community; nurses and social workers from pediatric and adult epilepsy programs; adolescent medicine physician specialists; a team of physicians, nurses, and social workers dedicated to patients with complex care needs; a lawyer; an occupational therapist; representatives from community epilepsy agencies; patients with epilepsy; parents of patients with epilepsy and severe intellectual disability; and project managers. Three main areas were addressed: (1) Diagnosis and Management of Seizures; 2) Mental Health and Psychosocial Needs; and 3) Financial, Community, and Legal Supports. Although there are no systematic studies on the outcomes of transition programs, the impressions of the TWG are as follows. Teenagers at risk of poor transition should be identified early. The care coordination between pediatric and adult neurologists and other specialists should begin before the actual transfer. The transition period is the ideal time to rethink the diagnosis and repeat diagnostic testing where indicated (particularly genetic testing, which now can uncover more etiologies than when patients were initially evaluated many years ago). Some screening tests should be repeated after the move to the adult system. The seven steps proposed herein may facilitate transition, thereby promoting uninterrupted and adequate care for youth with epilepsy leaving the pediatric system.

5 Guideline European Association for Neuro-Oncology (EANO) guidelines for palliative care in adults with glioma. 2017

Pace, Andrea / Dirven, Linda / Koekkoek, Johan A F / Golla, Heidrun / Fleming, Jane / Rudà, Roberta / Marosi, Christine / Le Rhun, Emilie / Grant, Robin / Oliver, Kathy / Oberg, Ingela / Bulbeck, Helen J / Rooney, Alasdair G / Henriksson, Roger / Pasman, H Roeline W / Oberndorfer, Stefan / Weller, Michael / Taphoorn, Martin J B / Anonymous3531104. ·Neuro-Oncology Unit, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy. · Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands; Department of Neurology, Haaglanden Medical Center, The Hague, Netherlands. · Department of Palliative Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. · Department of Palliative Medicine, University Hospital Waterford, Waterford, Ireland. · Department of Neuro-Oncology, University and City of Health and Science Hospital, Turin, Italy. · Department of Internal Medicine I, Clinical Division of Medical Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. · Neuro-Oncology Unit, Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Lille, France; Breast Unit, Department of Medical Oncology, Oscar Lambret Center, Lille, France. · Edinburgh Centre for Neuro-Oncology, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK. · International Brain Tumour Alliance, Tadworth, UK. · Department of Neuroscience, Cambridge University Hospitals, Cambridge, UK. · brainstrust, Cowes, Isle of Wight, UK. · Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, UK. · Regional Cancer Center Stockholm Gotland, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Radiation Sciences and Oncology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. · Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Department of Public and Occupational Health, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Neurology, University Clinic St Pölten, Karl Landsteiner Private University and Karl Landsteiner Institute for Neurology and Neuropsychology, St Pölten, Austria. · Department of Neurology, University Hospital, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands; Department of Neurology, Haaglanden Medical Center, The Hague, Netherlands. Electronic address: m.taphoorn@haaglandenmc.nl. ·Lancet Oncol · Pubmed #28593859.

ABSTRACT: Patients with glioma present with complex palliative care needs throughout their disease trajectory. The life-limiting nature of gliomas and the presence of specific symptoms related to neurological deterioration necessitate an appropriate and early palliative care approach. The multidisciplinary palliative care task force of the European Association of Neuro-Oncology did a systematic review of the available scientific literature to formulate the best possible evidence-based recommendations for the palliative care of adult patients with glioma, with the aim to reduce symptom burden and improve the quality of life of patients and their caregivers, particularly in the end-of-life phase. When recommendations could not be made because of the scarcity of evidence, the task force either used evidence from studies of patients with systemic cancer or formulated expert opinion. Areas of palliative care that currently lack evidence and thus deserve attention for further research are fatigue, disorders of behaviour and mood, interventions for the needs of caregivers, and timing of advance care planning.

6 Guideline Managing epilepsy in women of childbearing age - Polish Society of Epileptology and Polish Gynecological Society Guidelines. 2017

Jędrzejczak, Joanna / Bomba-Opoń, Dorota / Jakiel, Grzegorz / Kwaśniewska, Anna / Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara. ·dorota.bomba-opon@wum.edu.pl. ·Ginekol Pol · Pubmed #28580576.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Guideline Practice guideline summary: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy incidence rates and risk factors: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. 2017

Harden, Cynthia / Tomson, Torbjörn / Gloss, David / Buchhalter, Jeffrey / Cross, J Helen / Donner, Elizabeth / French, Jacqueline A / Gil-Nagel, Anthony / Hesdorffer, Dale C / Smithson, W Henry / Spitz, Mark C / Walczak, Thaddeus S / Sander, Josemir W / Ryvlin, Philippe. ·From the Department of Neurology (C.H.), Mount Sinai Health System, New York, NY · Department of Clinical Neuroscience (T.T.), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden · Department of Neurology (D.G.), CAMC Physicians, Charleston, WV · Departments of Pediatrics and Clinical Neurosciences (J.B.), Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Canada · Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Child Health (J.H.C.), and Institute of Neurology (J.W.S.), University College London · Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust (J.H.C.), London, UK · Department of Paediatrics (E.D.), Division of Neurology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Canada · Department of Neurology (J.A.F.), New York University Langone Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, New York · Department of Neurology (A.G.-N.), Hospital Ruber Internacional, Madrid, Spain · Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center and Department of Epidemiology (D.C.H.), Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY · Department of General Practice (W.H.S.), University College Cork, Ireland · Anschutz Outpatient Pavilion (M.C.S.), University of Colorado Health, Aurora · Neurology Clinic (T.S.W.), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis · Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (SEIN) (J.W.S.), Heemstede, the Netherlands · and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences (P.R.), CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland. ·Neurology · Pubmed #28438841.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence rates of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in different epilepsy populations and address the question of whether risk factors for SUDEP have been identified. METHODS: Systematic review of evidence; modified Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation process for developing conclusions; recommendations developed by consensus. RESULTS: Findings for incidence rates based on 12 Class I studies include the following: SUDEP risk in children with epilepsy (aged 0-17 years) is 0.22/1,000 patient-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.31) (moderate confidence in evidence). SUDEP risk increases in adults to 1.2/1,000 patient-years (95% CI 0.64-2.32) (low confidence in evidence). The major risk factor for SUDEP is the occurrence of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS); the SUDEP risk increases in association with increasing frequency of GTCS occurrence (high confidence in evidence). RECOMMENDATIONS: Level B: Clinicians caring for young children with epilepsy should inform parents/guardians that in 1 year, SUDEP typically affects 1 in 4,500 children; therefore, 4,499 of 4,500 children will not be affected. Clinicians should inform adult patients with epilepsy that SUDEP typically affects 1 in 1,000 adults with epilepsy per year; therefore, annually 999 of 1,000 adults will not be affected. For persons with epilepsy who continue to experience GTCS, clinicians should continue to actively manage epilepsy therapies to reduce seizures and SUDEP risk while incorporating patient preferences and weighing the risks and benefits of any new approach. Clinicians should inform persons with epilepsy that seizure freedom, particularly freedom from GTCS, is strongly associated with decreased SUDEP risk.

8 Guideline Practice guideline summary: Use of fMRI in the presurgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. 2017

Szaflarski, Jerzy P / Gloss, David / Binder, Jeffrey R / Gaillard, William D / Golby, Alexandra J / Holland, Scott K / Ojemann, Jeffrey / Spencer, David C / Swanson, Sara J / French, Jacqueline A / Theodore, William H. ·From the Department of Neurology (J.P.S.), University of Alabama at Birmingham · Department of Neurology (D.G.), Charleston Area Medical Center, WV · Department of Neurology (J.R.B., S.J.S.), Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee · Children's National Medical Center (W.D.G.), George Washington University, Washington, DC · Departments of Neurosurgery and Radiology (A.J.G.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA · Cincinnati Children's Hospital Research Foundation (S.K.H.), OH · Department of Neurosurgery (J.O.), Seattle Children's Hospital, WA · Department of Neurology (D.C.S.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland · Department of Neurology (J.A.F.), New York University, New York · and Clinical Epilepsy Section (W.H.T.), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD. ·Neurology · Pubmed #28077494.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of functional MRI (fMRI) in determining lateralization and predicting postsurgical language and memory outcomes. METHODS: An 11-member panel evaluated and rated available evidence according to the 2004 American Academy of Neurology process. At least 2 panelists reviewed the full text of 172 articles and selected 37 for data extraction. Case reports, reports with <15 cases, meta-analyses, and editorials were excluded. RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: The use of fMRI may be considered an option for lateralizing language functions in place of intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP) in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE; Level C), temporal epilepsy in general (Level C), or extratemporal epilepsy (Level C). For patients with temporal neocortical epilepsy or temporal tumors, the evidence is insufficient (Level U). fMRI may be considered to predict postsurgical language deficits after anterior temporal lobe resection (Level C). The use of fMRI may be considered for lateralizing memory functions in place of IAP in patients with MTLE (Level C) but is of unclear utility in other epilepsy types (Level U). fMRI of verbal memory or language encoding should be considered for predicting verbal memory outcome (Level B). fMRI using nonverbal memory encoding may be considered for predicting visuospatial memory outcomes (Level C). Presurgical fMRI could be an adequate alternative to IAP memory testing for predicting verbal memory outcome (Level C). Clinicians should carefully advise patients of the risks and benefits of fMRI vs IAP during discussions concerning choice of specific modality in each case.

9 Guideline ASET Position Statement on Video EEG Data Management in Long Term Monitoring Studies. 2016

Anonymous2570904. · ·Neurodiagn J · Pubmed #28436803.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Guideline Treatment of Infantile Spasms: Report of the Interdisciplinary Guideline Committee Coordinated by the German-Speaking Society for Neuropediatrics. 2016

Tibussek, Daniel / Klepper, Jörg / Korinthenberg, Rudolf / Kurlemann, Gerhard / Rating, Dietz / Wohlrab, Gabriele / Wolff, Markus / Schmitt, Bernhard. ·Department of General Paediatrics, Neonatology and Paediatric Cardiology, University Children's Hospital, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany. · Department of Paediatrics, Klinikum Aschaffenburg-Alzenau, Aschaffenburg, Germany. · Department of Neuropaediatrics and Muscular Diseases, Centre of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Medical Centre, Freiburg, Germany. · General Paediatrics-Neuropaediatric Department, University Children's Hospital Muenster, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany. · Previously associated with the Department Paediatric Neurology, University Children's Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany (now retired). · Division of Clinical Neurophysiology and Epilepsy, University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland. · Department of Paediatric Neurology and Developmental Medicine, University Children's Hospital, Tubingen, Germany. ·Neuropediatrics · Pubmed #26910805.

ABSTRACT: Objectives This report aims to define treatment goals, to summarize the evidence level (EL) of different treatment options for infantile spasms (IS), both in terms of efficacy and adverse effect, and to give recommendations for the management of IS. Methods The Cochrane and Medline (1966-July 2014) databases were searched. Literature known to the guideline working group and identified through citations was also considered. The results of previously published guidelines were taken into account in our analysis. Rating the level of evidence followed the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Recommendations If IS are suspected, electroencephalogram (EEG) should be performed within a few days and, if confirmed, treatment should be initiated immediately. Response to first-line treatments should be evaluated clinically and electroencephalographically after 14 days.Adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosteroids, and vigabatrin are the first-line drugs for the treatment of IS. In children with tuberous sclerosis complex, vigabatrin is the treatment of first choice. Ketogenic diet, sulthiame, topiramate, valproate, zonisamide, and benzodiazepines can be used when first-line drugs have proved ineffective. Children refractory to drug therapy should be evaluated for epilepsy surgery, especially if focal brain lesions are present.Regular follow-up controls, including EEG (preferably sleep EEG) and standardized developmental assessment are recommended.

11 Guideline The Spanish Neurological Society official clinical practice guidelines in epilepsy. 2016

Mercadé Cerdá, J M / Toledo Argani, M / Mauri Llerda, J A / López Gonzalez, F J / Salas Puig, X / Sancho Rieger, J. ·Hospital Regional Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, España. Electronic address: juanmercade@gmail.com. · Hospital Universitari Vall d́Hebron, Barcelona, España. · Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano Blesa, Zaragoza, España. · Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, España. · Consorcio Hospital General Universitario, Valencia, España. ·Neurologia · Pubmed #24636132.

ABSTRACT: SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES: This CPG is focused on comprehensive care for individuals affected by epilepsy as a primary and predominant symptom, regardless of the age of onset and medical policy. METHODOLOGY: 1. Creation of GE-SEN neurologists working group, in collaboration with Neuropediatricians, Neurophysiologists and Neuroradiologists. 2. Identification of clinical areas to be covered: diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. 3. Search and selection of the relevant scientific evidence. 4. Formulation of recommendations based on the classification of the available scientific evidence. RESULTS: It contains 161 recommendations of which 57% are consensus between authors and publishers, due to an important lack of awareness in many fields of this pathology. CONCLUSIONS: This Epilepsy CPG formulates recommendations based on explicit scientific evidence as a result of a formal and rigorous methodology, according to the current knowledge in the pre-selected areas. This paper includes the CPG chapter dedicated to emergency situations in seizures and epilepsy, which may present as a first seizure, an unfavorable outcome in a patient with known epilepsy, or status epilepticus as the most severe manifestation.

12 Guideline [Position Statement of Hungarian Epilepsy League: The use of valproate preparations for epilepsy in pregnancy and in women of childbearing age]. 2015

Janszky, József / Anonymous5850844. · ·Ideggyogy Sz · Pubmed #26434203.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

13 Guideline [Combined treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Andalusian Epilepsy Guide 2015]. 2015

Sánchez-Álvarez, Juan C / Ramos-Lizana, Julio / Machado-Casas, Irene S / Serrano-Castro, Pedro J / Martínez-Antón, Jacinto L / Ruiz-Giménez, Jesús / Anonymous4000826. ·Hospital Clinico Universitario San Cecilio, 18012 Granada, Espana. ·Rev Neurol · Pubmed #25857861.

ABSTRACT: AIMS: The aim of this study was to draw up a set of recommendations based on scientific evidence and in agreement with authors and reviewers, which address fundamental issues concerning the combination of antiepileptic drugs. DEVELOPMENT: A committee of 11 experts belonging to the Sociedad Andaluza de Epilepsia (SAdE--Andalusian Epilepsy Society), of whom seven were neurologists, three were neuropaediatricians and one was a neurologist-neurophysiologist, all of them with long experience in epilepsy, promoted a comprehensive literature review among 55 experts in epilepsy who were members of the SAdE, with the aim of searching for any evidence that might be available on diagnostic or therapeutic matters in epilepsy. The guidelines were set out in 35 chapters. One of the chapters addressed the combination of antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of epilepsy. Taking 77 bibliographical references and the consensus view of authors and reviewers as their starting point, a set of easily applicable recommendations were drawn up. CONCLUSIONS: Combining antiepileptic drugs in patients with epilepsy whose seizures are not controlled with a single drug can, on many occasions, result in their going back into remission. There are a series of factors related with the type of epilepsy and characteristics of the patient and with the antiepileptic drugs to be used in combination that may favour a successful therapeutic outcome. Over-treatment with the combination of antiepileptic drugs must be avoided as far as possible. The results of this review provide a set of recommendations regarding combined treatment with antiepileptic drugs, based on scientific evidence and the agreement of authors, that are simple, useful and easy to apply at the different levels of healthcare.

14 Guideline [French guidelines on electroencephalogram]. 2014

André-Obadia, N / Sauleau, P / Cheliout-Heraut, F / Convers, P / Debs, R / Eisermann, M / Gavaret, M / Isnard, J / Jung, J / Kaminska, A / Kubis, N / Lemesle, M / Maillard, L / Mazzola, L / Michel, V / Montavont, A / N'Guyen, S / Navarro, V / Parain, D / Perin, B / Rosenberg, S D / Sediri, H / Soufflet, C / Szurhaj, W / Taussig, D / Touzery-de Villepin, A / Vercueil, L / Lamblin, M D / Anonymous670813 / Anonymous680813. ·Service de neurophysiologie et d'épileptologie, hôpital neurologique P.-Wertheimer, hospices civils de Lyon, 59, boulevard Pinel, 69677 Bron cedex, France; Inserm U 1028, équipe NeuroPain, centre de recherche en neuroscience de Lyon (CRNL), université Lyon 1, 59, boulevard Pinel, 69677 Bron cedex, France. Electronic address: nathalie.obadia-andre@chu-lyon.fr. · EA 4712 « Comportement et noyaux gris centraux », faculté de médecine, université de Rennes 1, avenue Léon-Bernard, 35043 Rennes, France; Unité des explorations fonctionnelles neurologiques, CHU de Rennes, 2, rue Henri-le-Guilloux, 35033 Rennes cedex 9, France. · Service de physiologie-explorations fonctionnelles, CHU de Garches, UVSQ, 92380 Garches, France. · Service de neurologie, hôpital Nord, CHU de Saint-Étienne, 42055 Saint-Étienne cedex 2, France; Inserm U1028, UCB Lyon 1, UJM Saint-Étienne, 42055 Saint-Étienne cedex 2, France. · Service de neurologie, CHU de Toulouse, place du Docteur-Baylac, TSA 40031, 31059 Toulouse cedex 9, France. · Service d'explorations fonctionnelles neurologiques, hôpital Necker-Enfants-Malades, AP-HP, 149, rue de Sèvres, 75015 Paris, France; Inserm, U1129, Paris, France; Université Paris-Descartes, CEA, Neurospin, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, France. · Service de neurophysiologie clinique, hôpital de la Timone, AP-HM, 264, rue Saint-Pierre, 13385 Marseille, France; Inserm UMR 1106, institut de neurosciences des systèmes, 27, boulevard Jean-Moulin, 13385 Marseille cedex 05, France; Faculté de médecine, Aix-Marseille université, 27, boulevard Jean-Moulin, 13385 Marseille cedex 5, France. · Service de neurophysiologie et d'épileptologie, hôpital neurologique P.-Wertheimer, hospices civils de Lyon, 59, boulevard Pinel, 69677 Bron cedex, France. · Service de neurophysiologie et d'épileptologie, hôpital neurologique P.-Wertheimer, hospices civils de Lyon, 59, boulevard Pinel, 69677 Bron cedex, France; Inserm U 1028, équipe Brain Dynamics and Cognition, centre de recherche en neuroscience de Lyon (CRNL), 69677 Bron, France; Université Lyon 1, 69677 Bron, France. · Service de physiologie clinique-explorations fonctionnelles, hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HP, université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2, rue Ambroise-Paré, 75010 Paris, France; Unité Inserm965/Paris 7, angiogenèse et recherche translationnelle, hôpital Lariboisière, 2, rue Ambroise-Paré, 75475 Paris cedex 10, France. · Service de neurophysiologie clinique, CHU de Dijon, 1, boulevard Jeanne-d'Arc, BP 77908, 21079 Dijon cedex, France. · Service de neurologie, CHU de Nancy, avenue du Maréchal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 54000 Nancy, France; CNRS, CRAN, UMR 7039, boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 70239, 54506 Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France; Faculté de médecine, université de Lorraine, 9, avenue de la Forêt-de-Haye, CS 50184, 54505 Vandœuvre-Lès-Nancy cedex, France. · Inserm U 1028, équipe NeuroPain, centre de recherche en neuroscience de Lyon (CRNL), université Lyon 1, 59, boulevard Pinel, 69677 Bron cedex, France; Unité de neurophysiologie clinique, service de neurologie, hôpital Nord, 42055 Saint-Étienne cedex 2, France. · EFSN, pôle de neurosciences cliniques, CHU de Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux cedex, France; IMN, CNRS-UMR 3493, université de Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux cedex, France. · Service de neurophysiologie et d'épileptologie, hôpital neurologique P.-Wertheimer, hospices civils de Lyon, 59, boulevard Pinel, 69677 Bron cedex, France; Service épilepsie, sommeil et explorations fonctionnelles neuropédiatriques, HFME, 59, boulevard Pinel, 69677 Bron cedex, France. · Unité de neurologie pédiatrique, CHU d'Angers, 4, rue Larrey, 49100 Angers, France; LARIS EA 7315, LUNAM, université d'Angers, 4, boulevard Lavoisier, 49016 Angers, France. · Unité d'épilepsie et département de neurophysiologie clinique, hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière, AP-HP, 47-83, boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France; Inserm UMR S975 - CNRS-UMR 7225 - UMPC, centre de recherche de l'institut du cerveau et de la moelle épinière, 47, boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75651 Paris cedex 13, France. · Service de neurophysiologie clinique, CHU Charles-Nicolle, 76031 Rouen cedex, France. · Service des explorations fonctionnelles du système nerveux, service de neurologie, CHU d'Amiens, place Victor-Pauchet, 80054 Amiens cedex 1, France. · Service de neurologie et neurophysiologie clinique, hôpital Gabriel-Montpied, CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, 58, rue Montalembert, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France; IGCNC - EA 7282, UMR 6284 ISIT, université d'Auvergne, 63001 Clermont-Ferrand, France. · Service de neurophysiologie clinique, hôpital Roger-Salengro, CHRU, 59037 Lille cedex, France. · Service de neurophysiologie clinique, hôpital Roger-Salengro, CHRU, 59037 Lille cedex, France; Faculté de médecine, université Henri-Warembourg, 59045 Lille cedex, France. · Service de neurochirurgie pédiatrique, fondation Rothschild, 25-29, rue Manin, 75019 Paris, France. · Unité de neurophysiologie clinique de l'enfant, hôpital Arnaud-de-Villeneuve, 34295 Montpellier, France. · EFSN, pôle de psychiatrie et de neurologie, CHU de Grenoble, 38043 Grenoble cedex 09, France; Unité Inserm U836-9, Grenoble institut des neurosciences, 38043 Grenoble cedex 09, France. ·Neurophysiol Clin · Pubmed #25435392.

ABSTRACT: Electroencephalography allows the functional analysis of electrical brain cortical activity and is the gold standard for analyzing electrophysiological processes involved in epilepsy but also in several other dysfunctions of the central nervous system. Morphological imaging yields complementary data, yet it cannot replace the essential functional analysis tool that is EEG. Furthermore, EEG has the great advantage of being non-invasive, easy to perform and allows control tests when follow-up is necessary, even at the patient's bedside. Faced with the advances in knowledge, techniques and indications, the Société de Neurophysiologie Clinique de Langue Française (SNCLF) and the Ligue Française Contre l'Épilepsie (LFCE) found it necessary to provide an update on EEG recommendations. This article will review the methodology applied to this work, refine the various topics detailed in the following chapters. It will go over the summary of recommendations for each of these chapters and underline proposals for writing an EEG report. Some questions could not be answered by the review of the literature; in those cases, an expert advice was given by the working and reading groups in addition to the guidelines.

15 Guideline Vagus nerve stimulator in patients with epilepsy: indications and recommendations for use. 2013

Terra, Vera C / Amorim, Ricardo / Silvado, Carlos / Oliveira, Andrea Julião de / Jorge, Carmen Lisa / Faveret, Eduardo / Ragazzo, Paulo / De Paola, Luciano. ·Comissão de Neuromodulação, Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia, Brasil, São PauloSP. ·Arq Neuropsiquiatr · Pubmed #24394879.

ABSTRACT: Epilepsy comprises a set of neurologic and systemic disorders characterized by recurrent spontaneous seizures, and is the most frequent chronic neurologic disorder. In patients with medically refractory epilepsy, therapeutic options are limited to ablative brain surgery, trials of experimental antiepileptic drugs, or palliative surgery. Vagal nerve stimulation is an available palliative procedure of which the mechanism of action is not understood, but with established efficacy for medically refractory epilepsy and low incidence of side-effects. In this paper we discuss the recommendations for VNS use as suggested by the Brazilian League of Epilepsy and the Scientific Department of Epilepsy of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology Committee of Neuromodulation.

16 Guideline Proposed guidelines for the management of nodding syndrome. 2013

Idro, R / Musubire, K A / Byamah Mutamba, B / Namusoke, H / Muron, J / Abbo, C / Oriyabuzu, R / Ssekyewa, J / Okot, C / Mwaka, D / Ssebadduka, P / Makumbi, I / Opar, B / Aceng, J R / Mbonye, A K. ·Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Mulago hospital/Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda ; Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford University, UK. ·Afr Health Sci · Pubmed #24235917.

ABSTRACT: Nodding Syndrome is a poorly understood neurologic disorder of unknown aetiology that affects children and adolescents in Africa. Recent studies have suggested that the head nods are due to atonic seizures and Nodding Syndrome may be classified as probably symptomatic generalised epilepsy. As part of the Ugandan Ministry of Health clinical management response, a multidisciplinary team developed a manual to guide the training of health workers with knowledge and skills to manage the patients. In the absence of a known cause, it was decided to offer symptomatic care. The objective is to relieve symptoms, offer primary and secondary prevention for disability and rehabilitation to improve function. Initial management focuses on the most urgent needs of the patient and the immediate family until 'stability' is achieved. The most important needs were considered as seizure control, management of behavioural and psychiatric difficulties, nursing care, nutritional and subsequently, physical and cognitive rehabilitation. This paper summarises the processes by which the proposed guidelines were developed and provides an outline of the specific treatments currently being provided for the patients.

17 Guideline Cavernoma-related epilepsy: review and recommendations for management--report of the Surgical Task Force of the ILAE Commission on Therapeutic Strategies. 2013

Rosenow, Felix / Alonso-Vanegas, Mario A / Baumgartner, Christoph / Blümcke, Ingmar / Carreño, Maria / Gizewski, Elke R / Hamer, Hajo M / Knake, Susanne / Kahane, Philippe / Lüders, Hans O / Mathern, Gary W / Menzler, Katja / Miller, Jonathan / Otsuki, Taisuke / Ozkara, Cigdem / Pitkänen, Asla / Roper, Steven N / Sakamoto, Americo C / Sure, Ulrich / Walker, Matthew C / Steinhoff, Bernhard J / Anonymous4490772. ·Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Center Hessen, University Hospital and Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany. ·Epilepsia · Pubmed #24134485.

ABSTRACT: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are well-defined, mostly singular lesions present in 0.4-0.9% of the population. Epileptic seizures are the most frequent symptom in patients with CCMs and have a great impact on social function and quality of life. However, patients with CCM-related epilepsy (CRE) who undergo surgical resection achieve postoperative seizure freedom in only about 75% of cases. This is frequently because insufficient efforts are made to adequately define and resect the epileptogenic zone. The Surgical Task Force of the Commission on Therapeutics of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and invited experts reviewed the pertinent literature on CRE. Definitions of definitive and probable CRE are suggested, and recommendations regarding the diagnostic evaluation and etiology-specific management of patients with CRE are made. Prospective trials are needed to determine when and how surgery should be done and to define the relations of the hemosiderin rim to the epileptogenic zone.

18 Guideline Recommendations for rescue of a submerged unresponsive compressed-gas diver. 2012

Mitchell, S J / Bennett, M H / Bird, N / Doolette, D J / Hobbs, G W / Kay, E / Moon, R E / Neuman, T S / Vann, R D / Walker, R / Wyatt, H A. ·Department of Anesthesiology, University of Auckland, New Zealand. sj.mitchell@auckland.ac.nz ·Undersea Hyperb Med · Pubmed #23342767.

ABSTRACT: The Diving Committee of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society has reviewed available evidence in relation to the medical aspects of rescuing a submerged unresponsive compressed-gas diver. The rescue process has been subdivided into three phases, and relevant questions have been addressed as follows. Phase 1, preparation for ascent: If the regulator is out of the mouth, should it be replaced? If the diver is in the tonic or clonic phase of a seizure, should the ascent be delayed until the clonic phase has subsided? Are there any special considerations for rescuing rebreather divers? Phase 2, retrieval to the surface: What is a "safe" ascent rate? If the rescuer has a decompression obligation, should they take the victim to the surface? If the regulator is in the mouth and the victim is breathing, does this change the ascent procedures? If the regulator is in the mouth, the victim is breathing, and the victim has a decompression obligation, does this change the ascent procedures? Is it necessary to hold the victim's head in a particular position? Is it necessary to press on the victim's chest to ensure exhalation? Are there any special considerations for rescuing rebreather divers? Phase 3, procedure at the surface: Is it possible to make an assessment of breathing in the water? Can effective rescue breaths be delivered in the water? What is the likelihood of persistent circulation after respiratory arrest? Does the recent advocacy for "compression-only resuscitation" suggest that rescue breaths should not be administered to a non-breathing diver? What rules should guide the relative priority of in-water rescue breaths over accessing surface support where definitive CPR can be started? A "best practice" decision tree for submerged diver rescue has been proposed.

19 Guideline Diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in children: a summary of the partial update of the 2012 NICE epilepsy guideline. 2012

Appleton, Richard E / Freeman, Amanda / Cross, J Helen. ·Department of Neurology, The Roald Dahl EEG Unit, Paediatric Neurosciences Foundation, Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK. Richard.appleton@alderhey.nhs.uk ·Arch Dis Child · Pubmed #23042803.

ABSTRACT: The epilepsies of childhood are a heterogeneous group of disorders with different causes, treatments and outcomes. The choice of anti-epileptic drug is largely determined by its effectiveness in a specific epilepsy syndrome, or seizure type(s) if a syndrome cannot be readily identified, and the drug's safety profile. There are minimal randomised controlled trial data to help inform this decision. In January 2012, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) published its partially revised and updated clinical guideline on the pharmacological treatment of the epilepsies in children and adults. This partial update provides additional data and also specific recommendations that improve the evidence base for the use of specific anti-epileptic drugs in treating the epilepsies of childhood.

20 Guideline Evidence-based guideline update: medical treatment of infantile spasms. Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. 2012

Go, C Y / Mackay, M T / Weiss, S K / Stephens, D / Adams-Webber, T / Ashwal, S / Snead, O C / Anonymous7010728 / Anonymous7020728. ·Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, Toronto, Canada. ·Neurology · Pubmed #22689735.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To update the 2004 American Academy of Neurology/Child Neurology Society practice parameter on treatment of infantile spasms in children. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 2002 to 2011 and searches of reference lists of retrieved articles were performed. Sixty-eight articles were selected for detailed review; 26 were included in the analysis. RECOMMENDATIONS were based on a 4-tiered classification scheme combining pre-2002 evidence and more recent evidence. RESULTS: There is insufficient evidence to determine whether other forms of corticosteroids are as effective as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) for short-term treatment of infantile spasms. However, low-dose ACTH is probably as effective as high-dose ACTH. ACTH is more effective than vigabatrin (VGB) for short-term treatment of children with infantile spasms (excluding those with tuberous sclerosis complex). There is insufficient evidence to show that other agents and combination therapy are effective for short-term treatment of infantile spasms. Short lag time to treatment leads to better long-term developmental outcome. Successful short-term treatment of cryptogenic infantile spasms with ACTH or prednisolone leads to better long-term developmental outcome than treatment with VGB. RECOMMENDATIONS: Low-dose ACTH should be considered for treatment of infantile spasms. ACTH or VGB may be useful for short-term treatment of infantile spasms, with ACTH considered preferentially over VGB. Hormonal therapy (ACTH or prednisolone) may be considered for use in preference to VGB in infants with cryptogenic infantile spasms, to possibly improve developmental outcome. A shorter lag time to treatment of infantile spasms with either hormonal therapy or VGB possibly improves long-term developmental outcomes.

21 Guideline The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) task force recommendations for the management of patients with mood disorders and select comorbid medical conditions. 2012

Ramasubbu, Rajamannar / Taylor, Valerie H / Samaan, Zainab / Sockalingham, Sanjeev / Li, Madeline / Patten, Scott / Rodin, Gary / Schaffer, Ayal / Beaulieu, Serge / McIntyre, Roger S / Anonymous2380717. ·Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. rramasub@ucalgary.ca ·Ann Clin Psychiatry · Pubmed #22303525.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Medical comorbidity in patients with mood disorders has become an increasingly important clinical and global public health issue. Several specific medical conditions are associated with an increased risk of mood disorders, and conversely, mood disorders are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with specific medical disorders. METHODS: To help understand the bidirectional relationship and to provide an evidence-based framework to guide the treatment of mood disorders that are comorbid with medical illness, we have reviewed relevant articles and reviews published in English-language databases (to April 2011) on the links between mood disorders and several common medical conditions, evaluating the efficacy and safety of pharmacologic and psychosocial treatments. The medical disorders most commonly encountered in adult populations (ie, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, cancer, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, migraine, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and osteoporosis) were chosen as the focus of this review. RESULTS: Emerging evidence suggests that depression comorbid with several medical disorders is treatable and failure to treat depression in medically ill patients may have a negative effect on medical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This review summarizes the available evidence and provides treatment recommendations for the management of comorbid depression in medically ill patients.

22 Guideline The CANMAT task force recommendations for the management of patients with mood disorders and comorbid medical conditions: diagnostic, assessment, and treatment principles. 2012

Ramasubbu, Rajamannar / Beaulieu, Serge / Taylor, Valerie H / Schaffer, Ayal / McIntyre, Roger S / Anonymous2370717. ·Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. rramasub@ucalgary.ca ·Ann Clin Psychiatry · Pubmed #22303524.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Medical comorbidity is commonly encountered in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). The presence of medical comorbidity has diagnostic, prognostic, treatment, and etiologic implications underscoring the importance of timely detection and treatment. METHODS: A selective review of relevant articles and reviews published in English-language databases (1968 to April 2011) was conducted. Studies describing epidemiology, temporality of onset, treatment implications, and prognosis were selected for review. RESULTS: A growing body of evidence from epidemiologic, clinical, and biologic studies suggests that the relationship between medical illness and mood disorder is bidirectional in nature. It provides support for the multiplay of shared and specific etiologic factors interlinking these conditions. CONCLUSIONS: This article describes the complex interactions between medical illness and mood disorders and provides a meaningful approach to their comorbid clinical diagnosis and management.

23 Guideline [Brand-name drugs and generics in the treatment of epilepsy: recommendations of the Russian Antiepileptic League]. 2011

Avakian, G N / Belousova, E D / Burd, S G / Vlasov, P N / Gekht, A B / Guzeva, V I / Zavadenko, N N / Zenkov, L R / Karlov, V A / Petrukhin, A S / Anonymous1700741. · ·Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova · Pubmed #23120785.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

24 Guideline International consensus clinical practice statements for the treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions associated with epilepsy. 2011

Kerr, Mike P / Mensah, Seth / Besag, Frank / de Toffol, Bertrand / Ettinger, Alan / Kanemoto, Kousuke / Kanner, Andres / Kemp, Steven / Krishnamoorthy, Ennapadum / LaFrance, W Curt / Mula, Marco / Schmitz, Bettina / van Elst, Ludgers Tebartz / Trollor, Julian / Wilson, Sarah J / Anonymous2800706. ·Psychological Medicine, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, United Kingdom. kerrmp@cf.ac.uk ·Epilepsia · Pubmed #21955156.

ABSTRACT: In order to address the major impact on quality of life and epilepsy management caused by associated neuropsychiatric conditions, an international consensus group of epileptologists met with the aim of developing clear evidence-based and practice-based statements to provide guidance on the management of these conditions. Using a Delphi process, this group prioritized a list of key management areas. These included: depression, anxiety, psychotic disorders, nonepileptic seizures, cognitive dysfunction, antiepileptic drug (AED)-related neurobehavioral disorders, suicidality, disorders in children and adolescents, disorders in children with intellectual disability, and epilepsy surgery. Clinical practice statements were developed for each area and consensus reached among members of the group. The assessment and management of these conditions needs to combine knowledge of psychiatric disorders, knowledge of the impact of epilepsy and its treatment on psychopathology, and an ability to deliver care within epilepsy services. The aim of these statements is to provide guidance on quality care for people with epilepsy that have a range of neuropsychiatric disorders.

25 Guideline Synopsis of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Guideline for management of transient loss of consciousness. 2011

Cooper, Paul N / Westby, Maggie / Pitcher, David W / Bullock, Ian. ·National Clinical Guideline Centre, Royal College of Physicians, London, United Kingdom. paul.cooper@manchester.ac.uk ·Ann Intern Med · Pubmed #21930835.

ABSTRACT: DESCRIPTION: Transient loss of consciousness (TLoC) is common and often leads to incorrect diagnosis, unnecessary investigation, or inappropriate choice of specialist referral. In August 2010, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence published a guideline that addressed the initial assessment of and most appropriate specialist referral for persons who have experienced TLoC. The guideline focused on correct diagnosis and relevant specialist referral and did not make treatment recommendations. This synopsis describes the principal recommendations concerning assessment and referral of a patient with TLoC. METHODS: The National Clinical Guideline Centre developed the guidelines by using the standard methodology of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. A multidisciplinary guideline panel generated review questions, discussed evidence, and formulated recommendations. The panel included a technical team from the National Clinical Guideline Centre, who reviewed and graded all relevant evidence identified from literature searches published in English up to November 2009 and performed health-economic modeling. Both guideline development and final modifications were informed by comments from stakeholders and the public. RECOMMENDATIONS: The panel made clear recommendations regarding the assessment of a person after TLoC, which emphasized the importance of clinical reasoning in diagnosis. Persons with uncomplicated faint, situational syncope, or orthostatic hypotension should receive electrocardiography but do not otherwise require immediate further investigation or specialist referral. Persons with features that suggest epilepsy should be referred for specialist neurologic assessment; brief seizure-like activity was recognized as a common occurrence during syncope that should not be regarded as indicating epilepsy. Persons with a suspected cardiac cause for TLoC or in whom TLoC is unexplained after initial assessment should receive specialist cardiovascular assessment. Guidance was provided on the appropriate choices of cardiovascular investigation, according to the presenting clinical circumstances.